Carnoustie


Carnoustie

infobox UK place
country = Scotland
official_name= Carnoustie
population= 10,561 (2001 census)
os_grid_reference= NO565346
latitude=56.501682
longitude=-2.707141
scots_name= Carnoustie
unitary_scotland= Angus
lieutenancy_scotland= Angus
constituency_westminster= Dundee East
constituency_scottish_parliament= Angus
constituency_scottish_parliament1= North East Scotland
post_town= CARNOUSTIE
postcode_district = DD7
postcode_area= DD
dial_code= 01241
static_

static_image_caption=Carnoustie High Street
london_distance= convert|367|mi|km|0|abbr=on SSE
edinburgh_distance=convert|42|mi|km|0|abbr=on SSW

Carnoustie (pronEng|kærnuːsti) is a town and former police burgh in the council area of Angus, Scotland. It is situated at the mouth of the Barry Burn on the east coast of Scotland. In the 2001 census, Carnoustie had a population of 10,561, making it the fourth largest town in Angus.

The town was founded in the late 18th century, and grew rapidly throughout the 19th century due to the expansion of the local textile industry. It was popular as a tourist resort from the early Victorian era up to the latter half of the 20th century, due to its seaside location. It is best known for its associations with golf.

Carnoustie can be considered a dormitory town for its closest city, Dundee, which is convert|11|mi|km|0 to the west. It is served by Carnoustie railway station, and less so by Golf Street railway station. Its nearest major road is the A92.

History

Toponymy

The origin of the name Carnoustie is uncertain, although it possibly derives from the Gaelic Càrn fheusta, meaning 'fort of the feast' [Johnston, J.B. (1903) Place Names of Scotland, David Douglas, Edinburgh] or Càrn ghiuthasaich, 'fort of the pines'.Fact|date=September 2008 It is also possible that it has an earlier Pictish origin, predating the gaelicisation of Angus. Pictish is thought to have been a Brythonic language and the prefix 'Car', meaning 'fort', is known from Welsh (eg. Carmarthen) and Cumbric (eg. Carlisle).

Folk etymology suggests that the name has a later, Anglic origin. The name is supposed to derive from the scots 'Craws Nestie', referring to the large number of crows that inhabit the area. This tradition is alluded to in the coat of arms of Carnoustie, which includes a pair of crows. [ [http://cjmvm.free.fr/scotland/nos_villes/carnoustie/herald.htm Coat of Arms of Carnoustie] , cjmvm.free.fr; retrieved 3 September 2008.]

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While it is a likely possibility is that the word 'Carnoustie' has a Gaelic origin, the town does not have an alternative Gaelic name. By the time the town was founded, that part of Angus was exclusively English-speaking,Trail, R. (1791) [http://www.monikie.org.uk/statisticalaccounts-panbride.htm First Statistical Accounts for Scotland, Parish of Panbride (County of Forfar)] , www.monikie.org.uk; retrieved 1 September 2008] and the town of Carnoustie has only ever been known by its present name.

Ultimately the origin of the name is unknown but predates the town itself by several hundred years. 'Carnussie' farm is recorded in the Balmerino Abbey register of c1575,Dickson, R. and Dickson, G.C. (1892), Carnoustie and its Neighbourhood. Pinkfoot Press, Balgavies, Angus.] which states that it (along with part of Grange of Barry and Badiehill) was feued to a man by the name of Fairny and 'Karnousty' farm can be seen on Pont's map of Lower Angus, c1583-96.Pont, T. (c1583-96) [http://www.nls.uk/maps/counties/detail.cfm?id=289 Lower Angus and Perthshire east of the Tay] , www.nls.uk; retrieved 2 September 2008] 'Carnushie' appears in a tax roll from Balmerino Abbey in 1617, [Taxt roll of the abbacye of Balmerinoch ilk pd free rent taxt to 1617 Appendix XII Liber sancte Marie de Balmorinach. In: The Chartularies of Balmerino and Lindores (facsimile 1861), Abbotsford Club Edinburgh ] and the lands of 'Carnouslie' are referred to in the title deeds confirming its purchase by George Maule, 2nd Earl of Panmure in 1672.Charles II (1672) [http://www.rps.ac.uk/search.php?action=fc&fn=charlesii_ms&id=id18588&query=&type=ms&variants=#m1672_6_142_d7_ms Ratification in favours of the earle of Panmuire] 12 June 1672 Parliamentary Register, Edinburgh, rps.ac.uk; retrieved 11 September 2008] Adair is perhaps the first to depict Carnoustie with the current spelling in 1703, [Adair, J (1703) [http://www.nls.uk/maps/coasts/chart.cfm?id=1034 The frith and river of Tay with all the rocks, sands, shoals, &c., survey'd by John Adair] www.nls.uk; retrieved 9 September 2008] while Roy's military survey of Scotland, 1747-55 has it as 'Cornisty'. [Roy, W. (1747-55) [http://geo.nls.uk/roy/ Military survey of Scotland] , www.nls.uk; retrieved 9 September 2008]

Early History

The area surrounding Carnoustie has been occupied continuously since the Mesolithic period, midden pits of that age having been found nearby at Broughty Ferry and Stannergate. [Mathewson, A. (1879) [http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/catalogue/adsdata/PSAS_2002/pdf/vol_013/13_303_315.pdf Notes on stone cists and an ancient kitchen midden] Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 13, 303-315] More tangible evidence for permanent settlements can be found from around the mid 4th century BC, for example in the Neolithic enclosures found at Douglasmuir near Friockheim. [Kendrick, J. (1995), [http://ads.ahds.ac.uk/catalogue/adsdata/PSAS_2002/pdf/vol_125/125_029_067.pdf Excavation of a Neolithic enclosure and an Iron Age settlement at Douglasmuir, Angus] . Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 125, 29-67. ahds.ac.uk; retrieved 6 September 2008] Numerous stones incised with cup and ring marks have also been found in the surrounding area. [Romilly Allen, J. (1882) [http://ads.ahds.ac.uk/catalogue/adsdata/PSAS_2002/pdf/vol_016/16_079_156.pdf Notes on some undescribed stones with cup-markings in Scotland] Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 16, 79-156. ahds.ac.uk; retrieved 17 September 2008]

Bronze age archaeology is also present in the area, including a beaker culture burial cairn excavated at Barnhill in the 19th century. A number of the cists disinterred yielded bronze daggers and one contained a pair of gold discs. [Hutcheson, A. (1887), [http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/catalogue/adsdata/PSAS_2002/pdf/vol_021/21_316_324.pdf Notice of a burial place of the bronze age at Barnhill, near Broughty Ferry.] , Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 21, 316-324. ahds.ac.uk; retrieved 6 September 2008] From the Iron age, perhaps the most prominent remains are of the Dundee Law Hill Fort, [Driscoll, S.T. (1995) [http://ads.ahds.ac.uk/catalogue/adsdata/PSAS_2002/pdf/vol_125/125_1091_1108.pdf Excavations on Dundee Law, 1993] , Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 125 1091-1108, ahds.co.uk; retrieved 6 September 2008] although domestic remains are also well represented. [Gibson, A. and Tavener, N. (1989) [http://ads.ahds.ac.uk/catalogue/adsdata/PSAS_2002/pdf/vol_119/119_083_089.pdf Excavations at Dundee High Technology Park, Tayside.] , Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 119 83-89, ahds.co.uk; retrieved 6 September 2008] Near to Carnoustie can be found the souterrains at Carlungie and Ardestie, which date from around the 1st or 2nd centuries AD. Several brochs are also found in the area, including the ruins at Drumsturdy [ [http://www.brand-dd.com/stones/other/drumsturdy.html Drumsturdy Broch] brand-dd.com; retrieved 6 September 2008] Feachem (1977) P 106.] and at Craighill. Roman remains are also found in the area. Particularly notable are the temporary marching camps at Kirkbuddo, [ [http://www.roman-britain.org/places/kirkbuddo.htm Kirkbuddo camp] , www.roman-britain.org; retrieved 3 September 2008.] Marcus and Finavon, [Halpin, E. (1992) [http://ads.ahds.ac.uk/catalogue/adsdata/PSAS_2002/pdf/vol_122/122_171_182.pdf The Roman temporary camps at Marcus and Finavon, Angus: excavations 1987] , Proceedings of the Antiquary Society of Scotland 122, 171-182. ahds.ac.uk; retrieved 6 September 2008.] and Roman coins have periodically been found nearby. [Bateson, J.D. and Holmes, N.M.McQ. (1997) [http://ads.ahds.ac.uk/catalogue/adsdata/PSAS_2002/pdf/vol_127/127_527_561.pdf Roman and medieval coins found in Scotland, 1988-95] , Procedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 127 527-561, ahds.co.uk; retrieved 6 September 2008]

