Guadalajara, Jalisco


Guadalajara, Jalisco

Infobox city
official_name = Guadalajara
native_name =
motto =



imagesize = 300px
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mapsize = 150px
map_caption = Location of Guadalajara within Jalisco



map_caption1 = Location of Jalisco within Mexico
mapsize1 =
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subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = flag|Mexico
subdivision_type1 = State
subdivision_name1 = flag|Jalisco
subdivision_type2 =
subdivision_name2 =
government_type =
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = Alfonso Petersen Farah (PAN)
leader_title1 =
leader_name1 =
leader_title2 =
leader_name2 =
leader_title3 =
leader_name3 =
established_title = Foundation
established_date = 1542
established_title2 =
established_date2 =
established_title3 =
established_date3 =
area_magnitude =
area_total_km2 = 187.9
area_total_sq_mi =
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area_land_sq_mi =
area_water_km2 =
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area_urban_km2 =
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area_metro_km2 = 2734
area_metro_sq_mi =
population_as_of = 2006
population_note =
population_total = 1,600,940
population_density_km2 = 8543
population_density_sq_mi =
population_metro = 4,112,332
population_density_metro_km2 = 1498
population_density_metro_sq_mi =
population_urban =
population_blank1_title =Demonym
population_blank1 =Tapatío
timezone = Central Standard Time
utc_offset = -6
timezone_DST = Central Daylight Time
utc_offset_DST = -5
latd= 20|latm=40 |lats=00.17 |latNS=N
longd= 103|longm= 21|longs= 01.23|longEW=W
elevation_m =
elevation_ft =
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website = http://www.Guadalajara.gob.mx
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Guadalajara (pronEng|ˌgwɑːdləˈhɑːrə; [ [http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/guadalajara Guadalajara] , entry in "Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)", accessed March 18, 2008, retranscribed into IPA] Spanish IPA| [ɡwað̞alaˈxaɾa] ) is the capital city of the Mexican state of Jalisco, and the seat of the municipality of Guadalajara. The city is located in the central region of the state and in the western-Pacific area of Mexico. With a population of 1,600,940 it is Mexico's second most populous municipality. [ [http://www.imocorp.com.mx/Archivos/Publics/000066_Archivo.pdf Survey on Religion] , 2006] The Guadalajara Metropolitan Area includes other adjacent municipalities and has a population of 4,095,500 although making it the second most populous in the metropolitan area in Mexico, behind Mexico City, and the 23rd largest metropolitan area of the Americas. The municipality is the most densely populated in Mexico after the Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl in the State of Mexico. [ [http://www.ub.es/geocrit/sn/sn-194-06.htm Scripta Nova] ]

Guadalajara is situated at an altitude of convert|1600|m|ft|-2, favouring it with a mild, spring-like climate.

The city is named after the Spanish city of Guadalajara, whose name originates from the Arabic phrase (وادي الحجارة) "Wādī al-Ḥijārah", meaning "valley of stones" or "river than runs among stones". [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9038268/ Guadalajara] ]

Guadalajara is Mexico's second biggest city and a major contributor of economy,culture and religion and excerts significant influence to the rest of the country, the city also has the most important and ambitious projects of the country as far as infraestructure and business.

The city has hosted several international events such as the first Cumbre Iberoamericana in 1991, the Cumbre América Latina, El Caribe-Unión Europea in 2004, the Encuentro Internacional de Promotores y Gestores Culturales in 2005 and will be the city host of the 2011 Panamerican Games, also was named the American Capital of Culture in 2005, Ciudad Educadora (Educator City) in 2006 and the first Smart City in Mexico due to the use of technology as a main factor of development. [ [http://enlinea.guadalajara.gob.mx/comsoc/AdmComSoc.dll/Reporte?Opcion=Boletin&int_Consecutivo=3311 Boletín Informativo - Portal Ayuntamiento de Guadalajara] ]

The city is also known as Mexico's silicon valley due to its strong electronic industry [http://www.ijalti.org.mx/video/video.html IJALTI Jalisco] ] is also considered Mexico's high tech capital due to its country's leadership in software and informatics development.

