- Demographics of Texas
Texas is the second most populous U.S. state. In recent decades, it has experienced strong population growth. Texas has many major cities and metropolitan areas, along with many towns and rural areas. Much of the population is in the major cities of Houston, San Antonio, Dallas, Austin, and El Paso.
Historical populations Census Pop. %± 1850 212,592 — 1860 604,215 184.2% 1870 818,579 35.5% 1880 1,591,749 94.5% 1890 2,235,527 40.4% 1900 3,048,710 36.4% 1910 3,896,542 27.8% 1920 4,663,228 19.7% 1930 5,824,715 24.9% 1940 6,414,824 10.1% 1950 7,711,194 20.2% 1960 9,579,677 24.2% 1970 11,196,730 16.9% 1980 14,229,191 27.1% 1990 16,986,510 19.4% 2000 20,851,820 22.8% 2010 25,145,561 20.6%
As of 2005, the state has an estimated population of 22.8 million—an increase of 388,419 (1.7%) from the prior year and an increase of 2 million (9.6%) since the year 2000. In all three subcategories—natural increase (births less deaths), net immigration, and net migration—Texas has seen an increase in population. The natural increase since the last census was 1,155,182 people (1,948,398 births minus 793,216 deaths). Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 663,161 people. Migration within the country produced a net increase of 218,722 people. The state passed New York in the 1990s to become the second-largest U.S. state in population, after California. On December 23, 2009 the US Census announced that Texas has gained around 4 million residents between 2000 and 2009, or a percent increase of about 20%. This is the highest population increase, by number of people, for any U.S. state during that time period. The large population increase can somewhat be contributed to Texas' relative insulation from the US housing bubble.
As of 2004, the state has 3.5 million foreign-born residents, 15.6% of the state population, of which an estimated 1.2 million are illegal immigrants. Illegal immigrants account for more than one-third of the foreign-born population in Texas and 5.4% of the total state population. In 2010, illegal immigrants constituted an estimated 6.0% of the population, the fifth highest percentage of any state.
Census data report that 7.8% of Texas' population is under 5 years old, 28.2% under 18, and 9.9% over 64 years. Females made up 50.4% of the population, although there is a large surplus of 2 million men in the 25-44 age range in Texas.
Racial and ancestral makeup
Demographics of Texas (csv) By race White Black AIAN* Asian NHPI* 2000 (total population) 84.54% 12.09% 1.09% 3.13% 0.16% 2000 (Hispanic only) 31.14% 0.42% 0.40% 0.13% 0.06% 2005 (total population) 84.14% 12.09% 1.10% 3.62% 0.17% 2005 (Hispanic only) 34.16% 0.52% 0.42% 0.15% 0.06% Growth 2000–05 (total population) 9.10% 9.62% 10.56% 27.02% 21.27% Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) 2.59% 8.66% 8.69% 27.07% 17.81% Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) 20.26% 36.40% 13.80% 25.99% 27.72% * AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
As of the 2010 US Census, the racial distribution in Texas was as follows: 70.4% of the population of Texas were White American; 11.8%, African American; 3.8%, Asian American; 0.7%, American Indian; 0.1%, native Hawaiian or Pacific islander only; 10.5% of the population were of some other race only; and 2.7% wer of two or more races. Hispanics (of any race) were 37.6% of the population of the state, while Non-Hispanic Whites composed 45.3%.
English Americans predominate in eastern, central, and northern Texas; German Americans, in central and western Texas. African Americans, who historically made up one-third of the state population, are concentrated in parts of eastern Texas as well as in the Dallas-Fort Worth and Houston metropolitan areas.
Other population groups in Texas also exhibit great diversity. Frontier Texas saw settlements of Germans, particularly in Fredericksburg and New Braunfels. Many Dutch, Germans from Switzerland and Austria, Poles, Russians, Swedes, Norwegians, Czechs, Slovaks, Italians, and French immigrated at least in part because of the European revolutions of 1848. This immigration continued until World War I and the 1920s. The influence of these diverse European immigrants survives in the town names, architectural styles, music, and cuisine in Texas. Lavaca County, for example, is predominantly Czech American, Seguin has a large Slovak American community, and Nederland has many Dutch Americans whose ancestors immigrated from the Netherlands. In the 1980 United States census the largest ancestry group reported in Texas was English with 3,083,323 Texans citing that they were of English or mostly English ancestry making them 27% of the state at the time. Their ancestry primarily goes back to the original thirteen colonies and for this reason many of them today simply claim "American" ancestry, though they are of predominately English stock.