Pictish remains are to be found in abundance in the surrounding area. Class I sculptured stones from Dunnichen, Aberlemno and Strathmartine can be seen in the McManus Galleries in Dundee. A class I stone can also be seen in situ at Aberlemno, and this stone appears to be a recycled neolithic stone, having cup and ring marks apparent on its side. Class II stones can be seen at Aberlemno and Glamis and a much-misinterpreted class III stone (known locally as the 'Camus Stone') can be found 4 miles North of Carnoustie at Camuston Hill on Panmure Estate. [http://www.monikie.org.uk/panmure2.htm The Camus Cross] , www.monikie.org.uk; retrieved 2 September 2008] Linked in misinterpretation with the Camus stone is the early Christian Pictish cemetery that was situated to the West of the Lochty burn, in the vicinity of the High Street.Dickson, R. (1878) [http://ads.ahds.ac.uk/catalogue/adsdata/PSAS_2002/pdf/vol_012/12_611_615.pdf Notice of the discovery of stone coffins at Carnoustie, Forfarshire] , Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 12, 611-615, ads.ahds.ac.uk; retrieved 2 September 2008.] [Coutts, H. (1971) [http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/catalogue/adsdata/PSAS_2002/pdf/vol_103/103_233_235.pdf Two long cists at the High Street, Carnoustie] , Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 103, 233-235, archaeologydataservice.ac.uk; retrieved 2 September.] The soil in this vicinity is sandy and was prone to wind erosion, and periodically human remains became exposed to the surface prior to the founding of the town. Popular interpretation was that a great battle had taken place at the site, giving rise to the legend of the Battle of Barry

The medieval period marks the earliest recorded history in the area. Arbroath Abbey was founded in 1178 and Dundee given its Royal Burgh status in 1191 by William the Lion. Closer to Carnoustie, a number of medieval mottes can be found, including at Old Downie, where the thanage can be traced to Duncan of Downie in 1254,Grant, A. (1998) Thanes and Thanages, from the eleventh to the fourteenth centuries. In [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=pC8njhobGxQC&pg=PA77&lpg=PA77&dq=royal+thanage+downie&source=web&ots=LOG-3SvHt6&sig=MAR9lPTUaqhKxaHReW2Ouxf_tdc&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result#PPP1,M1 Medieval Scotland, Crown, Lordship and community] , Grant, A. and Stringer, K.J. editors, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh] and at Grange of Barry, as well as the ruins of Panmure Castle where, it is said, William the Lion signed the Panmure charter granting the lands of Panmure to Philip de Valognes in 1172. [This exact date is perhaps dubious, as it comes from a source that has several errors: Edwards, R. (1678) Description of Angus, quoted in [http://www.monikie.org.uk/panmure5.htm Panmure House and vicinity] , monikie.org.uk; retrieved 8 September 2008] The original castle was destroyed at some point in the Second War of Independence, possibly in 1338. [Miller, D. (1860) [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=t50HAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA140&lpg=PA140&dq=panmure+castle&source=web&ots=3ZPo9P3VFF&sig=eEk4x6plub86HS5z2ulAxy8qfkU&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=3&ct=result#PPR1,M1 Arbroath and its abbey, or the early history of the town and abbey of Aberbrothock including notives of ecclesiastical and other antiquities in the surrounding district] Thomas G. Stevenson, Edinburgh]

The Parish of Barry was originally bestowed to the monks of Balmerino Abbey in Fife by Alexander II in 1230. The monks originally managed the lands from the Grange of Barry and latterly the land was controlled by the office of the Bailies of Barry, an early holder of this position being Sir Thomas Maule of Panmure in 1511.Campbell, J.A. (1867) [http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&id=aZELAAAAYAAJ&dq=history+of+balmerino+abbey&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=Mxb7Yik3Za&sig=3KUZPiy5FiigoTP1Mc5Uvtls1hI&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=2&ct=result#PPP5,M1 Balmerino and its abbey, a parochial history.] , William Patterson, Edinburgh. google books, retrieved 8 September 2008]

A number of feus were granted in the Parish around that time, including Ravensby in 1539, Gedhall to David Gardyne in 1541, half of Barry Links and Cowbyres to Walter Cant in 1545 and the other half of the links to Robert Forrester in 1552. A document from around this time details the rent charged for each of the farms in the area, and it is in this that we see the first mention of Carnoustie (albeit in a different spelling):

The two part of Grange of Barrie 10s. land of ye same 9 aikers of badihill. And toun and lands of Carnussie set to ffairny for 25 li. 2s. 24 capons 20 puld.

The land was annexed by the state in the Protestant reformation following an Act of Parliament in 1587 and the Bailiery of Barry was granted by James VI as a heritable gift to Patrick Maule in 1590. Ownership of the lands was granted by the King to James Elphinstone, Secretary of State in 1599 (ratified 1605), [James VI (1605) [http://www.rps.ac.uk/search.php?action=fc&fn=jamesvi_ms&id=id7193&query=&type=ms&variants=#m1605_6_123_d7_ms Ratificatioun in favouris of the Lord Balmirrenoch and his sone, James Elphingstoun, of thair infeftmentis of Ballumbie and Barntoun] , 7 June 1605 Parliamentary Register, Edinburgh/Perth. rps.ac.uk; retrieved 11 September 2008] and was sold to George Maule, 2nd Earl of Panmure in 1667 (ratified in 1672) for £746 13s 4d. The land was forfeited following James Maule, 4th Earl of Panmure's involvement the Jacobite Rebellion in 1715.

The first recorded owners of the Barony of Panbride was the Malherbe family who, it is thought, had possession of the land until 1309 when Robert I conferred the land to his Brother in Law, Alexander Fraser, Lord Chamberlain of Scotland. [ [http://www.burkes-peerage.net/articles/scotland/page31e.aspx Burkes Peerage] ; retrieved 8 September 2008] Jervise, A. (1853) [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=dZ0HAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA303&lpg=PA303&dq=barony+of+panbride&source=web&ots=zn18JI-zZJ&sig=1jps2jtWXIXEAtJs_yw3WBItiws&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=3&ct=result#PPP9,M1 The history and traditions of the land of the Lindsays in Angus and Mearnes, with notices of Alyth and Meigle] , Sutherland & Knox, Edinburgh] . Fraser died at the Battle of Dupplin Moor in 1332 and it is thought that David II conferred the barony (at least in part) to the Boyce family in 1341.