According to FDi magazine, Guadalajara is ranked "city of the future" over all other major Mexican cities, has the second strongest economic potential of any major North American city behind Chicago, and was among the top five most business-friendly Latin American cities in 2007. [cite web|url=http://www.gdi-solutions.com/news/pr_fdi_042307.htm|title= Cities of the Future|publisher=FDi magazine|date=2007-04-23|accessdate=2007-12-08]

History

. The name Guadalajara was taken from the birthplace of Nuño de Guzmán in Spain.

Guzmán and Cristóbal de Oñate decided to relocate to a place with more water, fewer dust storms and better transportation. They began the project on May 19, 1533, and by August 8, 1533 they had moved the town to its second location, near Tonalá. Two years later, in March 1535, they again moved the town to a new location.

On November 8, 1539 the emperor Charles V granted a coat of arms and the title of City to Guadalajara.

After a large attack by natives on September 28, 1541 during the War of the Mixtón, it was decided once more to relocate the city and re-establish it again in the Atemajac Valley.

Today's city of Guadalajara was founded at this site by Crístobal de Oñate on February 14 1542, by Royal decree of King Charles V.

During the Colonial era, Guadalajara became the capital of Nueva Galicia and prior to the War of Independence it was the capital of the Intendencia of Guadalajara.

20th century

The beginning of the 20th century brought the end of the Porfiriato as the Mexican revolution unfolded. Guadalajara emerged from the revolution relatively untouched. After the Cristero War, peace returned to Guadalajara. For a long period the city prospered and developed in various areas. Medium and large companies emerged, and the areas around the residential nucleus began to grow out from the center. New architectural concepts were introduced which decorated the city with various building styles from 1920 to 1980. The city underwent multiple urban planning cycles during every government administration.fact|date=March 2008 New zones and commercial areas were born, and the creation of transnational companies and the arrival of international industries made the city prosperous. The first shopping centers appeared, which also were among the first being constructed in the country and in Latin America.fact|date=March 2008 The city expanded quickly, eventually merging with the municipality of Zapopan. Many important developments occurred during this period: Expo Guadalajara, light rail, shopping centers, hotels, the expansion of streets and avenues, and the development of road infrastructure, services, tourism, and industrial infrastructure. This accelerated development was stopped by the gas explosions of April 22, 1992; hundreds of houses, avenues, streets, companies and infrastructure were seriously damaged, leaving losses calculated at a one billion dollars in one of the most tragic events in the history of Guadalajara. This event, combined with the economic crisis of 1994, resulted in the loss of industrial power for Guadalajara;fact|date=March 2008 the investigation lasted more than 11 years without finding sufficient evidence to name a guilty party. The investigations are now closed and the events were deemed accidental.fact|date=March 2008

Population

The Municipality of Guadalajara has the largest population of any city in the state of Jalisco with 1,600,940 inhabitants, according to the 2005 Census. However, the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area also includes the municipalities of Zapopan, Tlaquepaque, Tonalá, Tlajomulco de Zúñiga, and El Salto, which together totaled more than 4 million inhabitants in 2005. Guadalajara is the second most populous metropolitan area in Mexico after Mexico City. People from Guadalajara are known by the Mexican Spanish colloquial name tapatío.

Guadalajara's ethnic composition is primarily made up of Criollos (people of European descent), and Mestizos (mixed people, mainly of Amerindian and European descent). There is also a small population of Amerindians (mainly from neighboring states).

The state of Jalisco (particularly Guadalajara and areas to the east) is one of the states of Mexico with a large European descended population, while cultural Amerindians form a small percentage of the population.

Economy

The geographical location of the city and its communications infrastructure make it very favorable for commerce with the rest of the country, and the city attracts investors and commerce worldwide. In 1987, the Expo Guadalajara Convention Center was opened. Guadalajara has more than 25,000 lodging rooms.

The Metropolitan Zone of Guadalajara has several shopping malls; the city is the national leader in development and investment in shopping malls. Many shopping centers have been built, such as Plaza Galerias, one of the largest shopping centers in Latin America.

