Hedvig Elisabeth Charlotte of Holstein-Gottorp


Hedvig Elisabeth Charlotte of Holstein-Gottorp
Hedvig Elisabeth Charlotte of Holstein-Gottorp
Queen consort of Sweden and Norway
Hedvig Elisabeth Charlotte of Holstein-Gottorp, as Queen
Queen consort of Sweden
Tenure 5 June 1809–5 February 1818
Queen consort of Norway
Tenure 4 November 1814–5 February 1818
Spouse Charles XIII
Issue
Louise Hedvig
Carl Adolf, Duke of Värmland
Full name
Hedwig Elisabeth Charlotte
House House of Holstein-Gottorp
Father Frederick August I, Duke of Oldenburg
Mother Ulrike Friederike Wilhelmine of Hesse-Kassel
Born 22 March 1759(1759-03-22)
Eutin
Died 20 June 1818(1818-06-20) (aged 59)
Stockholm
Burial Riddarholmen Church
Religion Lutheranism

Hedwig Elisabeth Charlotte of Holstein-Gottorp (Swedish: Hedvig Elisabeth Charlotta; Eutin, 22 March 1759 – Stockholm, 20 June 1818) was the queen consort of Charles XIII of Sweden, and also a famed diarist, memoirist and wit. She is generally known in Sweden by her full pen name (above), though her official name as queen was Charlotte.

She was the daughter of Duke Frederick August of Holstein-Gottorp, Bishop of Lübeck and Duke of Oldenburg, and Princess Ulrike Friederike Wilhelmine of Hesse-Kassel. She grew up in Eutin and married her cousin, the future King, Charles, Duke of Södermanland, in Stockholm on 7 July 1774 when she was fifteen years old. The marriage was arranged by King Gustav III to provide the throne of Sweden with an heir. The King had not consummated his marriage and had decided to give the task of providing an heir to the throne to his brother.

Contents

Royal Duchess

Hedvig Elisabeth Charlotte of Holstein-Gottorp, during her time as a royal duchess. Portrait by Alexander Roslin.

Prince Charles saw her for the first time in Eutin in 1770 and remarked that she was pretty. The marriage was suggested in 1772, and the first ceremony took place in Wismar 21 June 1774: she arrived in Sweden 3 June. The wedding was celebrated very luxuriously; she arrived in Stockholm by gondola 7 June, and the wedding ceremony took place the same night, followed by a masquerade in Kungsträdgården. She was noted for her beauty — her waist measured a mere 48 cm (19") and her shoe size 31 (girls' size 13) — and, as the marriage of the monarch had not been consummated after nine years, there were hopes that she would provide an heir for the throne.

In January 1775, there were signs that she was pregnant. It was hoped that the question of succession was solved, and prayers were held in the churches. However, the signs soon proved to be false. The news of the false pregnancy also made the king decide to consummate his marriage and provide an heir to the throne personally.

She made a personal success with her cheerful temperament and became a centre of the royal court, where she was called "Little Duchess" and was noticed for her beauty and vividness, wittiness and ease with words. With these qualities she fulfilled a contemporary ideal. In contrast to the shy Queen, Sophia Magdalena of Denmark, "Duchess Lotta" was lively, witty and flirtatious and was in many ways the female center of the court. It was said of her: "One can not imagine anything more lively and cheerful. She is joy itself. Her greatest pleasure is to make up jokes and foolishness. It would be a good thing, if she introduced that custom, as our by nature somewhat melancholic nation could need some cheering up"[1]

She participated in the amateur theatre which were an important part at the royal court at the reign of Gustav III, both as an actress and as a dancer. Her dancing was seen as scandalous by some, as ballet dancers were during this age regarded as prostitutes.[2] After having been subjected to criticism that she and Princess Sophia Albertina distracted the King from the affairs of state by pursuit of pleasure, she retired from the stage in 1783.[3]