The lands of Panbride were fragmented and passed through a number of hands from that point, and were gradually acquired by the Carnegie family, later to become the Earls of Northesk, in the 16th century. The lands were forfeited following the Jacobite rebellion but were bought back by James Carnegie in 1764. Carnegie used the lands to purchase lands near his main estate and the barony of Panbride passed to William Maule, linking Panbride with Panmure.

The origin of the town

While it took until the early 19th century for Carnoustie to be formerly named as a town, the Barry Parish register attests to a small but thriving community based largely on linen weaving existing on the land that became Carnoustie at least from the early 18th century (before then, the place of residence is not listed in the records). Around a fifth of the births registered in the parish in the mid-18th century are listed as being in the Carnoustie estate, which would put the population at that time at around 150 - 200.

The stimulus that triggered the birth of the town was undoubtedly the sudden increase in demand for linen from around 1760, caused by the population explosion of the mid-18th century.Smout, T.C. (1969) A history of the Scottish People 1560 - 1830. Fontana Press, London.] Handloom weaving was a relatively easy trade to learn and, at that time, a fairly prosperous career. In 1792 on his return from India, Major William Phillips, former valet to the Earl of Panmure, purchased Carnoustie estate from Baillie Milne of Woodhill for £5,000. Phillips most likely recognised the potential of the local industry when he offered portions of the land for feu in 1797.

The first person to take up a feu was Thomas Lowson, a local loom wright, who rented two acres of land near the new road that had been recently been marked out by David Gardyne of Ravensby. Over the next few years, more and more people settled in the immediate area The venture proved profitable and Phillips sold the property in 1808 to George Kinloch for £11,000.

Kinloch promoted the further growth of the village, setting up brickworks and granting loans to prospective feuers to allow them to settle and, by the mid-19th century, the population of the town had risen to more than a thousand.Lewis, S. (1846), [http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=43425#s56 A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland, 'Cabrach-Carnoustie'] , www.british-history.ac.uk; retrieved 1 September 2008] For many years, the village was known simply as 'The Feus'. Perhaps the first cartographic depiction of the town is from a French Maritime chart of 1803, where the village is shown as 'Feux', [Depot Generale de la Marine (1803) [http://www.nls.uk/maps/coasts/chart.cfm?id=858 Carte particuliere de la cote orientale d'Ecosse, depuis St Abb's Head jusqu'a Duncansby Head.] , www.nls.uk, retrieved 9 September 2008] while Thomson's 1832 map of the area shows 'The Feus' as being a number of properties, largely concentrated in the area to the west of the Lochty burn. [ [http://www.nls.uk/maps/early/516.html John Thomson's Atlas of Scotland, 1832] , www.nls.uk; retrieved 19 October 2007]

Industrial History

The handloom linen weaving industry dominated Carnoustie's economy through its early years. Flax was grown in considerable quantities in the area and supplemented imports from Riga and St Petersburg. The predominant occupation listed in the 1841 census and 1843 statistical account for Barry Parish is that of 'Linen Hand Loom Weaver'.Lumsden, J. (1843) [http://www.monikie.org.uk/statisticalaccounts-barry.htm Second Statistical Accounts for Scotland, Parish of Barrie, Presbytery of Arbroath, Synod of Angus and Mearns] , www.monikie.org.uk; retrieved 1 September 2008] The expansion in the linen industry supported a population increase in the Barry Parish from 796 in 1791 to 2,124 by the time of the 1841 census.

Aside from the linen industry, the economy rested mainly on agriculture and fishing. Major crops of that period were of potatoes, wheat, barley, oats, peas, turnips, and clover (used as animal feed as well as for soil improvement in rotation with other crops); much of which was sold on to markets in local towns. Cattle were raised for export to England. Salmon were caught in the salmon nets on Carnoustie beach, and the small fishing fleets of Westhaven and Easthaven caught cod for export and haddock which was largely destined for Dundee and Forfar. Lobsters were caught for live export to London and crabs were caught for local use.Trail, D. (1833) [http://www.monikie.org.uk/statisticalaccounts-panbride.htm Second Statistical Accounts for Scotland, Parish of Panbride (Presbytery of Arbroath, Synod of Angus and Mearns)] , www.monikie.org.uk; retrieved 1 September 2008]

The arrival of the Dundee and Arbroath Railway in 1838 encouraged major industrial growth in the town and shortly after, the Vitriol Works opened near the railway line, on ground to the west of the town, producing sulphuric acid used largely in the production of agricultural fertiliser. The Panbride Bleachfield, at which linen from the expanding local industry was bleached was opened by John Dickson in the early 1840s adjacent to the railway near the mouth of the Craigmill burnThompson, A.L. (1998). Carnoustie in old picture postcards. European Library, Zaltbommel, Netherlands] on land which is now occupied by David Murray Transport. [ [http://www.davidmurraytrans.co.uk/about.htm David Murray Transport] , www.davidmurraytrans.co.uk; retrieved 4 September 2008] This was supplied with water from the burn via the ponds that can now be seen in the grounds of Panbride House, now the location of the Liz McColgan Health Club. [ [http://www.lizmccolgan.co.uk/ Liz McColgan Health Club] , www.lizmccolgan.co.uk; retrieved 4 September 2008]

John Winter opened a shop near The Cross. His business grew such that he built a large factory in 1874 at the foot of East Path (now Park Avenue/Queen Street), employing 200 people and producing 2000 pairs of shoes and boots a week. His son, George, took over the business and built the impressive mansion, Winterdyne, that overlooks Carnoustie House Grounds at the top of Queen Street. [ [http://www.angus.gov.uk/history/features/buildings/winterdyne.htm The Winter family and Winterdyne, Queens Street, Carnoustie] , www.angus.gov.uk; retrieved 22 October 2007] Production ceased in 1958, and the Lousen Park sheltered housing complex was subsequently built at the site.

The linen industry in Carnoustie was modernised in 1857 with the opening of The Panmure Works by James Smieton. This factory, which at its height employed 600 employees, was a state-of-the-art facility containing 400 modern power looms and produced six million yards of linen and jute annually. Smieton also built new housing on a number of streets in the surrounding area for his employees and, in 1865, he opened the Panmure Works Institute on Kinloch Street which provided a library, billiard room and a hall for the education and recreation of his workers. The firm went through several changes of ownership through its history and was owned by WG Grant & Co Ltd from 1932 until 1972 when it went into liquidation. [ [http://www.dundee.ac.uk/archives/ms047.htm WG Grant & Co Ltd, Linen Manufacturers, Panmure Works, Carnoustie] , www.dundee.ac.uk; retrieved 22 October 2007]

The smaller Taymouth Linen works were opened in 1867 to the west of Panmure Works and the Vitriol Works, and at its height contained 100 power looms. Again, additional housing was built by the owners, the Brodies, including Taymouth Terrace.