As of 2007, 36% of Texas residents had Hispanic ancestry; these including recent immigrants from Mexico, Central America, and South America, as well as Tejanos, whose ancestors who have lived in Texas since before Texan independence (or, at least, for several generations). Tejanos are the largest ancestry group in southern Duval County and amongst the largest in and around Bexar County (including San Antonio, where over one million Hispanics live). The Hispanic population in Texas has increased through immigration, including illegal aliens from Latin America and primarily from Mexico. The state has the second largest Hispanic population in the United States (California has the largest). Hispanics dominate southern, south-central, and western Texas and form a significant portion of the residents in the cities of Dallas, Houston, and Austin. This is a partial cause of Texas having a younger population than the American average, because Hispanic births have outnumbered non-Hispanic white births since the early 1990s. In 2007, for the first time since the early nineteenth century, Hispanics accounted for more than half of all births (50.2%), while non-Hispanic whites accounted for just 34.3%.
African Americans, who formed one-third of the population of Texas during the nineteenth century, are concentrated in the parts of eastern Texas where the cotton plantation culture was most prominent before the American Civil War, as well as in Dallas and Houston. African Americans are more than twenty percent of urban populations in Fort Worth and about ten percent of the populations of Austin and San Antonio; they form a majority in sections of southern Dallas, eastern Fort Worth, and South Houston. Because of a strong labor market from 1995 to 2000, Texas is one of three states in the South receiving the highest numbers of black college graduates in a New Great Migration.
In recent years, the Asian American population in Texas has grown, especially in Houston with its newly developed Chinatown, in Fort Bend County (which has the largest concentration of Asian Americans in the southern United States), in suburbs in western and northern Dallas, and in Arlington, near Fort Worth. Vietnamese Americans, South Asian Americans, Chinese Americans, Filipino Americans, Korean Americans, and Japanese Americans make up the largest Asian American groups in Texas. The Gulf Coast has the largest number of Asian Americans in the state, because the shrimp fishing industry attracted tens of thousands of Vietnamese, Filipinos, and Chinese from the coast of the South China Sea in the late 1970s and 1980s.
American Indian tribes who once lived or resettled inside the boundaries of present-day Texas include the Alabama, Apache, Atakapan, Bidai, Caddo, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Comanche, Coushatta, Hueco, the Karankawa of Galveston, Kiowa, Lipan, Muscogee, Natchez, Quapaw, Seminole, Tonkawa, Wichita, and many others. Three federally recognized Native American tribes currently are centered in Texas: the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas in eastern Texas, the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas in the Rio Grande Valley, and the Ysleta Del Sur Pueblo of El Paso, Texas.
According to Steve Murdock, a demographer with the Hobby Center for the Study of Texas at Rice University and a former director of the U.S. Census Bureau, the White American population is aging while the minority populations are relatively young. As of 2011, according to Murdock, two out of three children in Texas are not non-Hispanic Whites. Murdock also predicted that, between 2000 and 2040 (assuming that the net migration rate will equal half that of 1990-2000), Hispanic enrollment in Texan public schools will increase by 213 percent while White enrollment will decrease by 15 percent. .
According to the 2000 U.S. Census, 68.76% of the population aged 5 and older speak only English at home, while 27.00% speak Spanish. Other languages spoken include Vietnamese by 0.63%, Chinese by 0.48%, German (including Texas German) by 0.42%, and French (including Cajun French) by 0.32% .
Texas is a part of the strongly socially conservative, Evangelical Protestant Bible Belt. Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas is home to three major evangelical seminaries and several of America's largest megachurches, including the Potter's House pastored by T.D Jakes and Prestonwood Baptist pastored by Jack Graham. Houston is home to the largest church in the nation, Lakewood Church, pastored by Joel Osteen. Lubbock, Texas has the most churches per capita in the nation.
In 2000, The religious demographics of Texas were:
- Evangelical Protestant – 24.4%
- Mainline Protestant – 8.1%
- Orthodox – 0.1%
- Roman Catholic – 21.0%
- Hindu, Sikhs, Buddhists, Muslim, others; 2.0%
- Unclaimed – 44.5%
The largest single denominations by number of adherents in 2000 were the Catholic Church 4,368,969, the Southern Baptist Convention 3,519,459 and the United Methodist Church 1,022,342. Evangelical Protestant Christian influence had a strong impact in social/cultural and political implications in Texas throughout its history, but not all Texans share this view of Christian religious doctrine. Austin, the state capital, is perceived as a more secular and liberal community.
