Scottish people


Scottish people

The Scots people (Scots Gaelic: "Albannaich") are a nation ["That I am not exaggerating in calling the Scots people a great nation must be evident to anyone..."cite book |last=Bulloch |first= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Scottish Notes and Queries |publisher=D. Wyllie and son [etc.] |date=1902 |location= |pages=Page 40 |url= |doi= |id= and also "The Scots people are a nation" from cite book |last=Shore |first=Marlene Gay |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=The Contested Past |publisher=University of Toronto Press |date=1 February 2002 |location= |pages=p.105 |url= |doi= |id=ISBN] and an ethnic group indigenous to Scotland.

Historically, as an ethnic group, they emerged from an amalgamation of Celtic (Picts, Gaels, Brythons) and Germanic (Angles, Norse) populations.

In modern use "Scottish people" or "Scots" refers to anyone born or living in Scotland. In another sense, it applies to people who are descended from the Scots and who identify ethnically as Scots. While the Latin word "Scoti" [Bede used a Latin form of the word Scots as the name of the Gaels of Dál Riata. Reference: cite book
last=Roger Collins
first=Judith McClure
coauthors=Beda el Venerable, Bede
title=The Ecclesiastical History of the English People: The Greater Chronicle ; Bede's Letter to Egbert
publisher=Oxford University Press
date=1999
pages=Page 386
id=ISBN
] originally applied to a particular, 5th century, Gaelic tribe that inhabited areas in the north of Ireland and western Scotland, [ Reference: cite book
last=Anthony Richard (TRN) Birley
first=Cornelius Tacitus
coauthors=Cayo Cornelio Tácito
title=Agricola and Germany
publisher=Oxford University Press
id=ISBN
] Dubious|date=April 2008the term "Scots" is now used to describe all Scottish people. Though usually considered archaic or pejorative, the term Scotch has also been used for the Scottish people, but this use has been primarily by people outside of Scotland. [Scottish people, in general, do not like being called Scotch and will only use the term when talking about a Scotch whisky. Many non-Scottish people, particularly Americans (even some of Scots descent), use the term naturally without pejorative or archaic overtones ] [ [http://www.answers.com/topic/scotch-1 "Scotch is still in occasional contemporary use outwith Scotland"] ] [John Kenneth Galbraith in his book "The Scotch" (Toronto: MacMillan, 1964) documents how the descendants of 19th century pioneers from Scotland who settled in Southwestern Ontario affectionately referred to themselves as Scotch. He states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the Scotch-Canadian community in the early decades of the 20th century.]

There are people of Scottish descent in many countries other than Scotland. Emigration, influenced by factors such as the Highland and Lowland Clearances, and the formation of the British Empire, has resulted in Scottish people being found throughout the world. Large populations of Scottish people settled the new-world lands of North and South America, Australia and New Zealand, with a large Scottish presence being particularly noticeable in Canada. They took with them their Scottish languages and culture. [cite book
last=Landsman
first=Ned C.
authorlink=
coauthors=
title=Nation and Province in the First British Empire: Scotland and the Americas,
publisher=Bucknell University Press
date=1 Oct 2001
location=
pages=
url=
doi=
id=ISBN
]

Scotland has seen migration and settlement of peoples at different periods in its history. The Dalriadic Gaels, the Picts and the Britons had respective origin myths, like most Dark Age European peoples. [The Venerable Bede tells of the Scotti coming from Spain via Ireland and the Picts coming from Scythia.Ref: cite book
last=Harris
first=Stephen J.
authorlink=
title=Race and Ethnicity in Anglo-Saxon Literature
publisher=Routledge (UK)
date=1st Oct 2003
pages=Page 72
id=ISBN
] Dubious|Dubious|date=March 2008 Germanic people such as Angles and Saxons arrived beginning in the 7th century while the Norse settled many regions of Scotland from the 8th century onwards.Dubious|Dubious|date=March 2008 In the High Middle Ages, from the reign of David I of Scotland, there was some immigration from France, England and the Low Countries. Many famous Scottish family names, including those bearing the names which became Bruce, Balliol, Murray and Stewart came to Scotland at this time.