Her marriage was distant and both she and her spouse had extramarital affairs. Charles paid more attention to his lovers than to her; at the time of their marriage, he was in the middle of his relationship with Augusta von Fersen. Among her alleged lovers was Count Axel von Fersen, alleged lover of Marie Antoinette. Her intimate friendship with countess Sophie von Fersen inspired rumors of bisexuality which, true or not, were repeated throughout her time as royal Duchess, by both Francisco de Miranda in 1786 and later by Frederica of Baden. It is not known when her affair with Axel von Fersen occurred, it is only known that she wished to resume it when Fersen returned to Sweden after the death of Marie Antoinette and that Fersen refused to do so. [4]She also had a relationship with Axel von Fersen's younger brother, Fabian von Fersen, at this point [5]

The rumours of her extramarital alleged affairs were given a lot of attention during her pregnancy in 1797.[6]

She was indifferent to the affairs of her spouse as they gave her the opportunity to live more freely herself, and she expressed her frustration when her husband's lack of lovers made him more attentive toward her, which exposed her to his suspicions and accusations: "As long as he had his mistresses, things were better, but since the last one was exiled because she allowed herself to be insolent towards the King, and he has not provided himself with a new one, his temperament has gotten worse, and I have daily been subjected to outbursts because of this, which has occurred even in front of the staff. This hostility have increased so much during the winter that I have reached the end of my patience."[7] She expressed her view upon love and sexuality when Gustav III refused to destroy documents of his late mother's alleged love affair with Count Gustav Tessin, and commented about the sexual double standards:

How sad it is to have a tender heart, for a tender nature is a misfortune as well as a blessing, and no one can resist the power of love (….) Yes, nothing is more true than the inscription upon the image of Eros: "Here is your true master, He is, He was, and He always will be." You must admit the misfortune of women: while men have their complete freedom, she is always burdened by prejudice and circumstance. (….) I am convinced that most women would ask for nothing more than to be transformed to men, so they could be freed from the unhappy bonds and enjoy complete freedom.[8]

In 1782, she participated as a mediator in the reconciliation between Gustav III and his mother at her deathbed, after they had been in conflict since 1778, when the Queen Dowager supported the rumour that the Crown Prince was illegitimate and the son of Count Adolf Fredrik Munck af Fulkila.[9]

In 1792, her spouse became regent during the minority of his nephew Gustav IV Adolf. The actual power was in the hands of his favorite, Count Gustaf Adolf Reuterholm, and she had no influence on the regency.[10] In 1798-99, the spouses made a trip to Germany and Austria and visited Carlsbad, Berlin, Vienna and Hamburg.[11] In 1800, the ducal couple founded a theatre academy, Damatiska akademien, at court, but it was closed by the monarch.[12]

In 1803, the Boheman affair caused a severe conflict between Gustav IV Adolf and the ducal couple. The mystic Karl Adolf Boheman (1764–1831) had been introduced to them by Count Magnus Stenbock in 1793 and gained great influence by promising to reveal scientific secrets about the occult. Boheman inducted them to a secret society and founded what he described as a branch of the Freemasons in 1801, where both sexes were accepted as members, and to which the Counts and Countesses Ruuth and Brahe as well as the mother of the queen were introduced. Boheman was arrested upon an attempt to recruit the monarch, who accused him of revolutionary agendas and expelled him. The ducal couple were exposed to an informal investigation by the monarch, and the duchess was questioned in the presence of the royal council.[13]

Queen

Queen Charlotte of Sweden and Norway

In 1809, the ducal couple was placed on the throne after the aristocratic coup deposing the monarch. During the coup, she stated: "I do not wish to be a Queen!",[14] and she was later to say that she found it embarrassing to take the place of another.[15]

When her spouse was informed he was King, she told him that she would become his reliable adviser and confidante, but keep away from the matters of the state.[16] During his reign, she is known to have visited him in his bedroom every morning to talk to him.[17] She was crowned with the king 29 June 1809. At the coronation, she was described as gracious and dignified without losing her usual vividness and cheerfulness.