Guadalajara is experiencing fast-growing development, including the construction of new buildings like Torrena that will be the tallest building in Latin America by 2009. [ [http://www.torrena.com.mx/ : : : T O R R E N A : : : ] ] Puerta de Hierro has become one of the most important districts in Guadalajara with construction of buildings including Aura Altitude, a project of 42 floors that will be completed in 2008. [ [http://www.auradesarrollos.com/ Aura Desarrollos ] ] The construction of Andares, a shopping complex, has begun. [ [http://www.andares.com :::Andares Megadesarrollo::: BIENVENIDOS ] ] More building are on the way in Puerta de Hierro district, like Torre G, Torre Zapopan and Pleyades. Providencia Country has many scheduled apartment projects.

In its 2007 survey entitled "Cities of the Future", FDi magazine ranked Guadalajara highest among major Mexican cities, and designated Guadalajara as having the second strongest economic potential of any major North American city behind Chicago. FDI Magazine also ranked the city as the most business-friendly Latin American city in 2007. [http://www.fdimagazine.com/cp/13/Cities%20of%20the%20Future%20%20April%2023rd%20press%20release.doc]

Industry

Secondary activities consist of industrial production of textiles and metalwork. During the 1990s the city's industrial sector experienced a decline, but it has since regained its position as the industrial capital of western Mexico. [cite web|url=http://www.glscs.com/archives/7.00.LatinAmerica.htm?adcode=90|title=A Fertile Ground For Efficient Supply Chains|publisher=Keller Publishing|year=2000|accessdate=2007-12-28]

The nutrition industry exports most of its products (juice, tinned fruits, sweet products, sauces, canned food and food products in general). Of these products 60% are exported to national destinations while 40% are sent to the United States. In fact, Guadalajara products are leaders in the Latin market in the United States. In the pharmaceutical industry, Guadalajara and Mexico City together play the most important role in national production. At the moment, Guadalajara is known as the "the Mexican Silicon Valley," due to its electronics industry. The city is the main software producer in the country, and also is a leading producer of electronic and digital components. Such high-technology companies as General Electric, IBM, Intel, Freescale, Hitachi, Hewlett Packard, Siemens, Flextronics and Solectron have facilities in the city or its suburbs.

Beyond technology, the city also has a thriving textile industry that exports products throughout Mexico. The fashion industry is another growing sector; designers, photographers, agencies, coordinators, models, and people associated with this sector are supported by the Chamber of the Industry of Clothing (CAINVE) and the Chamber the Industry of Calzado (CAIC). Other dynamic and important productive sectors are the footwear industry and leather production.

Tourism

The tertiary activities of Guadalajara are based on tourism: the academic, entertainment, sport and cultural tourism. With an expectation for high growth within the next five years, tourism is now one of the most important sectors in the Guadalajaran economy. It is an important tourist destination center in itself and serves as an axis of an array of nearby tourist destinations (Puerto Vallarta, Manzanillo, Mazatlan).

Guadalajara is well connected by modern highways to Mexico City, to the Northwest and to the major beach resorts of Manzanillo, Mazatlan and Puerto Vallarta. Guadalajara's airport is the third most active of the country (after Mexico City and Cancún) with direct flights to many Mexican and American cities. It also has a lively and distinctive network of car-free streets.

Guadalajara is also one of the world's favorite places for Americans and Canadians to retire due to its calm and secure environments, most living in the Chapala lake's surroundings.

Commerce

Commerce is another of the most dynamic activities of the city. National product transactions, growth and investment in commercial centers, commercial expositions and fairs, transportation, and communications have all contributed to the growth of commerce in Guadalajara. The geographical location of the city makes it strategic for commerce. Services in the city are of all types: financiers, professionals, communal, social, personal technicians, maintenance, and tourism.

Airport

The city is served by the Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla International Airport, also known as Guadalajara International Airport (GDL). It is located 16 kilometers south of downtown Guadalajara on the highway to Chapala.Opened in 1966, the airport is the third busiest in Mexico, after Mexico City International Airport and Cancún International Airport.

Guadalajara's International Airport is composed of two runways and two terminals. It is a major airport for connections, acting as a hub for Alma de Mexico, Mexicana, Aeroméxico Connect, and as a secondary hub for Aeroméxico. Flights are offered to several destinations within Mexico, the United States, Central and South America, with connections to Europe.

Along with Mexico's main carriers, Aeroméxico, Mexicana and Aviacsa, the airport is also served by most U.S. airlines, including Alaska Airlines, American Airlines, Continental Airlines, Delta Airlines, and US Airways. Numerous low-cost airlines also use the airport, flying to Mexican destinations. The newly-launched carriers serving Guadalajara include Avolar, Interjet and Volaris.