The indigenous ethnic groups of Scotland

In the Early Middle Ages, Scotland had several ethnic or cultural groups labeled as such in contemporary sources, namely the Picts, the Gaels (Scots), the Britons, with the Angles settling in the far southeast of the country in smaller numbers. Culturally, these peoples are grouped according to language. Almost all of Scotland until the 13th century spoke Celtic languages and these included, at least initially, the Britons, as well as the Gaels and the Picts. [Jackson, "The Language of the Picts", discussed by Forsyth, "Language in Pictland".] Germanic peoples included the Angles of Northumbria, who settled in southeastern Scotland, and later the Norse arriving from Norway in the north and west.

With the arrival of the Gaels, use of the Gaelic language spread throughout nearly the whole of Scotland by the 9th century, [http://www.scotsplacenames.com/page5.html] [ [http://www.bord-na-gaidhlig.org.uk/about-gaelic/history.html Bòrd na Gàidhlig - History of Gaelic ] ] reaching a peak in the eleventh century. [ [http://www.hie.co.uk/gaels.htm The Story of the Gaelic-speaking people ] ]

After the division of Northumbria between Scotland and England by King Edgar (or after the later Battle of Carham; it is uncertain) the Scottish kingdom encompassed a great number of English folk. (Contemporary populations cannot be estimated so we cannot tell which population thenceforth formed the majority.) Southeast of the Firth of Forth then in Lothian and the Borders (OE: "Loðene"), a northern variety of Middle English, also known as Early Scots, was spoken.

Caithness and the Northern Isles were Norn-speaking. From 1200 to 1500 the Early Scots language spread across the lowland parts of Scotland between Galloway and the Highland line.

From 1500 until recent years, Scotland was commonly divided by language into two groups of people, the Gaelic-speaking "Highlanders" and the Scots-speaking (later English-speaking) "Lowlanders". Today, immigrants have brought other languages, but almost every adult throughout Scotland is fluent in the English language.

cottish people abroad

Today, Scotland has a population of just over five million people, the majority of whom consider themselves Scottish. [cite web
author=Office of the Chief Statistician
title=Analysis of Ethnicity in the 2001 Census - Summary Report
url=http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2004/02/18876/32939
date =
accessdate=
One choice, only, was permitted from among the supplied responses and it should be noted that the numbers do not accurately reflect ethnic origin since "White Scottish" may mean anyone who is merely "White" and considers themselves Scottish.
] In addition, there are many more Scots abroad than in Scotland. In the 2000 Census, 4.8 million Americans reported Scottish ancestry, [ [http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/QTTable?_bm=y&-qr_name=DEC_2000_SF3_U_QTP13&-geo_id=01000US&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF3_U&-_lang=en&-redoLog=false&-_sse=on United States - QT-P13. Ancestry: 2000] . Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 Summary File 3, Matrices PCT15 and PCT18.] 1.7% of the total U.S. population. Given Scotland's population (just over 5 million), there are almost as many Scottish Americans as there are native Scots living in their home country.

In Canada, according to the 2001 Census of Canada data, the Scottish-Canadian community accounts for 4,157,210 people. Scottish-Canadians are the 3rd biggest ethnic group in Canada. Scottish culture has particularly thrived in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland") where Canadian Gaelic is still spoken by a very small number in Cape Breton. Also the home of the Gaelic College of Celtic Arts and Crafts, both Lowland and Highland Scots settled there in large numbers.

Large numbers of Scottish people reside in other parts of the United Kingdom and in the Republic of Ireland, particularly Ulster where they form the Ulster-Scots community. The number of people of Scottish descent in England and Wales is impossible to quantify due to the ancient and complex pattern of migration within Great Britain. Of the present generation alone, some 800,000 people born in Scotland have emigrated to either England, Wales or Northern Ireland. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/uk/05/born_abroad/countries/html/scotland.stm BBC NEWS | UK | Born Abroad | Scotland ] ]

Other European countries have had their share of Scots immigrants. The Scots have been emigrating to mainland Europe for centuries as merchants and soldiers. [See David Armitage, "The Scottish Diaspora", particularly pp. 272–278, in Jenny Wormald (ed.), "Scotland: A History." Oxford UP, Oxford, 2005. ISBN] Many emigrated to France, Poland [ [http://www.friendsofscotland.gov.uk/culture/1576.html Scotland and Poland ] ] Italy and Holland. [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/scottishhistory/europe/features_europe_lowcountries.shtml BBC - History - Scottish History ] ] Recently some scholars suggested that up to 250,000 Russians may have Scottish blood. [ [http://scotlandonsunday.scotsman.com/index.cfm?id=1561162007 Scotland on Sunday ] ]