Queen Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte held a salon, the so called "Green table", where women discussed politics while sewing.[18] After a performance of the blind musician Charlotta Seuerling, she gave her protection to the university for the blind and deaf, which was founded by Per Aron Borg and the first of its kind in Sweden. She also restored the Royal Swedish Opera.

Political influence

Despite her personal denial, the queen was believed by her contemporaries to exercise great political influence.[19]

She felt sympathy for the former queen, Frederica of Baden, and visited her in her house arrest.[20] She worked for the release of the former royal family,[21] and managed to gain permission for the former king to reunite with his family, which had first been placed in separate house arrest.[22]

During the negotiations regarding the succession to the throne, she supported the Gustavian party, who wished for the deposed King's son, the former Crown Prince Gustav, to be acknowledged as heir to the throne.[23] During a dinner, General Baron Georg Adlersparre told her that Jean Baptiste Bernadotte had asked him whether her spouse had any issue, and was interested when he found that he had not. When she remarked that the throne had an heir in the deposed King's son, Adlersparre stated that no one of the instigators of the coup would accept this, as they feared that the boy would avenge his father when he became King, and that to prevent this they would go as far as to take up the old rumor that the deposed King was in fact the illegitimate son of Queen Sophia Magdalena and Count Adolf Fredrik Munck af Fulkila.[24]

The candidates for the post of heir to the throne were the French General Jean Baptiste Bernadotte, Prince Peter of Holstein-Gottorp, and the Danish Prince Charles August of Augustenburg. She was sceptical in all cases for the sake of Swedish independence, as she feared that Sweden would become a part of the French Empire, Russia (as Peter of Holstein was married to a Russian), or Denmark. During a meeting in the garden with Adlersparre, she stated: "I am very happy to be Swedish and I would not wish to be either French, Russian or Danish."[25] Augustenburg was eventually chosen. He was expected to bring Norway to Sweden as a replacement for Finland.

It is unknown whether she had any influence upon the constitutional reform of 1809, though she is known to have discussed it with several statesmen. She stated that she disliked party divisions but also absolute monarchy, and wished for the public to decide about the matters concerning them through "elected representatives".[26]

Before the arrival of Augustenburg, the King suffered a stroke and became unable to reign, whereupon she informally presided over the council in his place.[27] The Gustavian party asked her to accept the post of regent, exclude the newly appointed Augustenburg and adopt the former Crown Prince Gustav as heir.[28]

There was a fear of a coup by her and the Gustavians. Adlersparre, who arrived after having prepared the arrival of Augustenburg, met her outside the bedroom of the King. Adlersparre asked: "Perhaps I do no longer dare to approach Your Majesty?" "Why is that?" "I fear that Your Majesty is angry with me?" She laughed and answered: "How can you make me such a question? Why are you here?" He replied that he came to receive the King's instructions regarding his heir and on the assignment of Augustenburg to inquire the general view upon him; she asked him to tell Augustenburg not to hold prejudice toward any one. After having received the King's permission to bring Augustenburg to Sweden, he asked her of her opinion. She remarked that he had not yet arrived, nor given any direct reply whether he wished the throne. He answered: "Perhaps he will not come, and then Your Majesty can play the same role as that of the Empress of Russia", referring to Catherine the Great, who took the throne from her spouse. She replied: "I have never wished for power, I have not as she murdered my consort or any Prince Ivan, nor could I do such a thing. I do not wish to be spoken to in such a tone." Adlersparre replied: "Your Majesty is correct, it is most certainly no fortune to be a regent."[29]

She declined the offer to be regent, and the coup never took place. Statesman Carl Johan Adlercreutz stated that, if the King had died, the matter would have been different: "If King Charles XIII had died, before the peace with Denmark was made and Kristian August was still in Norway, Queen Charlotte, who eagerly supported the plans of the Gustavian party, would have played a considerable part."[28]

Fersen murder

She viewed Augustenburg as good-hearted but rough. He claimed to be willing to adopt former Crown Prince Gustav as heir.[30] Augustenburg, who was popular among the public, died in 1810. The anti-Gustavians planted the rumour that he had been murdered by the Gustavian party.