Education

Guadalajara is a important nucleus of universities and educational centers with national prestige, such as Universidad de Guadalajara (U.D.G.), Universidad Panamericana, ITESO, Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education and the Universidad Autónoma de Guadalajara (U.A.G.).

The Universidad de Guadalajara established in October 12, 1791,is a public decentralized university, has its main campuses and administrative offices here. This University is the second largest in Mexico, the fourth oldest in North America and the fourteenth oldest in Latin America. It is regarded as one of the most significant Universities in Mexico in student population, only behind by the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) and ranks among the largest in the world.

Guadalajara is also home to ITESO, a Jesuit university, and has campuses of several private schools such as Universidad del Valle de Mexico (UVM), ITESO, Tec de Monterrey (ITESM), Universidad Panamericana (UP), and Universidad del Valle de Atemajac (UNIVA), as well as the Universidad Autónoma de Guadalajara (UAG), which was founded in 1935 and is the oldest private university in Mexico. In addition, the city hosts The American School Foundation of Guadalajara (ASFG). ASFG has 1420 students in pre-school through twelfth grade; it is the only US-accredited school in Guadalajara.ASFG has the only British library in Guadalajara and the second largest collection of books published in English among the private schools in Mexico.

Culture

Its cultural wealth has taken on an important role in the tourist sector; the city hosts many of the main cultural events in the country and is a main destination for people who visit Mexico. Guadalajara hosts an important community of artists and people interested in art and culture. Recognizing culture as a key factor in the development of Guadalajara, the Guggenheim foundation has approved the construction of what will be the sixth Guggenheim museum in the world, which when finished in the early 2010s will be the tallest structure in Latin America. The city will also host the 2011 Pan-American Games.

Guadalajara has recently released information about the Guggenheim Museum which is currently under construction. This and the majority of the other projects that are currently under construction in Guadalajara are meant to give priority to the cultural wave that is sweeping the city and will transform Guadalajara into the new cultural icon of Latin America for years to come. [cite web|url=http://www.guggenheim.org/press_releases/release_117.html|title=Design Competition for Proposed Guggenheim in Guadalajara|publisher=Guggenheim Museum|year=2005|accessdate=2008-01-06]

Guadalajara hosts music festivals and open-air art and photography shows on Chapultepec Avenue. Guadalajara is a city with a great number of contemporary artists in the country;in dance, theater, music, photography, cinema, design, architecture, etc.; it also has pioneers in the experimental arts. The University Center of Art, Architecture and Design (CUAAD) is one of the academic institutions with the most endorsement and international reputation in the arts, being the University of Guadalajara. The federal government represents and supports the cultural movement, but the young people are a very important point in the diffusion, creation, support and consumption of the culture in Guadalajara, becoming a whole lifestyle for tapatío young people.

The city is home to several cultural festivals, like the May Cultural Festival, Fiestas de Octubre, Zapopum!, the Guadalajara Municipal Fair Book, Fair of Mariachi and Charreria, Guadalajara Contemporary Dance festival, CHROMA, Fotoseptiembre, Independient Film Festival and international festivals like the Guadalajara International Film Festival, which has helped Mexican cinema to develop a strong international presence over the past 20 years. The cinema is supported by industrialists and institutes in the city who have collaborated in the support of several contemporary films. Also, the Guadalajara International Book Fair [ [http://www.fil.com.mx/ Feria Internacional de Libro or FIL] ] is celebrated in November and is one of the most important Spanish-language book fairs in the world. Every year a special guest, either a country or a region, goes to this fair to showcase its culture. The fair also organizes the children's book fair Papirolas.The city is also host to several dance and ballet companies such as the Chamber Ballet of Jalisco, the Folkloric Ballet of the University of Guadalajara, and University of Guadalajara Contemporary Ballet. After concluding eight years of ballet instruction, many have emigrated to companies like the National Company of Dance, the Ballet of Chicago or the Ballet of Boston.

Contemporary music has been an important factor within the new cultural movement. Guadalajara has many artists and fans of this music genre. The city has been named "Electronic Capital of Mexico" in honor of its representation in Mexico and the world with its practitioners of electronic music, and for being host of the principal electronic music events.