Development as a dormitory town

In addition to bringing industry to Carnoustie, the opening of the railway also made the town appealing to the middle classes, who used it as a commuter town for Dundee, further boosting population growth in the town. This trend has continued to the present day to the point where nearly half of the employed population now commute to Dundee for work.General Register Office for Scotland, Occasional Paper. [http://www.gro-scotland.gov.uk/statistics/publications-and-data/occpapers/scotlands-census-2001-statistics-on-travel-to-work-or-study/where-workers-and-students-in-the-four-largest-cities-lived.html Scotland's Census 2001 - Statistics on Travel to Work or Study. Where workers and students in the four largest cities lived] , www.gro-scotland.gov.uk; retrieved 4 September 2008]

Tourism and Recreation in Carnoustie

Trips to seaside resorts became a fashionable recreation towards the beginning of the 19th century, influenced by the Royal Family, the most famous example being the Prince Regent's patronage of Brighton. [Thompson, F.M.L. (1993) Town and City. The Cambridge Social History of Britain, 1750-1950. Vol 1. Regions and communities. Ed. Thompson, F.M.L. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.] Carnoustie had profited from this to some extent in its early years, but the arrival of the railway made improved access to the town. Carnoustie, as a popular tourist destination was, along with other Scottish resorts, popularly promoted as the 'Brighton of the North' in the early 20th Century. [ [http://www.angus.gov.uk/history/features/featcarn.htm Carnoustie, Brighton of the North] , www.angus.gov.uk; retrieved 1 September 2008] [ [http://www.teetimescotland.com/teetime/history.php?historyid=71 TeeTime Scotland: Scottish Golf History] , www.teetimescotland.com; retrieved 3 September 2008]

While golf has been played on Barry links since the 16th century a formal 10 hole golf course was laid out in 1850 to the design of Alan Robertson of St Andrews. This was later improved in 1867 by Old Tom Morris, who added a further 8 holes. [http://www.carnoustiegolflinks.co.uk/?page_id=96 History] , Carnoustie Golf Links, www.carnoustiegolflinks.co.uk; retrieved 16 September 2008] In 1891, Arthur George Maule Ramsey, 14th Earl of Dalhousie, sold the links to the town on condition that they would be maintained for all time as a golf course. A three day bazaar was held at the Kinnaird Hall in Dundee, which raised the funds for the purchase and secured the future of the links for golfing and leisure. [http://www.carnoustiecaledonia.co.uk/history_of_the_links.htm History of the Links] , www.carnoustiecaledonia.co.uk, retrieved 16 September 2008]

Tourism in Carnoustie began to decline in the latter half of the 20th century, largely due to the increased availability of package tours to warmer parts of the world. [http://www.angus.gov.uk/history/features/2004-05-carnoustiehistory.htm Carnoustie - A Brief Look At Carnoustie To The Early 20th Century] , www.angus.gov.uk; retrieved 1 September 2008] This trend has recently reversed somewhat with the increase in golf tourism.

Governance

Carnoustie is represented within Angus Council by the Carnoustie & District ward, from which three councillors are elected. The members elected from this ward are, as of 2008; Helen Oswald (Scottish National Party), Peter Murphy (Labour Party) and Ralph Palmer (Scottish National Party). [ [http://www.angus.gov.uk/councillorinfo/viewWard.cfm?w=5 Councillor Information - Carnoustie & District] , www.angus.gov.uk; retrieved 3 September 2008]

The town is part of the Dundee East constituency of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which returns a Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons, at Westminster. The constituency's MP is currently Stewart Hosie of the Scottish National Party.

Carnoustie is also part of the Angus constituency of the Scottish Parliament, which has significantly different boundaries to the Westminster constituency. The constituency returns a Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) to Holyrood directly, and is part of the North East Scotland electoral region with regards to additional Members of the Scottish Parliament. The constituency's MSP is currently Andrew Welsh of the Scottish National Party.

Geography

Carnoustie occupies a seafront position on the North Sea Coast of Scotland, on land immediately to the North East of the Buddon Ness, 10 miles (17 km) ENE of Dundee, 7 miles (11 km) SW of Arbroath and 12 miles (19 km) SSE of Forfar. The town lies 42 miles (68 km) NNE of Edinburgh and 367 miles (590 km) NNW of London. The built-up area occupies a roughly rectangular shape 1.9 miles (3.1 km) long by 0.5 miles (0.9 km) wide, aligned in a ENE direction. The land is relatively flat, rising gradually to around 30 m elevation to the North of the town.

The town straddles the border between the Parishes of Barry and Panbride and incorporates a number of former villages and Hamlets, including Greenlawhill, Gardynebourg and Hunterstown to the West, and Gallowlaw, Panbride and Westhaven to the East. Contiguous to the town, on the West side, is the village of Barry, and to the East, separated from the town by 250 yds (0.22 km) is the hamlet formerly known as Kirkton of Panbride (now known simply as Panbride). To the North of the town runs the A92, between Dundee and Arbroath. 1 mile (1.9 km) to the East of the town lies the village of East Haven. Running through the town on the border of the two parishes is a small stream, the Lochty burn, and to the Western edge of the town, runs the Barry Burn. The South-Western corner of the town lies within the floodplain of the Barry Burn. [ [http://www.multimap.com/clients/browse.cgi?X=354000&Y=734000&width=550&height=450&client=sepa&gride=354431&gridn=734063&scale=25000&coordsys=gb&nosn
] www.sepa.org.uk; retrieved 5 September 2008
] Half a mile (0.8 km) to the East of the town runs the Craig Mill burn, which flows through Batty's Den, into Craig Mill Den, to the sea.

The Dundee and Arbroath Railway runs along the South of the town, bisecting the former villages of Gallowlaw and Westhaven to the East of the Lochty burn. The A930 runs through the town from Barry, and is named Barry Road, Dundee Street, and High Street, as it runs from West to East. It turns sharply North at Gallowlaw, where it is named Carlogie road, and carves a path through Batty's Den to Muirdrum, where it meets with the A92.

The part of the coast that lies to the East of the Lochty burn is a rocky shore, where the Devonian Old Red Sandstone bedrock is exposed. To the West, lies the sandy beach of Barry Sands (otherwise known as Carnoustie Beach). The soil is sandy and, prior to the founding of the town, the land resembled the sandy dunes of Barry Links. To the West of the Lochty burn, the shore is increasingly separated by the peninsula of the Buddon Ness, on which lies the three golf courses of Carnoustie Golf Links, and Panmure Golf Club. To the South of the golf courses lies the Ministry of Defence owned Barry Buddon training camp. This land is classified as a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Special Area of Conservation. [ [http://gateway.snh.gov.uk/portal/page?_pageid=53,910305,53_910314&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL&PA_CODE=154&NEW_WINDOW=false Scottish Natural Heritage Sitelink site Details, Barry Links, Site of Special Scientific Interest] snh.gov.uk; retrieved 5 September 2008] [ [http://gateway.snh.gov.uk/portal/page?_pageid=53,910305,53_910314&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL&PA_CODE=8196&NEW_WINDOW=false Scottish Natural Heritage Sitelink site Details, Barry Links, Special Area of Conservation] snh.gov.uk; retrieved 5 September 2008]

The Buddon Ness is a triangle of land around 11 km2. [http://www.jncc.gov.uk/pdf/gcrdb/GCRsiteaccount1440.pdf Hansom, J.D. (2007) Barry Links.] Geological Conservation Review 28: Coastal Geomorphology of Great Britain. Chapter 7: Sandy beaches and Dunes.] Its position at the estury of the River Tay makes it prone to erosion, and the position of both the West and East facing shores have changed considerably since the founding of Carnoustie. Comparison of Ordnance Survey maps from the mid-19th century with present day maps show the shoreline retreating on the West shore and advancing on the East shore. This is supported by comparison of old photographs of Carnoustie links with the present day situation in which the foreshore is now much further from the Beach Pavilion (now the Rugby Club) than it was 80 years ago. When writing in 1874, Dickson stated that some residents of Carnoustie could still remember the high tide mark beyond where the railway line is now situated, and that Thomas Lowson used to throw seaweed onto his garden directly from the high tide mark. The concern latterly has been of the shoreline eroding from this part of the beach and rock armour was placed at the shoreline in 1994.

The climate is typical for the East Coast of Scotland, although the weather can be locally influenced by sea mist, locally known as haar.