Pamphlets circulated in the capital claiming that the Crown Prince had been murdered by the Gustavians, and that the Queen deserved to be hanged.[31] The Gustavian Count Axel von Fersen the Younger was lynched, suspected to be involved in the alleged murder. The mob then sought Fersen's sister, Countess Sophie Piper, who was the intimate friend of the Queen and was said to influence her.[32] The mob was told that Piper was with the Queen at Haga Palace.

The Queen and her ladies-in-waiting were left without guards at Haga, and there was a fear that she would be attacked. She was advised not to come in to town, and boats were sent to evacuate them, if the lynch mob were to march to Haga. She decided to leave for town without an escort. Her lady-in-waiting Countess Wilhelmina Taube asked her not to, upon which she answered: "You are a coward, Mina! You are afraid; I will go alone! I do not fear death. I can defy it, and I will die as Marie Antoinette. Let us leave!"[33] The women persuaded her to stay, and when she asked them to leave, they asked to remain. In the end, nothing happened. Despite opposition, she supported a clearing of Sophie Piper's name, which was most unpopular.[34]

Relation to Bernadotte

The election of a new heir to the throne was held in Örebro. She supported the former Crown Prince Gustav first and Peter of Holstein second. It was decided that the Queen should be confined to Strömsholm Palace during the election because of the general belief that she would interfere.[35]

When Jean Baptiste Bernadotte was elected, the government sent her Fredrik August Adelswärd as their representative to inform her. He said that realized her disappointment, as Bernadotte was a non-royal, but asked her to pretend to be happy for the health of the monarch, who was afraid that she would displeased.[36] She answered that she would be happy with any one who could bring stability: "Then it will be the right one, and he will find a loyal friend in me. If he is also gifted with talent and a good heart, then his lineage would mean nothing to me."[37] She asked for permission to go to Örebro, and declared: "I do not meddle in politics, although everyone may say otherwise."[38]

Bernadotte made a very good impression on her, and their relationship was a good one. At their first meeting, he said to her: "Madam, I understand more than well what feelings my arrival must bring you, but please remember, that the first King was a soldier, who benefited from success!" She replied: "Let us not speak of it now, you have earned your success, which is more worthy than to have been born to it."[39] He asked her for advice and discussed the matters of state with her.[40] He also assisted her in arranging a state funeral for Axel von Fersen.[41] In 1811, she was asked by the council to convince the King to appoint Bernadotte regent and convince the latter to accept the post, which she did.[42]

The Queen described Désirée Clary as good-hearted, generous and pleasant when she chose to be and not one to plot, but also as immature and a "spoiled child",[43] who hated all demands and was unable to handle any form of representation.[44] She described Desiree as "a French woman in every inch", who disliked and complained about everything which was not French, and "consequently, she is not liked."[45]

Bernadotte ordered the removal of everything reminding of the deposed royal family.[46] Her Gustavian views made the anti-Gustavians direct the suspicions of Bernadotte to her, and she was obliged to stop her correspondence with former Queen Frederica (1813),[47] but her relationship with Bernadotte remained good. She supported his plan to conquer Norway, and became Queen of Norway in 1814. In 1816–1817, governor Baron Olof Rudolf Cederström attempted to implicate her in an alleged poison attempt against the life of the Crown Prince and his son.[48] She had him questioned for slander, but this led to a break in the relationship with the Crown Prince, though it deepened her relation to Prince Oscar, who took her side in the affair.[49]

At the death of her spouse, she said that she would not be able to survive him. After the funeral, a great conflict of some sort is reported to have taken place between the Queen Dowager and the King. After a private dinner with the King, she withdraw to her room to write, and the same night, she fainted and died.[50]