Jose Clemente Orozco, Jesus Reyes Ferrerira, Jose Vizcarra, Doctor Atl (Gerardo Murillo), Roberto Montenegro, Jorge Esquinca, Jose Luis Figueroa, Javier Quintero Oria, Carlos Orozco Romero, Luis Barragán, Jorge González Camarena, Raul Anguiano, Juan Soriano, Alejandro Colunga, Fernanda Guerra, Enrique Guzmán and Javier Campos Cabello and the freeplay guitarist and music composer for the movies El Mariachi and The Legend of Zorro, Paco Renteria; important exponents of Literature such as: Juan Rulfo, Francisco Rojas, Agustín Yañez, Emmanuel Carballo, Jorge Souza, among others; classic repertoire composers like Gonzalo Curiel, José Pablo Moncayo, Antonio Navarro, Ricardo Zohn, Carlos Sánchez-Gutiérrez and Gabriel Pareyon; film directors like Felipe Cazals, Jaime Humberto Hermosillo, Guillermo del Toro and actors like Katy Jurado, Enrique Alvarez Felix and actual exponents like Gael García Bernal and Fernanda Guerra Gaspar de Alba. Cultural tourism is one of the most important economic activities.

At the present time, the construction of a Guggenheim museum with a seat in Guadalajara is being constructed. Its construction has attracted attention from around the world; it and other projects have led to the cultural sector being given a high priority. Guadalajara was the American Capital of Culture for 2005.

Fondly referred to as “The San Francisco of Mexico" for its numerous museums and artsy community, Guadalajara boasts numerous gay resources, including a radio show and a community center. The radio show can be heard by tuning into 104.3 FM every Saturday at midnight for the latest in current events and gay-oriented news. The Centro Cultural Comunitario Gay de Guadalajara (Av. Alcalde 743), which is operated by the non-profit organization Homo Sapiens, offers the community a safe place to meet and greet.

Architecture

The city has a rich variety of architectural styles, ranging from the baroque to the modern. The city's colonial architecture is a product of French and Spanish trends that were current in Europe at the time of Guadalajara's initial settlement. The historic downtown district contains several examples of neoclassical architecture such as the Metropolitan Cathedral, the Degollado theater and surrounding buildings, as well as the large residential houses of the Lafayette district (many of which have since been converted to boutiques or restaurants). During Porfirio Diaz's presidency the French style of architecture invaded the city due to the passion of then president Porfirio Dìaz for the currents of French style. Also, Italian architects were the ones in charge to giving form to the gothic structures that rise in the city. The passage of time has shaped the diversity of the city's architecture, from baroque to the churrigueresco, neogothic and neoclassic, to the Art Deco and lines of the postmodernistas.

Guadalajara is formed by 1,500 colonies (city areas); the first area of the city contains mostly houses of 2 levels, with architectural styles from the churrigueresco, baroque and European concepts of the 19th century. The first area of the city contains the centric zones and their environs, like the district of the Sanctuary, Mezquitan, Analco, San Juan de Dios and the Centro area (downtown).

Towards the west of the first area rise the larger houses of the 19th century; these take into account distinguished personalities in the city's history, neoclassic structures, and the large houses of the Porfiriato era. This area includes neighborhoods like Lafayette, Jardines del Bosque, Americana, Moderna, and Arcos de Vallarta, in which their respective expansions correspond to constructions of the 1920s, 1930s, 1940s and 1950s. A second area features the blossoming of the new architectural tendencies of the 1960s and 1970s, and includes the track of colonies like Providencia, Vallarta San Jorge, etc. Between the two is an area of postmodernist architecture, the Art Deco, followed by styles reflecting the architectural legacy of one of the worldwide icons of the Mexican architecture, Luis Barragán, who was born and raised in Guadalajara.

The city has many prestigious residential developments and private communities; Puerta de hierro, Colinas de San Javier, Bugambilias City, las Cañadas, el Palomar, Santa Anita, Valle Real, Country Club, etc. Limits of the city are formed by middle-class colonies and habitational developments constructed like a part of governmental plans. The western part of the city includes the middle class and upper-income neighborhoods and the eastern part the working class areas. The city extends towards the west in neighborhoods like Pine of the Calm, Las Fuentes, La Estancia, Colli Urbano, annexing its metropolitan zone to the municipality of Tlajomulco de Zuñiga. It is anticipated that approximately five hundred more colonies in the ZMG will be created by the year 2010.