Demography

The 2001 census gives Carnoustie's total resident population as 10,561. This makes it the fourth largest town in Angus, after Arbroath (22,785), Forfar (13,206) and Montrose (10,845). [http://www.scrol.gov.uk/scrol/browser/profile.jsp?profile=Population&mainArea=carnoustie&mainLevel=Locality Comparative Population Profile: Carnoustie Locality] Scotland's Census Results Online (29 April 2001), www.scrol.gov.uk; retrieved 1 September 2008] This ranking is likely to change in the near future, as the population of Carnoustie is rising (2006 est. 10,630) while the population of Montrose is falling (2006 est. 10,830). [http://www.gro-scotland.gov.uk/statistics/publications-and-data General Register Office for Scotland - Statistics, Publications and Data] , www.gro-scotland.gov.uk; retrieved 2 September 2008]

The demographic breakdown of these figures closely follows that of the rest of Scotland. Males make up 48% of the population and females, 52%. Under-16s account for 18.9% of the population, people of pensionable age, 19.4%, and people of working age make up 61.7%.

88.2% of the population were born in Scotland and 8.0% in England, with people from the rest of the United Kingdom making up 0.8%. 0.3% were from the Republic of Ireland, 0.8% from elsewhere in Europe and 1.9% from outside of Europe. Slightly less than 0.5% of the population speak Gaelic.

84% of the working-age population were economically active, 2.7% were unemployed. [ [http://www.scrol.gov.uk/scrol/browser/profile.jsp?profile=Population&mainArea=carnoustie&mainLevel=Locality Scotland's Census Results Online] www.scrol.gov.uk; retrieved 4 September 2008]

Economy

The economy of Carnoustie relies to a large extent on its proximity to Dundee. In the 2001 census, 2,267 people reported commuting to Dundee for work, making up 41.4% of the economically active, working-age population.

Golf is a major tourist draw to the town, and it is estimated that the recent Open Championship contributed £14 million to the local economy. Television coverage during the event was estimated to be worth the equivalent of £34 million in advertising value, half of which was in North America. [ [http://www.sportbusiness.com/news/166259/golf-s-open-championship-boosts-economic-growth Golf’s Open Championship boosts economic growth] . sportbusiness.com 26 February 2008; retrieved 10 September 2008] The 'Carnoustie Country' golf marketing campaign is funded and promoted by Angus Council to promote the area for golfing tourism in the area. [ [http://www.carnoustiecountry.com/home/home.asp Carnoustie Country] carnoustiecountry.com; retrieved 10 September 2008]

Landmarks

s. [Historic Scotland (1971) [http://hsewsf.sedsh.gov.uk/hslive/hsstart?P_HBNUM=4649 Category B Listing, Upper Mill, Barry Parish] , sedsh.gov.uk; retrieved 16 September 2008] [Historic Scotland (1971) [http://hsewsf.sedsh.gov.uk/hslive/hsstart?P_HBNUM=4650 Category B Listing, Upper Mill Bridge over Pitairlie Burn, Barry Parish] , sedsh.gov.uk; retrieved 16 September 2008]

Much of the Western part of Carnoustie is post-war. The main road in this part of the town is known as 'Barry Road' and towards its Eastern end there are a group of weavers cottages that predate the expansion of the town and formerly belonged to the hamlet of Hunterstown. Leading South from here, is Panmure Street, which leads to the Panmure Institute and, behind it, the Panmure Works. The Panmure Institute is now known as the Panmure Centre and owned by Angus Council for their Community Learning and Development Centre. The factory building was restored in the late 1990s and now houses the building firm DJ Laing. [ [http://www.djlaing.co.uk/index.html DJ Laing] www.djlaing.co.uk; retrieved 4 September 2008] . At the end of Barry Road, the road diverts to the North slightly at the Corner Hotel, before continuing eastwards along Dundee Street. This corner, formerly known as Hutton's corner, is where a rocky outcrop blocked the path of the plough when the road was originally marked out in the 18th century.

Heading Eastward along Dundee Street, on the corner with Camus Street, is the Stag's Head inn. The Stag's Head, as might be expected, has a mounted Stag's Head on wall of the bar, but what perhaps makes it notable is the plaque claiming the pub as the site of Billy Connolly's first public appearance while based at Barry Buddon training camp during his Territorial Army career.

The road heading North on the opposite side of Dundee Street is 'West Path'. Its name comes from the fact it was the path that lead down to the main road from the Western boundary of the grounds of Carnoustie House. Carnoustie House was built by Major William Philips in 1792 and bought by George Kinloch in 1808. It passed to Kinloch's daughter, Cecilia Kinloch who, in turn, passed it to her niece, Helen Lingard-Guthrie. The House and lands were bought by the Council in the first half of the 20th century [McDougal, E. (c1958), [http://www.carnoustie-online.net/archive/pages.php?id=2 Essay on Carnoustie past and present] , Arbroath High School, carnoustie-online.net; retrieved 9 September 2008] and the house was demolished following a fire around 40 years ago. Carnoustie House Grounds is now used as a park and is where the annual town Gala is held. Part of the land is now occupied by Woodside Primary School and the town recycling centre.

Continuing Eastwards along Dundee Street from the foot of West Path, on the North side of the road is the small former St Annes Roman Catholic Church. On the South side of the Road, are the large grounds of Kinloch Primary, opened in 1878 as Carnoustie Public School. The land is due to be re-developed at the end of 2008 following the completion of renovation work at Carlogie Primary School, whose pupils are currently housed at Kinloch.

Opposite the main part of the school is the former Erskine Free Church [For a photograph of the building in its former state, see Wilson, A (photographer) (c1900) [http://www.dundeecity.gov.uk/photodb/wc2351.htm Carnoustie, Erskine Church] , dundeecity.gov.uk; retrieved 10 September 2008] , which has been through a number of hands since it was sold off in the early 20th century and now houses All Stars sports bar and beyond the school, heading south towards the beach is Links Avenue. On the left hand side of Links Avenue can be found the Scout Hut which, despite appearances, is the oldest school building in Carnoustie. The street passes through a narrow tunnel under the railway line to Links Parade near to Carnoustie Hotel, which was built in anticipation of the 1999 Open Championship and houses the worlds largest Rolex clock. [ [http://www.go-golf.net/news/yeartodate/news99/carnoustie.html World's biggest clock is the tock of Carnoustie Golf Course Hotel] , go-golf.net; retrieved 16 September 2008] Beyond the hotel lie the three golf courses of Carnoustie Golf Links.

Past Links Avenue on the North side of Dundee Street Carnoustie Church, which never received its steeple and, a little further past that, is the 'Auld Nick' which originally housed Carnoustie's police station. The War Memorial lies adjacent to the Auld Nick and was dedicated in 1926. It features a sculpture of the Unknown Soldier by Thomas Beattie.

On the opposite side of the road from the Auld Nick is Ferrier Street and a little way down on the right hand side can be seen Thomas Lowson's Dibble Tree. Opposite the Dibble tree is Kinloch Street and, about 100 meters down that street on the North Side, is the Erskine United Free Church, the oldest church building in Carnoustie, built in 1810.

congregation during the early summer missions, Rev. Roger Lingard.Bertie, D.M. (2001) [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Ceey5RQHgHoC&pg=PA551&lpg=PA551&dq=kinloch+holyrood+church+carnoustie&source=web&ots=dTmJC5Fvpa&sig=bGnXLgdknTj14GUPTqaeSCSAc3E&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=7&ct=result Scottish Episcopal Clergy, 1689-2000] , Continuum Publishing Group, London. books.google.co.uk; retrieved 9 September 2008]

At the Eastern-most end of High Street, the main road becomes Church Street, with Station Road heading south towards the main railway station and the adjacent Station Hotel, built in 1840. Opposite Station Road is the old City of Glasgow Bank building built in 1870 in Italian style architecture and until recently housed the Clydesdale Bank. It is presently being developed into private accommodation. Church Street continues Eastwards and at one time lead all the way to Newton of Panbride church in the former village of Gallowlaw. The junction with Carlogie Road was realigned some years ago and the part of Church Street East of Carlogie Road renamed Arbroath Road. Past the Church, on the South side of the road, a road bridge leads to the former fishing village of West Haven, which predates Carnoustie by several centuries.