Significant numbers of Scottish people also settled in Australia and New Zealand. Approximately 20 percent of the original European settler population of New Zealand came from Scotland, and Scottish influence is still visible around the country. [Linguistic Archaeology: The Scottish Input to New Zealand English PhonologyTrudgill et al. Journal of English Linguistics.2003; 31: 103-124] The South Island city of Dunedin, in particular, is known for its Scottish heritage and was named as a tribute to Edinburgh by the city's Scottish founders. In Australia, the Scottish population was fairly evenly distributed around the country.

In Latin America there are notable Scottish populations in Brazil, Argentina, [ [http://www.electricscotland.com/history/argentina/patndx.htm Scots in Argentina and Patagonia Austral ] ] Chile [ [http://www.electricscotland.com/history/other/cochrane_thomas.htm Archibald Cochrane ] ] and Mexico.

The Scots and Continental Europe

Poland

From as far back as the mid 15th century there were Scots trading and settling in Poland. A Scot's Pedlar Pack in Poland, which became a proverbial expression, usually consisted of cloths, woollen goods and linen handkerchiefs. Itinerants also sold tin and ironware such as scissors and knives. Along with the protection offered by King Stephen in the Royal Grant of 1576 a district in Krakow was assigned to Scots immigrants.

Records from 1592 reveal Scots settlers being granted citizenship of Krakow giving their employment as trader or merchant. Payment for being granted citizenship ranged from 12 Polish florins to a musket and gunpowder or an undertaking to marry within a year and a day of acquiring a holding.

By the 1600s there were an estimated 30,000 Scots living in Poland. Many came from Dundee and Aberdeen and could be found in Polish towns from Krakow to Lublin. Settlers from Aberdeenshire were mainly Episcopalians or Catholics, but there were also large numbers of Calvinists. As well as Scottish traders there were also many Scottish soldiers in Poland. In 1656 a number of Scottish Highlanders who were disenchanted with Oliver Cromwell's rule went to Poland in the service of the King of Sweden.

The Scots integrated well and many acquired great wealth. They contributed to many charitable institutions in the host country, but did not forget their homeland; for example, in 1701 when collections were made for the restoration fund of the Marischal College, Aberdeen, the Scottish settlers in Poland gave generously.

Many Royal Grants and privileges were granted to Scottish merchants until the 1700s at which time the settlers began to merge more and more into the native population. Bonnie Prince Charlie was half Polish, being the son of James Edward Stewart and Clementina Sobieska, granddaughter of Jan Sobieski, King of Poland. [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=tb0u8ZzaiRYC&pg=PA68&lpg=PA68&dq=scots+in+poland&source=web&ots=fHsrGMRMSk&sig=cworuBiXGorBkBqoSL0eXdNtrJw&hl=en#PPA68,M1] [http://www.scotland.org/about/history-tradition-and-roots/features/culture/1576.html] [http://www.bbc.co.uk/legacies/immig_emig/scotland/s_ne/article_1.shtml]

Italy

By 1592 the Scottish community in Rome was big enough to merit the building of Sant'Andrea degli Scozzesi it was constructed for the Scottish expatriate community in Rome, especially for those intended for priesthood. The adjoining hospice was a shelter for Catholic Scots who escaped their country because of religious persecutions. In 1615 Pope Paul V gave the hospice and the nearby Scottish Seminar to the Jesuits. It was rebuilt in 1645. They became more important when James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender set his residence in Rome in 1717. It was abandoned during the French occupation of Rome in the late 18th century. In 1820, religious activity was resumed, but no longer by the Jesuits. It was reconstructed in 1869 by Luigi Poletti. The church was deconsecrated in 1962 and incorporated in a bank (Cassa di Risparmio delle Province Lombarde). The Scottish Seminar also moved away. The Feast of St Andrew is still celebrated there on 30 November.