Other religious groups are also found in Texas, such as Jewish Texans, a unique subculture of the American Jewish community. Most of the state's estimated 128,000 Jews live in or around Dallas and Houston.
Cities and towns
As of 2000, six Texas cities had populations greater than 500,000, including the two global cities of Houston and Dallas. Texas has 25 metropolitan areas, with four having populations over 1 million and two over 5 million. According to the List of United States cities by population, Texas has 3 of the 10 cities in the US with populations greater than 1 million, and is tied with California for the most of any other state. Austin, Fort Worth, and El Paso are also among the top 25 largest U.S. cities.
The Texas Urban Triangle is a region defined by three interstate highways – I-35 to the west (Dallas-Fort Worth to San Antonio), I-45 to the east (Dallas to Houston), and I-10 to the south (San Antonio to Houston). The region contains most of the state's largest cities and metropolitan areas, as well as nearly 75 percent of Texas' total population.
- ^ Slevin, Peter (30 April 2010). "New Arizona law puts police in 'tenuous' spot". Washington, DC: Washington Post. pp. A4. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/04/29/AR2010042904970.html?sid=ST2010042905051.
- ^ behind Nevada, Arizona, California, and New Jersey
- ^ "statecenters.txt." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on February 27, 2011. "48 Texas Population 20851820 Latitude 30.943149 Longitude -97.388631."
- ^ http://www.census.gov/population/www/censusdata/files/pc80-s1-10/tab03.pdf
- ^ William H. Frey, "The New Great Migration: Black Americans' Return to the South, 1965-2000", May 2004, The Brookings Institution, p.1, accessed 19 Mar 2008
- ^ Scharrer, Gary. "Texas demographer: 'It's basically over for Anglos'" Houston Chronicle. February 24, 2011. Retrieved on February 27, 2011.
- ^ a b Connolly, Ceci (2003-01-21). Texas Teaches Abstinence, With Mixed Grades. Washington Post. p. A01. http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-URL_ID=12589&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html. Retrieved 2008-04-28
- ^ a b "State Membership Report - Texas". Association of Religion Data Archives. http://www.thearda.com/mapsReports/reports/state/48_2000.asp. Retrieved 2008-02-12.
- ^ "Inventory of World Cities". Globalization and World Cities Research Network. 2008. http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/citylist.html. Retrieved 2008-04-28.
- ^ Texas Urban Triangle – Southwest Region University Transportation Center (SWUTC)
- Kever, Jeannie. "Census finds thousands of Californians flocking to Texas." Houston Chronicle. Tuesday November 15, 2011.
State of Texas Topics Society Regions
Ark‑La‑Tex · Big Bend · Blackland Prairies · Brazos Valley · Central Texas · Coastal Bend · Cross Timbers · Deep East Texas · East Texas · Edwards Plateau · Golden Triangle · Hill Country · Llano Estacado · Northeast Texas · North Texas · Osage Plains · Panhandle · Permian Basin · Piney Woods · Rio Grande Valley · Southeast Texas · South Plains · South Texas · Trans-Pecos · West Texas
Abilene · Amarillo · Austin–Round Rock–San Marcos · Beaumont–Port Arthur · Brownsville–Harlingen · College Station–Bryan · Corpus Christi · Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington · El Paso · Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown · Killeen–Temple–Fort Hood · Laredo · Longview · Lubbock · McAllen–Edinburg–Mission · Midland · Odessa · San Angelo · San Antonio–New Braunfels · Sherman–Denison · Texarkana · Tyler · Victoria · Waco · Wichita Falls
See: Table of Texas counties or List
Demographics of the United States by state Demographics by stateAlabama • Alaska • Arizona • Arkansas • California • Colorado • Connecticut • Delaware • Florida • Georgia • Hawaii • Idaho • Illinois • Indiana • Iowa • Kansas • Kentucky • Louisiana • Maine • Maryland • Massachusetts • Michigan • Minnesota • Mississippi • Missouri • Montana • Nebraska • Nevada • New Hampshire • New Jersey • New Mexico • New York • North Carolina • North Dakota • Ohio • Oklahoma • Oregon • Pennsylvania • Rhode Island • South Carolina • South Dakota • Tennessee • Texas • Utah • Vermont • Virginia • Washington • West Virginia • Wisconsin • Wyoming Federal district Demographics by city
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