Legacy

Hedwig Elizabeth Charlotte is mostly known for her famous diary, which is a valuable historical source that describes the Swedish Royal Court between 1775 and 1817. Beginning in 1902, it was published in nine parts, as written in French and initially (until March 1798) in the form of letters to her close friend, Countess Sophie von Fersen, sister of Axel von Fersen. The letters were never sent, but written in this form as a tribute to Sophie von Fersen. The diaries were written with the intent to be published, as stipulated by the Queen, fifty years after her death.[51]

Children

  1. Lovisa Hedvig (– 2 July 1797)
  2. Carl Adolf, Duke of Värmland (Stockholm, 4 July 1798 – Stockholm, 10 July 1798)

Styles

  • 22 March 1759 – 7 July 1774: Her Serene Highness Princess Hedvig Elisabeth Charlotte of Holstein-Gottorp
  • 7 July 1774 – 5 June 1809: Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Södermanland (commonly "Little Duchess"[citation needed] and later "Duchess Lotta"[citation needed])
  • 5 June 1809 – 4 November 1814: Her Majesty The Queen of Sweden (commonly "Queen Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotta", formally "Queen Charlotta")
  • 4 November 1814 – 5 February 1818: Her Majesty The Queen of Sweden and Norway (the first queen of both Sweden and Norway since the Middle Ages)
  • 5 February 1818 – 20 June 1818: Her Majesty The Queen Dowager Charlotte

Notes

  1. ^ Alma Söderhjelm (1945). Gustav III:s syskon (The siblings of Gustav III) Stockholm: Albert Bonniers Förlag. p. 28-29. 23033 (Swedish)
  2. ^ Annie Mattson (2010) (in Swedish). Komediant och riksförrädare. Handskriftcirkulerande smädeskrifter mot Gustav III (Comedian and traitor. Handwritten libels toward Gustav III). Edita Västra Aros. p. 103. ISBN 978-91-554-7780-6. 
  3. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1903) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok II 1783-1788 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte II). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. p. 15. ISBN. 
  4. ^ Alma Söderhjelm (1945). Gustav III:s syskon (The siblings of Gustav III) Stockholm: Albert Bonniers Förlag. p. 28-29. 23033 (Swedish)
  5. ^ Alma Söderhjelm (1945). Gustav III:s syskon (The siblings of Gustav III) Stockholm: Albert Bonniers Förlag. p. 27-28. 23033 (Swedish)
  6. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1927) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok VI 1797-1799 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte VI 1797-1799). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag Stockholm. p. 20. ISBN 270693. 
  7. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1908) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok I 1775-1782 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte II). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. p. 284. ISBN. 
  8. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1903) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok II 1783-1788 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte II). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. p. 73. ISBN 412070. 
  9. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1908) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok I 1775-1782 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte II). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. p. 370. ISBN. 
  10. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1920) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IV 1793-1794 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IV 1793-1794). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag Stockholm. p. 72. ISBN 203102. 
  11. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1927) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok VI 1797-1799 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte VI 1797-1799). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag Stockholm. pp. 115–145. ISBN 270693. 
  12. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1936) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok VII 1800-1806 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte VIII 1800-1806). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag Stockholm. p. 53. ISBN 362103. 
  13. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1936) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok VII 1800-1806 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte VIII 1800-1806). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag Stockholm. pp. 497–527. ISBN 362103. 
  14. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1939) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. p. 323. ISBN 412070. 
  15. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1939) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. p. 395. ISBN 412070. 
  16. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1939) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. p. 396. ISBN 412070. 
  17. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1939) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. p. 453. ISBN 412070. 
  18. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (översättning och redigering) (1942) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1812-1818 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. p. 545. ISBN 412070. 
  19. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1939) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. p. 568. ISBN 412070. 
  20. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1939) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. p. 358. ISBN 412070. 
  21. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1939) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. p. 414. ISBN 412070. 
  22. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1939) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. p. 377. ISBN 412070. 
  23. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1939) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. p. 355. ISBN 412070. 
  24. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1939) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. pp. 352–353. ISBN 412070. 
  25. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1939) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. p. 401. ISBN 412070. 
  26. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1939) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. ISBN 412070. 
  27. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1939) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. p. 457. ISBN 412070. 
  28. ^ a b Cecilia af Klercker (1939) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. p. 461. ISBN 412070. 
  29. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1939) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. pp. 462–464. ISBN 412070. 
  30. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1939) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. pp. 506–07. ISBN 412070. 
  31. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1939) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. p. 548. ISBN 412070. 
  32. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1939) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. p. 537. ISBN 412070. 
  33. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1939) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. p. 549. ISBN 412070. 
  34. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1939) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. p. 551. ISBN 412070. 
  35. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1939) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. pp. 568–69. ISBN 412070. 
  36. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1939) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. p. 580. ISBN 412070. 
  37. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1939) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. pp. 580–81. ISBN 412070. 
  38. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1939) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. p. 581. ISBN 412070. 
  39. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1939) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. p. 607. ISBN 412070. 
  40. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1939) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. p. 660. ISBN 412070. 
  41. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1939) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. p. 617. ISBN 412070. 
  42. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1939) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. pp. 666–67. ISBN 412070. 
  43. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1939) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. pp. 636–37. ISBN 412070. 
  44. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1939) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. p. 705. ISBN 412070. 
  45. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1939) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX 1807-1811). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. pp. 654–55. ISBN 412070. 
  46. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1942) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1812-1818 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. pp. 11, 124. ISBN 412070. 
  47. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (översättning och redigering) (1942) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1812-1818 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. p. 143. ISBN 412070. 
  48. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1942) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1812-1818 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. pp. 568–573. ISBN 412070. 
  49. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (översättning och redigering) (1942) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1812-1818 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. pp. 576, 613. ISBN 412070. 
  50. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (översättning och redigering) (1942) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1812-1818 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. p. 657. ISBN 412070. 
  51. ^ Cecilia af Klercker (1908) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok I 1775-1782 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte II). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. p. 1. ISBN. 