To the East of the town, in Panbride, is Panbride Parish Kirk. The building itself is category C(s) listed, [Historic Scotland (1971) [http://hsewsf.sedsh.gov.uk/hslive/hsstart?P_HBNUM=18434 Category C(S) Listing, Panbride Parish Kirk, Panbride Parish] , sedsh.gov.uk; retrieved 16 September 2008] although its Burial aisle and the nearby Parish school are both Category B listed [Historic Scotland (1971) [http://hsewsf.sedsh.gov.uk/hslive/hsstart?P_HBNUM=18435 Category B Listing, Panbride Burial Aisle, Panbride Parish] , sedsh.gov.uk; retrieved 16 September 2008] [Historic Scotland (1971) [http://hsewsf.sedsh.gov.uk/hslive/hsstart?P_HBNUM=18437 Category B Listing, Parish School House, Panbride Parish] , sedsh.gov.uk; retrieved 16 September 2008] The 'Loupin' on Stane' a series of steps in the church courtyard that allowed churchgoers to mount their horses in a dignified manner have category B listing, [Historic Scotland (1971) [http://hsewsf.sedsh.gov.uk/hslive/hsstart?P_HBNUM=18436 Category B Listing, Loupin'-on-stane, Parish Kirk, Courtyard, Panbride Parish] , sedsh.gov.uk; retrieved 16 September 2008] as does the bridge over the Craigmill burn at the bottom of the hill. [Historic Scotland (1971) [http://hsewsf.sedsh.gov.uk/hslive/hsstart?P_HBNUM=19879 Category B Listing, Craigmill Bridge over Craigmill Burn, Panbride Parish] , sedsh.gov.uk; retrieved 16 September 2008] At the southern end of Craigmill Den, Panbride House has Category B listing, [Historic Scotland (1971) [http://hsewsf.sedsh.gov.uk/hslive/hsstart?P_HBNUM=18422 Category B Listing, Panbride House, Panbride Parish] , sedsh.gov.uk; retrieved 16 September 2008] as does the associated stables. [Historic Scotland (1980) [http://hsewsf.sedsh.gov.uk/hslive/hsstart?P_HBNUM=18423 Category B Listing, Panbride House-Stables, Panbride Parish] , sedsh.gov.uk; retrieved 16 September 2008]

Transport

The A92 runs between Arbroath and Dundee about 1 km to the North of Carnoustie. There are several ways to reach the A92, including the main routes that run between the Upper Victoria junction and between the A930, Carlogie road and Muirdrum junction. It is also possible to reach the West-bound carriageway of the A92 via Balmachy Road and the Grange of Barry Road.

East Haven, Angus can be reached via a narrow, unclassified road running past the old Panbride Bleachfield from West Haven. East Haven links to the A92 at the Salmond's Muir junction by a road that runs via Scryne and Hatton. Panbride village links to this road at Scryne via Craig Mill Den. At the West end of Carnoustie, the A930 now bypasses Barry village and links with Monifieth via Conchie's Corner at West Cotside.

Trains are operated by First ScotRail on the Edinburgh to Aberdeen line. They stop at Carnoustie Station on an approximately hourly basis. Two trains a day stop at Golf Street station (0638 West-bound and 1910 East-bound) and two at Barry Links (06:41 West-bound and 18:52 East-bound). As a result, Golf Street and Barry Links are two of the least used stations in the UK. [Office of Rail Regulation [http://www.rail-reg.gov.uk/upload/xls/station-usage-2006-07.xls Station usage (excel spreadsheet)] rail-reg.gov.uk; retrieved 11 September 2008]

Buses are operated by Stagecoach on their Arbroath-Dundee route, including the number 73 and 73A buses, and the number 39A (early weekday mornings, evenings and on Sundays). They operate on a regular basis, with most stopping at bus stops on the main A930 road between Muirdrum, Carlogie Road, Church Street, High Street, Dundee Street, Barry Road and Barry village. A handful of buses also serve Easthaven and take alternate routes through Carnoustie. Stagecoach buses provide timetables online. [Stagecoach (2008) [http://www.stagecoachbus.com/timetables/73A5_18082008 [1] .pdf 73 tayway bustimes Arbroath Carnoustie Monifieth Dundee Ninewells] stagecoachbus.com; retrieved 11 September 2008]

Education

History of Education in Carnoustie

Prior to the Education (Scotland) Act 1872, the provision of schools in Scotland was the responsibility of the parish. The Education Act of 1696 allowed churches to set up schools, funded mainly by the landowner.

At the start of the 1870s, each church in Carnoustie had its own school. Some of these can still be seen today, in the former primary schools of Barry and Panbride, which were at that point the schools of Panbride Parish Church and Barry Free Church, and the Phillip Hall on Dundee Street, which was the school connected with The Erskine Free Church.

These were supplemented with a number of private subscription schools, including a school in Links Avenue, opened in 1831, that now houses the local Scout GroupOrdnance Survey (1858) [http://www.nls.uk/maps/os/6inch/forfarshire.html Six inch maps of Scotland, Forfarshire, sheet LI] ; retrieved 3 September 2008] and a school off Maule Street that is now used as Holyrood Church's Hall. These were both victims of the success of Carnoustie Free Church school and were abandoned. More successful were the school linked to Panmure Works and a private Girls School in Kinloch Street, but these too were made redundant by the 1872 act.

Carnoustie Public School was built in 1878 near the Free Church school on Dundee Street. It was extended several times before the secondary school pupils were decanted to the new Carnoustie High School building in Shanwell Road. The old school was renamed Kinloch Primary School, and continued until 2006, when it and Barry and Panbride Primary Schools were closed as part of the reorganisation of schools in the area.

chools in Carnoustie Today

[http://www.carlogie.angus.sch.uk/ Carlogie Primary School] was opened in the mid-1970s in the new Caesar Avenue/Linefield Road housing estate and its current catchment area is all of Carnoustie East of Queen Street and the pupils from the surrounding rural area that was formerly served by Panbride Primary School, including Panbride, East Haven, Hatton, Muirdrum, Auchrennie, Pitlivie and Salmond's Muir. The school's pupils are currently housed at the former Kinloch Primary School while Carlogie's buildings are undergoing extensive refurbishment.

[http://www.woodlands.angus.sch.uk/ Woodlands Primary School] is a recently completed building in the former caravan park in Carnoustie House Grounds. Its catchment area is the central part of Carnoustie between Burnside Street and Queen Street, plus the rural area north of the town, incorporating Clayholes, Balmachie, Pitskelly, Upper Victoria and Heugh-Head.

[http://www.burnside.angus.sch.uk/ Burnside Primary School] is another recently completed building in Thomas Street on land that formerly was used as football pitches. Its catchment area includes the remaining part of Carnoustie and the former rural catchment of Barry Primary, including Barry, Cotside, Balhungie, Ardestie, Woodhill, Grange of Barry and Mains of Ravensby.