Gurro in Italy is said to populated by the descendants of Scottish soldiers. According to local legend, Scottish soldiers fleeing the Battle of Pavia arrived in the area were stopped by severe blizzards forcing many or if not all to give up their travels and settle in the town. To this day the town of Gurro is still proud of its Scottish links many of the residents claim that their surnames are Italian translations of Scottish surnames and the town also has a Scottish museum. [http://www.strathspey.org/archive/msg?m=11944] [http://www.deliciousitaly.com/visualizza.php?Id=451&regione_id=5]

The Netherlands

It is said that the first people from the Low Countries to settle in Scotland came in the wake of Mathilda's marriage to the Scottish king, David I, during the Dark Ages. Craftsmen and tradesmen followed courtiers and in later centuries a brisk trade grew up between the two nations: Scotland's primary goods (wool, hides, salmon and then coal) in exchange for the luxuries obtainable in the Netherlands, one of the major hubs of European trade.

By 1600, trading colonies had grown up on either side of the well-travelled shipping routes: the Dutch settling along the eastern seaboard of Scotland; the Scots congregating first in Campvere – where they were allowed to land their goods duty free and run their own affairs – and then Rotterdam, where Scottish and Dutch Calvinism coexisted comfortably. Besides the thousands of local descendants with Scots ancestry, both ports still show signs of these early alliances. Now a museum, 'The Scots House' in Vere was the only place outside Scotland where Scots Law was practised. In Rotterdam, meanwhile, the doors of The Scots International Church have remained wide open ever since 1643. [http://www.scotland.org/about/innovation-and-creativity/features/culture/netherlands.html]

Culture

Language

Historically, Scottish people have spoken many different languages and dialects. The Pictish language, Norse, Norman-French and Brythonic languages have been spoken by descendants of Scottish people. However, none of these are in use today. The remaining three major languages of the Scottish people are English, Lowland Scots (various dialects) and Gaelic. Of these three, English is the most common form as a first language. There are some other minority languages of the Scottish people, such as Spanish, used by the population of Scots in Argentina.

The Norn language was spoken in the Northern Isles into the early modern period — the current dialects of Shetlandic and Orcadian are heavily influenced by it, to this day.

cottish English

After the Union of Crowns in 1603, the Scottish Court moved with James VI & I to London and English vocabulary began to be used by the Scottish upper classes. With the introduction of the printing press, spellings became standardised. Scottish English, a Scottish variation of southern English English, began to replace the Scots Language. Scottish English soon became the dominant language. By the end of the 17th century, Scots Language had practically ceased to exist, at least in literary form. [cite book
last=Barber
first=Charles Laurence
authorlink=
coauthors=
title=The English Language: A Historical Introduction
publisher=Cambridge University Press
date=1 August 2000
location=
pages=Page 147
url=
doi=
id=ISBN
] While Scots remained a common spoken language, the southern Scottish English dialect was the preferred language for publications from the 18th century to the present day.

cots Language

Lowland Scots, also known as Lallans or Doric, is a language of Germanic origin. It has its roots in Northern Middle English. After the wars of independence, the English used by Lowland Scots speakers evolved in a different direction to that of Modern English. Since 1424, this language, known to its speakers as "Inglis", was used by the Scottish Parliament in its statutes.cite book
last=Crystal
first=David
authorlink=
coauthors=
title=The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language
publisher=Cambridge University Press
date=25 August 2003
location=
pages=
url=
doi=
id=ISBN
] By the middle of the 15th century, the language's name had changed from "Inglis" to "Scottis". The reformation, from 1560 onwards, saw the beginning of a decline in the use of Scots forms. With the establishment of the Protestant Presbyterian religion, and lacking a Scots translation of the bible, they used the Geneva Edition. [cite book
last=MacMahon
first=April M. S.
authorlink=
coauthors=McMahon
title=Lexical Phonology and the History of English
publisher=Cambridge University Press
date=13 April 2000
location=
pages=Page 142
url=
doi=
id=ISBN
] From that point on; God spoke English, not Scots. [cite book
last=Murphy
first=Michael (EDT)
authorlink=
coauthors=Harry White
title=Musical Constructions of Nationalism
publisher=Cork University Press
date=1st Oct 2001
location=
pages=Page 216
url=
doi=
id=ISBN
] Scots continued to be used in official legal and court documents throughout the 18th century. However, due to the adoption of the southern standard by officialdom and the Education system the use of written Scots declined. Lowland Scots is still a popular spoken language with over 1.5 million Scots speakers in Scotland. [The General Register Office for Scotland (1996)] The Scots language is used by about 30,000 Ulster Scots [Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey, 1999] and is known in official circles as Ullans. In 1993, Ulster Scots was recognised, along with Scots, as a variety of the Scots language by the European Bureau for Lesser-Used Languages. [cite book
last=Wolff
first=Stefan
authorlink=
coauthors=Jorg (EDT) Neuheiser
title=Peace at Last?: The Impact of the Good Friday Agreement on Northern Ireland
publisher=Berghahn Books
date=1 January 2002
location=
pages=
url=
doi=
id=ISBN
]