Cuisine

Guadalajara has many traditional dishes, such as pozole, tamales, sopes, enchiladas, tacos, Valentina Chicken, and a variety of "Mexican Antojitos". Another common dish is ""Tortas Ahogadas" & Carne en su Jugo", which is a part of tapatío culture. Guadalajara has a large variety of restaurants, from American restaurant franchises to more traditional Mexican fare. The Vallarta and Colonia Americana neighborhoods are known for their restaurants and nightclubs situated in former mansions from the 1940s.

Sports

Football(soccer/futbol) is the most popular recreational sport in the city of Guadalajara. There are three major football clubs; Club Deportivo Guadalajara, CF Atlas and UAG Tecos. Atlas and Guadalajara share the Estadio Jalisco, while Estadio Tres de Marzo in Zapopan is the home of the UAG Tecos. Club Deportivo Guadalajara is the most important team in Mexico and North America also the team is well recognized internationally and is the 2nd most popular team in the world.

Another popular sport is Charreada or charreria, which is the typical sport, and is recognized nationwide as one of the national sports in Mexico.

The people of the city also practice golf, tennis, volleyball, basketball and many other sports and disciplines. The state of Jalisco, where the city is located, is the National Olympic Games champion, winning the national championship 6 consecutive times in all disciplines. The main training center, the CODE complex, is in the city of Guadalajara.

The city also holds the National championship in basketball, American football and ice hockey. The city will host the 2011 Pan American Games.

Guadalajara is the home of Lorena Ochoa, ranked the #1 female golfer in the world since 2007 in the Women's World Golf Rankings.

1992 explosion

Guadalajara is also known for the great disaster of April 22 at 10:12am, 1992, which took place in the downtown district of Analco. Numerous explosions originated in the sewer system, which was inexplicably saturated with gasoline fumes and gasoline. During a period of four hours, several explosions destroyed kilometers of streets. In particular, Gante Street was severely damaged. The force of the explosion was such that some newspaper pictures showed a bus on top a two-storied building's rooftop. Officially, 206 people were killed, nearly 500 injured and 15,000 were left homeless. The affected area can be recognized by the more modern architecture, in stark contrast with the surrounding area's much older buildings. To date, Pemex, the state-owned oil company, has not accepted any responsibility for the enormous amount of gasoline found in the sewage system, although it has agreed to create a fund to compensate the families affected by this catastrophe.

Sister cities

See also

* Panteón de Belén
* Hospicio Cabañas - a World Heritage Site in Guadalajara
* Nuño Guzmán de Beltran, founder of Guadalajara
* List of Latin American artists
* Puerta de hierro - exclusive zone in Guadalajara

Pop culture

In the movie "Fun in Acapulco" starring Elvis Presley, he makes a very amusing and well choreographed musical of the song "Guadalajara".

The creator of the popular cartoon character Speedy Gonzalez stated that if speedy had a place of birth it would have been Jalisco.

Famous politician Ted Kennedy sang a piece of the song "No te rajes Jalisco" while on America's number one radio show Eddie "Piolin" Sotelo morning show.

In Kirsty Maccoll's song In These Shoes, the city is mentioned.

In the popular show Family Guy while in a bank robbery, Peter Griffin asks the hostages where they would rather want to be and an old lady replies "Guadalajara, Mexico"

In the television series, Ugly Betty, Betty on her first day of working wears a poncho that says Guadalajara.

The city is jokingly referred to in Jurassic Park III.

In the song, "My Old School," by Steely Dan, Guadalajara is mentioned in the lyrics. The lyrics go: ""Oh no, Guadalajara won't do.""Well I did not think the girl could be so cruel.""And I'm never going back to my old school."

The Arnold Schwarzenegger movie Predator was filmed in the vicinities of the city and in Puerto Vallarta.

Guadalajara was a small part of the filming spot of the record-breaking audience soap opera, Destilando Amor.

References

External links

* [http://www.guadalajara.gob.mx/ H. Ayuntamiento de Guadalajara]
* [http://www.tapatios.com/ El Portal de Guadalajara]


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