[http://www.carnoustiehigh.angus.sch.uk/ Carnoustie High School] is situated on Shanwell Road and takes all secondary pupils from Carnoustie and the surrounding rural area, including former pupils of Carlogie, Woodlands, Burnside, Kinloch, Panbride, Barry, Newbigging and Monikie Primary Schools. It is currently undergoing extensive rebuilding.

Religion

History of religion in Carnoustie

in 1851.

Barry Parish was founded in 1230 when Alexander II bequeathed the land to Balmerino Abbey. The earliest record of a church at Barry is from 1243 when the parish church was consecrated by David de Bernham, Bishop of St Andrews (1238-1252). The building that was Barry Parish Church up until the 1950s was built in 1800 on the site of an earlier building that was described as being "old and sorry". All that remains of Barry Parish Church now is the lower portion of its walls and its kirkyard. [http://www.barryparish.org.uk/content.php?folder_id=5 Barry Church History] , www.barryparish.org.uk; retrieved 1 September 2008]

The first two churches within the town of Carnoustie were built in 1810 by two rival branches of the Secession Church, which had split from the Established Church in 1733 over the issue of patronage. The Anti-Burghers demolished the church they had built in 1789 near Grange of Barry Farm to rebuild it nearer the expanding village of Carnoustie. The 'Red Kirk', as it was known, was situated at Rye Park, where Thistle Street now stands. The Burghers, built their church the same year in Kinloch Street. This church later went through a series of Unions with other churches, becoming part of the United Original Secession Church in 1822 and the Free Church in 1852.

Barry Parish Church proved insufficient to house the rapidly expanding population of the parish and the refusal of the Heritors to fund its enlargement led to the building of Carnoustie church in 1837. This building was situated on the south side of Dundee street at the site on which now stands the Army and Air Cadets building.

was set up at the East end of Barry, and was replaced by a larger building in 1888, which continues as Barry Church today. The Free Church took over Carnoustie Church, and eventually built a second church immediately adjacent to it in 1850 when the Established Church claimed ownership of the building. This new building was later to become known as St Stephen's church. The school associated with the new Free Church, The Philip Hall, is still in existence and is now used by Carnoustie Church as their church hall. [http://www.carnoustiechurch.org.uk/ Carnoustie Church] , www.carnoustiechurch.org.uk; retrieved 5 September 2008] In 1854, the part of the congregation of Panbride Church that had joined the Free Church built what became Newton Church at Gallowlaw after several years of being housed in a wooden building on Westhaven Farm. The building was damaged by fire in 1887 and rebuilt to a larger design.

In 1873, the congregation of the Red Kirk, which had now become part of The United Presbyterian Church, again demolished their church and, in part, used the material to build The Erskine Church on the North side of Dundee Street. This, along with St Stevens Free Church, the Free Church in Kinloch Street, Barry Free Church and Newton of Panbride Church became part of the United Free Church when the United Presbyterians and Free Church merged in 1900.

The Scottish Episcopal Church traces its history in Carnoustie to 1853 when it began meeting in an old Schoolhouse off Maule Street. It was formed into a congregation in 1877, which rapidly outgrew its premises, leading to the building of The Church of The Holyrood in 1881, the former building becoming the church hall. The church building was graded as a Category B listed building in 1971. [ [http://hsewsf.sedsh.gov.uk/hslive/hsstart?P_HBNUM=22968 Listed Building Report, Holyrood Episcopal Church] , hsewsf.sedsh.gov.uk; retrieved 5 September 2008]

In 1901, the established Church of Scotland built a new church, St Brides Chapel, on Carlogie Road for the burghal part of Panbride parish. This building became redundant as a place of worship in 1929 when the congregations of the Free church and Established church united, and it served for a while as the Church hall, until it was sold to the Boys Brigade. Carnoustie Church built its new, larger church in 1902, opposite its former site. This building continues today to house the congregation of Carnoustie Church. The congregations of Carnoustie Church and St Stephen's merged in 1969, with St Stephen's being demolished to make way for the new Health Centre.

On unification of the United Free Church with the Established Church in 1929, St Stephens and The Erskine Church's congregations merged, using St Stephen's as a home. The Erskine Church was sold, and since then has variously been a cinema, snooker club and pub. Those that did not agree with reunification with the Established Church formed a congregation as part of The United Free Church (Continuing), first finding a home in the YMCA building, later buying the Original Secession Church in Kinloch Street in 1934. [http://www.ufcos.org.uk/direct5a.htm United Free Church of Scotland] , www.ufcos.org.uk; retrieved 1 September 2008] The two churches in Barry finally completed their move to the former Free Church site in the 1950s.

The congregations of Panbride Church and Newton of Panbride Church united in 1956 and those of Carnoustie Church and Barry Church in 2003.

Religion in Carnoustie today

today has two congregations that meet in Carnoustie. One gathers at Carnoustie Church and Barry Church on alternate months. The minister is Rev. Michael Goss. Carnoustie Panbride church meet at Newton Church during Winter months and Panbride in the Summer. The minister is Rev. Matthew Bicket [http://www.carnoustiepanbride.co.uk/ Carnoustie Panbride Church, Church of Scotland] , www.carnoustiepanbride.co.uk/; retrieved 5 September 2008]

The Episcopalian congregation continues to meet at Holyrood church on the corner of Maule Street and Holyrood Street. The church is part of the Anglican Diocese of Brechin. Services are currently led by an interim pastor, Rev. John Cuthbert. [ [http://www.thedioceseofbrechin.org/ The Diocese of Brechin, Part of the Scottish Episcopal Church] , www.thedioceseofbrechin.org; retrieved 5 September 2008] Holyrood church and Holy Trinity Church in Monifieth are currently in discussions about becoming a linked charge. [ [http://www.holytrinitymonifieth.org/index.html Holy Trinity Church, Moniefieth] , holytrinitymonifieth.org; retireved 11 September 2008]

The Roman Catholic Church meets in the modern (built 2000) building of St Anne's Church in Thomas Street. This replaced the much smaller building the congregation had previously used in Dundee Street. The church is part of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Dunkeld. [ [http://www.dunkelddiocese.org.uk/parishes.htm Diocese of Dunkeld] , www.dunkelddiocese.org.uk/parishes.htm; retrieved 1 September 2008]

The Carnoustie Erskine United Free Church of Scotland meet at the former Original Secession Church on Kinloch street.

The Carnoustie Christian Fellowship is an independent congregation meeting in a converted former Co-op building opposite the War Memorial. They are members of a charismatic Christian movement known as the International Association of Healing Rooms. [ [http://www.carnoustiechristianfellowship.org.uk/ Carnoustie Christian Fellowship] www.carnoustiechristianfellowship.org.uk; retrieved 5 September 2008]

Followers of other religions and denominations travel further afield to attend formal worship.