cottish Gaelic

, which actively discouraged the use of Gaelic in schools, caused the numbers of Gaelic speakers to fall. [cite book
last=Pagoeta
first=Mikel Morris
authorlink=
coauthors=
title=Europe Phrasebook
publisher=Lonely Planet
date=2001
location=
pages=Page 416
url=
doi=
id=ISBN-X
] Many Gaelic speakers emigrated to counties such as Canada or moved to the industrial cities of lowland Scotland. Communities where the language is still spoken natively are restricted to the west coast of Scotland; and especially the Hebrides. However, large proportions of Gaelic speakers also live in the cities of Glasgow and Edinburgh in Scotland. The 2001 UK Census showed a total of 58,652 Gaelic speakers in Scotland.Fact|date=December 2007 Outside Scotland, there are communities of Scottish Gaelic speakers such as the Canadian Gaelic community; though their numbers have also been declining rapidly. The Gaelic language is recognised as a Minority Language by the European Union. The Scottish parliament is also seeking to increase the use of Gaelic in Scotland through the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005. Gaelic is now used as a first language in some Schools and is prominently seen in use on dual language road signs throughout the Gaelic speaking parts of Scotland. It is recognised as an official language of Scotland with "equal respect" to English.Fact|date=December 2007

Religion

Saint Ninian (c. 360–432), is credited with bringing Christianity to Scotland. He was born in the Roman province of Valentia which is either modern day Galloway or Cumberland. At about the age of twenty, he went to Rome to study theology.cite book
last=Caswall
first=Henry
authorlink=
coauthors=
title=Scotland and the Scottish Church
publisher=J. H. Parker
date=1853
location=
pages=Page 10
url=
doi=
id=
] Dubious|Dubious|date=March 2008 He stayed there for fifteen years and was ordained as a Bishop by Damasus around the end of the 4th century. He was sent back to preach to his native people. He built his church in the Roman province of Valentia in the town of Leucapia, now called Whithorn in Galloway, Scotland. The local tribe was called the Novantes. He constructed the first church in Britain to be made of stone. He named the church "Candida Casa", which means "white house". He traveled throughout Scotland, and converted the Picts (aka Caledonians) to Christianity.cite book
last=Marshall
first=John
authorlink=
coauthors=
title=A history of Scottish ecclesiastical and civil affairs, from the introduction of Christianity
publisher=Unknown
date=1859
location=
pages=Page 49 to 51
url=
doi=
id=
] Dubious|Dubious|date=March 2008

In 431, Saint Palladius was sent by Pope Celestine I to be "Primus Episcopus"ndash first bishop of the Scots believing in Christ. At this time, "the Scots" referred to the Gaels of western Scotland and Ireland. Palladius's work is not well recorded and is often confused with Saint Patrick. Some time between 457 and 461, Palladius died. He is thought to have been laid to rest at a place called Forgund or Fordun in the village of Auchenblae in the Mearns district of Scotland. [cite book
last=Low
first=The Rev. Alexander
authorlink=
coauthors=
title=The history of Scotland ... to the middle of the ninth century
publisher=Bell and Bradfute, Edinburgh
date=1826
location=
pages=Page 59
url=
doi=
id=
] Dubious|Dubious|date=March 2008

Saint Patrick (died 17 March 493), is credited with bringing Christianity to Ireland and is the patron Saint of Ireland. In 563, Saint Columba (7 December, 521 – 9 June, 597) left Ireland with twelve companions and founded a church on the small island of Iona. This became the central hub of Christianity in the Highlands of Scotland. Saint Margaret, Queen of Scotland, was instrumental in moving the Scottish Church closer to Rome.Dubious|Dubious|date=March 2008 Throughout the Middle Ages, Scotland remained Roman Catholic.