References

  • Herman Lindqvist (2006). Historien om alla Sveriges drottningar (History of all the queens of Sweden) (Swedish). Norstedts Förlag. ISBN 9113015249.
  • Herman Lindqvist: Historien om Sverige. Gustavs dagar (History of Sweden. The days of Gustav) ((Swedish))
  • Ingvar Andersson: Gustavianskt (The Gustavian age) ((Swedish))
  • http://runeberg.org/sverhist/9/0412.html
  • Ingvar Andersson (1979) (in Swedish). Gustavianskt (The Gustavian Age). Fletcher & Son Ltd. ISBN 91-46-13373-9. 
  • http://runeberg.org/svlartid/1901/0486.html
  • Cecilia af Klercker (1903) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok II 1783-1788 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte II). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. ISBN 412070. 
  • Cecilia af Klercker (1927) (in Swedish). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok VII 1800-1806 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte VIII). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. ISBN 383107. 
  • Cecilia af Klercker (1939). Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok IX 1807-1811 (The diaries of Hedvig Elizabeth Charlotte IX). P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. ISBN 412070. 

External links

Succession

Hedvig Elisabeth Charlotte of Holstein-Gottorp
House of Holstein-Gottorp
Cadet branch of the House of Oldenburg
Born: 22 March 1759 Died: 20 June 1818
Swedish royalty
Preceded by
Frederica of Baden
Queen consort of Sweden
1809–1818
Succeeded by
Désirée Clary
Norwegian royalty
Preceded by
Marie Sophie of Hesse-Kassel
Queen consort of Norway
1814–1818
Succeeded by
Désirée Clary

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