The Churches all have their leaders appointed to the local Carnoustie Ministers' Council, which promotes joint Church events and has responsibility for the leadership of the town Boys' and Girls' Brigades. The Scouts and Girl Guides are also strongly supported by local congregations.

port

Golf

Carnoustie is famous for golf, which is first recorded as having been played here in the 16th century.Maule, H (compil.), Stuart, J (ed.) (1874) Registrum de Panmure: records of the families of Maule, De Valoniis, Brechin and Brechin-Barclay, united in the line of the Barons and Earls of Panmure, vol 1. Edinburgh.] Carnoustie Golf Links has three golf courses: the Championship course, on which several international tournaments are held, the Burnside course and the Buddon course. [ [http://www.carnoustiegolflinks.co.uk/ Carnoustie Golf Links] , www.carnoustiegolflinks.co.uk; retrieved 1 September 2008]

Carnoustie Golf Links is one of the venues in The Open Championship's rotation and has been nicknamed in the media as 'Carnasty' for its difficulty. [ [http://www.pgatour.com/2007/travel/07/16/trans_071607/index.html The Open Championship -- More Scottish than British] , www.pgatour.com; retrieved 1 September 2008] [eg. [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/sport/golf/article1001110.ece Open returns to 'Carnasty' in 2007] , The Times, www.timesonline.co.uk, 23 January 2004; retrieved 1 September 2008] The course first played host to The Open in 1931, when it was won by Tommy Armour of the USA. Subsequent winners have included Henry Cotton of England in 1937, Ben Hogan of the USA in 1953, Gary Player of South Africa in 1968, Tom Watson of the USA in 1975, Paul Lawrie of Scotland in 1999 and Pádraig Harrington of Ireland in 2007. [http://www.linksgolfstandrews.com/events/british-open-champions.htm British Open Champions] , www.linksgolfstandrews.com; retrieved 1 September 2008]

The 1999 Open Championship is best remembered for the epic collapse of French golfer Jean Van de Velde, who needed only a double-bogey six on the 72nd hole to win the Open—and proceeded to shoot a triple-bogey seven, [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/in_depth/2000/the_open/824064.stm Van de Velde's disaster at Carnoustie] , news.bbc.co.uk, 11 July 2000; retrieved 1 September 2008] tying with Paul Lawrie and 1997 champion Justin Leonard at 290, six over par. Lawrie won the playoff and the championship. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sport/golf/397813.stm Lawrie wins dramatic Open] , news.bbc.co.uk, 19 July 1999; retrieved 1 September 2008]

Carnoustie is also one of the three hosts of the Alfred Dunhill Links Championship, along with The Old Course at St Andrews and Kingsbarns. [ [http://www.alfreddunhilllinks.com Alfred Dunhill Links Championship] , www.alfreddunhilllinks.com; retrieved 1 September 2008]

Football

Carnoustie is home to the junior football club Carnoustie Panmure F.C.. Formed in 1936, they are nicknamed the Gowfers due to the town's well-established links to the sport of golf ("gowf" in Scots). They play at Laing Park, to which they moved in 2004, having previously played at Westfield Park.

The club received significant investment in the late 1990s, which has allowed them to emerge as one of the stronger Tayside clubs participating in the East Region. The pinnacle of their achievements was winning the Scottish Junior Cup in 2004 [http://www.ersjfa.com/ The official website of the Scottish Junior Football Association (East Region)] , www.ersjfa.com; retrieved 1 September 2008] .

The club currently plays in the Scottish Junior Football Association's East Region Premier League.

Public Services

Carnoustie and the surrounding area is supplied with water by Scottish Water. Water was supplied from Crombie reservoir until 1981. [ [http://www.monikie.org.uk/cntryprk.htm Monikie Country Park] monikie.org.uk; retrieved 7 September 2008] Since then, along with Dundee and parts of Perthshire, Angus has been supplied from Lintrathen and Backwater reservoirs in Glen Isla. Electricity distribution is by Scottish Hydro Electric plc, part of the Scottish and Southern Energy group.

Waste management is handled by Angus Council. There is a kerbside recycling scheme that has been in operation since May 2006. Cans, glass, paper and plastic bottles are collected on a weekly basis. Compostable material and non-recyclable material are collected on alternate weeks. [http://www.angus.gov.uk/services/view_service_detail.cfm?serviceid=1304 Angus Council kerbside Recycling Scheme] angus.gov.uk; retrieved 7 September 2008] Roughly two thirds of non-recyclable material is sent to landfill at Angus Council's site at Lochhead, Forfar and the remainder sent for incineration (with energy recovery) outside the council area. [ [http://www.angus.gov.uk/localplan/localplansection37.pdf Angus Council local plan section 37] , angus.gov.uk; retrieved 7 September 2008] A recycling centre is located at Balmachie Road. Items accepted include, steel and aluminium cans, cardboard, paper, electrical equipment, engine oil, fridges and freezers, garden waste, gas bottles, glass, liquid food and drinks cartons, plastic bottles, plastic carrier bags, rubble, scrap metal, shoes and handbags, spectacles, textiles, tin foil, wood and yellow pages. Angus council publishes details of where and how each product is processed. [ [http://www.angus.gov.uk/services/view_service_detail.cfm?serviceid=1299 Angus Council recycling centres] , angus.gov.uk; retrieved 7 September 2008] There are also glass banks at the Co-op and Craws Nest car parks. [ [http://www.angus.gov.uk/services/view_service_detail.cfm?serviceid=1062#a3 Angus Council neighbourhood recycling points] , angus.gov.uk; retrieved 7 September 2008] The Angus Council area had a recycling rate of 34.7% in 2007/08.

Healthcare is supplied in the area by NHS Tayside. The nearest hospitals are Arbroath Infirmary [ [http://www.nhstayside.scot.nhs.uk/patients/hospital/ARBROATH_INF.shtml Arbroath Infirmary] , nhstayside.scot.nhs.uk; retrieved 7 September 2008] and Ninewells Hospital, Dundee. [ [http://www.nhstayside.scot.nhs.uk/patients/hospital/ninewells.shtml Ninwells Hospital] , nhstayside.scot.nhs.uk; retrieved 7 September 2008] Primary Health Care in Carnoustie is supplied by Carnoustie Medical Group which is based at Parkview Health Centre on Barry Road, opened in May 2006. [ [http://www.gpsites.scot.nhs.uk/t/10604/main.htm Carnoustie Health Group] , gpsites.scot.nhs.uk; retrieved 7 September 2008] Carnoustie, along with the rest of Scotland is served by the Scottish Ambulance Service. [ [http://www.scottishambulance.com/about_us/default.asp Scottish Ambulance Service] , scottishambulance.com; retrieved 7 September 2008]

Law enforcement is provided by Tayside Police [ [http://www.tayside.police.uk/ Tayside Police] tayside.police.uk; retrieved 7 September 2008] and Carnoustie is served by Tayside Fire and Rescue Service. [ [http://www.taysidefire.gov.uk/ Tayside Fire and Rescue Service] , taysidefire.gov.uk; Retrieved 7 September 2008]

Twin town

*flagicon|France Maule, France

Carnoustie is twinned with Maule, approximately 50 km west of Paris [ [http://www.carnoustie-twinning.org.uk/ Carnoustie Twinning Association] www.carnoustie-twinning.org.uk; retrieved 1 September 2008] due to Carnoustie and the surrounding area's long association with the Maule Family. [ [http://www.maulefamily.com/brianarchive/town.htm Maule Family History] , www.maulefamily.com; retrieved 1 September 2008]

Notable Carnoustians

* Hector Boece, HistorianAdams, D.G. & Falconer, B. (1990) The ha'ens o' Panbride and roond aboot. Chanonry Press, Brechin.]
* Charles Jarvis, first man awarded the Victoria Cross in the Great War
* George Samson, awarded Victoria Cross 1915
* Ian McDiarmid, actor
* Stephen Scobie, poet
* Iain Macmillan, photographer
* Alan Cumming, actor
* Roddy Woomble, musician

ee also

*List of places in Angus

References

Notes

Bibliography

* Feachem, Richard (1977). "Guide to Prehistoric Scotland". (2nd Edition) London: B.T. Batsford. ISBN 0-7134-3264-0.

External links

* [http://www.carnoustiegolflinks.co.uk/ Carnoustie Golf Links] website
* [http://www.carnoustie-open.co.uk Carnoustie Open 2007] , website to promote Carnoustie's most famous export: golf
* [http://carnoustie.everyinch.co.uk Carnoustie shops and amenities] , EveryInch.co.uk


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