Lutheran ideas were introduced to Scotland in the 16th century.Dubious|Dubious|date=March 2008 Although they were initially suppressed and outlawed by the state, Protestant Presbyterianism became popular. This was the Scottish Reformation. Bolstered by reformers such as John Knox, the Reformed Church became the established church in Scotland with an act of 1560. This developed into the Presbyterian church.

Religious ideology was to be a driving force throughout the 17th century. The Covenanters were to play an important role in the wars and in the later reinstatement of Charles II. Though Charles then turned persecutor, trying to stamp out the Covenanters. Many of the Covenanters emigrated to the "new" lands of America and Canada which were then seeing an influx of immigrants.

The 18th century would again see the Scottish people at war, with the mainly Catholic led Jacobite uprisings of 1715 and 1745. Lowland Scots tended to support the English, Protestant Hanoverian King's red coats while the Highlanders and others stood with the Jacobites against the Hanoverian forces.

The modern people of Scotland remain a mix of different religions. The Protestant and Catholic divisions still remain in the society. In the United States, people of Scottish and Scots-Irish descent are chiefly Protestant, with many belonging to the Baptist or Methodist churches, or various Presbyterian denominations.

Literature

Folklore

port

Cuisine

Clans

Anglicisation

Many Scottish surnames have become "Anglicised" (made to sound English) over the centuries. "Davidson", "Bruce" (originally "Brus"), "Campbell", "Salmond", "Marshall", "Christie" and "Joy" are just a few of many examples.Fact|date=December 2007 This reflected the gradual spread of English, also known as Early Scots, from around the 13th century onwards, through Scotland beyond its traditional area in the Lothians. It also reflected some deliberate political attempts to promote the English language in the outlying regions of Scotland, including following the Union of the Crowns, and then the Act of Union of 1707 and the subsequent defeat of rebellions.

However, many Scottish surnames have remained predominantly Gaelic albeit written according to English orthographic practice (as with Irish surnames). Thus "MacAoidh" in Gaelic is "Mackay" in English, and "MacGill-Eain" in Gaelic is "MacLean"; "O'Maolagan" is "Milligan" and so on. "Mac" (sometimes "Mc") is common as, effectively, it means "son of". "MacDonald", "McAuley", "Balliol", "Gilmore", "Gilmour", "MacKinley", "MacKintosh", "MacKenzie", "MacNiell", "MacRyan", "MacPhearson", "MacLear", "McDonald", "McKenzie", "MacAra", "MacNamara", "MacManus", "Lauder", "Menzies", "Galloway" and "Duncan" are just a few of many examples of traditional Scottish surnames. There are, of course, also the many surnames, like "Wallace" and "Morton", stemming from parts of Scotland which were settled by peoples other than the (Gaelic) Scots. The most common surnames in Scotland are "Smith" and "Brown", [http://www.gro-scotland.gov.uk/statistics/library/geninfo/surnames.html] , which come from several origins each - e.g. Smith can be a translation of MacGowan, and Brown can refer to the colour, or be akin to MacBrayne.

In 1603, the English and Scottish Crowns united under King James VI of Scotland (King James I of England).

Etymology

The word "Scotia" was used by the Romans, as early as the 1st century CE, as the name of one of the tribes in what is now Scotland. [cite book
last=Low
first=Alexander
authorlink=
coauthors=
title=The history of Scotland ... to the middle of the ninth century
publisher=
date=1826
location=
pages=Page 28
url=
doi=
id=
] The Romans also used Scotia to refer to the Gaels living in Ireland. [cite book
last=Lehane
first=Brendan
authorlink=
coauthors=
title=The Quest of Three Abbots: the golden age of Celtic Christianity
publisher=SteinerBooks
date=26 Januaryth, 2000
location=
pages=Page 121
url=
doi=
id=ISBN
] The Venerable Bede (c. 672 or 673 – 27 May, 735) uses the word "Scottorum" for the nation from Ireland who settled part of the Pictish lands: "Scottorum nationem in Pictorum parte recipit"." This we can infer to mean the arrival of the people, also know as the Gaels, in the Kingdom of Dál Riata, in the western edge of Scotland. It is of note that Bede used the word "natio" (nation) for the Scots, where he often refers to other peoples, such as the Picts, with the word "gens" (race). [cite book
last=Harris
first=Stephen J.
authorlink=
coauthors=
title=Race and Ethnicity in Anglo-Saxon Literature
publisher=Routledge (UK)
date=1 October 2003
location=
pages=Page 72
url=
doi=
id=ISBN
] In the 10th century Anglo Saxon Chronicle, the word "Scot" is mentioned as a reference to the "Land of the Gaels". The word "Scottorum" was again used by an Irish king in 1005: "Imperator Scottorum" was the title given to Brian Bóruma by his notary, Mael Suthain, in the Book of Armagh. [cite book
last=Martin
first=F. X. (Francis Xavier)
authorlink=
coauthors=Theodore William Moody, F. J. (Francis John) Byrne
title=New History of Ireland
publisher=Oxford University Press
date=1 August 1976
location=
pages=Page 862
url=
doi=
id=ISBN
] This style was subsequently copied by the Scottish kings. "Basileus Scottorum" appears on the great seal of King Edgar (1074–1107). [cite book
last=Freer
first=Allan
authorlink=
coauthors=
title=The North British Review
publisher=Edmonston & Douglas
date=1871
location=
pages=Page 119
url=
doi=
id=
and cite book
last=Robertson
first=Eben William
authorlink=
coauthors=
title=Scotland Under Her Early Kings: a history of the kingdom to the close of the thirteenth century
publisher=Edmonston and Douglas
date=1862
location=
pages=Page 286
url=
doi=
id=
] Alexander I (c. 1078–1124) used the words "Rex Scottorum" on his great seal, as did many of his successors up to and including James II. [cite book
last=Greenway
first=D. E. (EDT)
authorlink=
coauthors=E. B. (Edmund Boleslaw) Fryde
title=Handbook of British Chronology
publisher=Cambridge University Press
date=1 June 1996
location=
pages=Page 55
url=
doi=
id=ISBN-X
]

In modern times the words "Scot" and "Scottish" are applied mainly to inhabitants of Scotland. The possible ancient Irish connotations are largely forgotten. The language known as "Ulster Scots", spoken in parts of northeastern Ireland, is the result of 17th and 18th century immigration to Ireland from Scotland.

In the English language, the word "Scotch" is a term to describe a thing from Scotland, such as "Scotch whisky". However, when referring to people, the preferred term is "Scots". Many Scottish people find the term "Scotch" to be offensive when applied to people. [http://www.bartleby.com/61/8/S0160800.html The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language] Scotch usage note, [http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_/scotch.html Encarta Dictionary] usage note.] The Oxford Dictionary describes "Scotch" as an old-fashioned term for "Scottish". [http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/scotch?view=uk Oxford Dictionary Definition of Scotch] ]

See also

*Alba
*Caledonia
*Gaels
*Irish-Scots
*Italian-Scots
*List of Scots
*Prehistoric settlement of Great Britain and Ireland
*Redlegs
*Scots-Irish
*Scots-Quebecer
*Scottish American
*Scottish-Canadian
*Scottish national identity

Notes

References

*Ritchie, A. & Breeze, D.J. "Invaders of Scotland" HMSO. (?1991) ISBN-X
*David Armitage, "The Scottish Diaspora" in Jenny Wormald (ed.), "Scotland: A History." Oxford UP, Oxford, 2005. ISBN
*Scotchirish.net: "Pioneers". http://www.scotchirish.net/The%20Pioneers.php4

External links

* [http://collections.tepapa.govt.nz/exhibitions/thescots/ The Scots In New Zealand Exhibition Minisite from the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa]
*" [http://thescotsman.scotsman.com/index.cfm?id=1393742006 We're nearly all Celts under the skin] " by Ian Johnston for "The Scotsman Online"
*" [http://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk/content/help/index.aspx?r=1226 Discover your Scottish family history] " at the official government resource for Scottish Genealogy

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