- Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples
English name=Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples
birth_date=birth date and age|1937|2|12
regnal=Vittorio Emanuele IV
title=Prince of Naples,
Duke of Savoy
March 18, 1983- present
House of Savoy
Marie-José of Belgium
Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples ("Vittorio Emanuele Alberto Carlo Teodoro Umberto Bonifacio Amedeo Damiano Bernardino Gennaro Maria di Savoia") (born
February 12, 1937) was the last Crown Prince of Italy and, despite publicly having renounced any claims to the defunct Italian throne, is still considered by many to be a pretender. He is commonly known in Italy as Vittorio Emanuele di Savoia.
Although the titles and distinctions of the Italian royal family have not been legally recognised in Italy since 1946 he is often styled "Prince of Naples" out of courtesy, particularly by supporters of the former monarchy.
Vittorio Emanuele also uses the title Duke of Savoy and claims the headship of the
House of Savoy. These claims are disputed by supporters of his cousin, Amedeo, 5th Duke of Aosta. He is also a claimant to the title of King of Jerusalem. He is known to some Italian monarchists as "Vittorio Emanuele IV". He has lived for most of his life in exile – following a tightly contested referendum in 1946 in which a majority of the Italian people voted for Italyto become a republic.
On several occasions he has been the centre of controversy in Italy and abroad due to a series of incidents, including remarks that were seen by some as anti-semitic. In France he was tried on a
murdercharge, of which he was cleared of unlawful killing but convicted of a firearms offence. More recently, Vittorio Emanuele was arrested on June 16, 2006, following an investigation started by Henry John Woodcockof the Public Prosecutor's Office in Potenza, Italy, on charges of criminal association, corruptionand exploitationof prostitution. [cite news |first= Peter |last= Popham |title= Son of Italy's last king held over Mafia and prostitution claims |url= http://news.independent.co.uk/europe/article1089773.ece |publisher= The Independent|date= June 17, 2006 |accessdate=2008-04-10 |quote= The son of Italy's last king, Prince Victor Emmanuel, has been arrested in the north Italian town of Lecco as part of an investigation into charges he was involved with the Sicilian Mafiaand a prostitution racket.]
Early life and family
Vittorio Emanuele was born
February 12, 1937in Naplesto Umberto, Prince of Piedmont, who would later become the last King of Italy, and Princess Marie-José of Belgium. When Umberto II left Italy after a referendum abolishing the monarchy in 1946 (see also birth of the Italian Republic), the Savoy family lived in exile, mostly in Switzerlandand Portugal. Following the separation of the exiled ex-King and ex-Queen, Prince Vittorio Emanuele lived with his mother in an estate in Merlinge, Switzerland. Vittorio Emanuele and his family currently reside in Geneva.
After an 11-year engagement, Vittorio Emanuele married Swiss
biscuit heiressand world-ranked water skier Marina Ricolfi-Doriain Tehranon October 7, 1971, at the occasion of the 2,500 year celebration of Iran's monarchy.
Vittorio Emanuele has worked as a
banker and an aircraft salesman, and then an arms dealer.cite news |first= Peter |last= Popham |title= The prince and the prostitutes |url= http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20060622/ai_n16494232/pg_1 |publisher= The Independent|date= June 22, 2006 |accessdate=2008-04-10 |quote=Selling helicopters to his high and mighty friends was one of the prince's successful projects, from which he went on to become an arms dealer.]
Vittorio Emanuele has one son,
Emanuele Filiberto, Prince of Venice and Piedmont, born in Geneva, June 22, 1972.
Vittorio Emanuele and his family hold no official titles, nor do they have royal or governmental duties because Italy is now a republic. The
Constitution of Italy, in Temporary Provision XIV, states that noble titles are no longer recognised in Italy. Nevertheless, their royal titles and honours are still used as courtesy titles by certain other European royals, and also by some monarchistsin Italy and elsewhere.
King Umberto II, the last king of Italy, did not
abdicatehis position as "fons honorum" (or Fount of honour). When he left Italy, he purported to take the hereditary Grand Masterships of the dynastic orders of his royal house with him. These orders were "Ordine Supremo della SS. Annunziata" (The Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation) and "Ordine dei Santi Maurizio e Lazzaro" (The Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus). Umberto II claimed to hold these until his death in 1983.
Duke of Savoy
On July 7, 2006 Vittorio Emanuele's kinsman and dynastic rival,
Amedeo, 5th Duke of Aostadeclared himself to be the head of the House of Savoy and Duke of Savoy, claiming that Vittorio Emanuele had lost his dynastic rights when he married without the permission of King Umberto II in 1971. Amedeo has received the support of the President of the "Council of the Senators of the Kingdom" Aldo Alessandro Mola and of Vittorio Emanuele's sister Princess Maria Gabriella of Savoy.
Vittorio Emanuele and his son have applied for judicial intervention to forbid Amedeo from using the title "Duke of Savoy". An initial hearing was scheduled in the court of
Arezzo, with a ruling expected by 6 June. [cite journal| author = Vincent Meylan| date = 21-05-08| title = Duc d'Aoste ou Duc de Savoie?| journal = Point de Vue| pages = 79]
Infobox Monarch styles
royal name=Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples
dipstyle=His Royal Highness
offstyle=Your Royal Highness
altstyle=Sir|Vittorio Emanuele is a Bailiff Grand Cross of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta and a Bailiff Grand Cross of Justice of the
Constantinian Order of St George.
He also claims to hold several Russian dynastic orders, including the Order of Saint Andrew, Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Alexander Nevsky, the
Order of the White Eagle, and the Order of Saint Anne. He is also a Knight of the Order of the Redeemerof Greece, and the Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila Viçosa. He is the heir to the Savoy claim to the title of "King of Jerusalem".
Exile from and return to Italy
Reasons for exile
In line with certain other countries that were formerly monarchies, Italian law restricted the male line of the House of Savoy from entering Italy. This was enacted via a special constitutional "temporary disposition", in force from 1948.
Requests for return
Vittorio Emanuele lobbied the
Parliament of Italyover the years in which the law prohibiting his return was in force, to be allowed to return to his homeland after 56 years in exile. In 1999 he filed a case at the European Court of Human Rights, in which the prince charged that his lengthy exile violated his human rights. In September 2001 the court decided to hold a hearing on the case at a date later to be fixed. [cite court |litigants= Victor Emmanuel de Savoie v. Italy |vol= 656 |reporter= |opinion= to hold a hearing on the merits of the admissible complaints on a date to be fixed subsequently |pinpoint= |court= European Court of Human Rights|date= 2001-09-21 |url= http://www.echr.coe.int/eng/Press/2001/Sep/DecisiondeSavoieepresse.htm ]
In order to achieve a return to his homeland, he renounced any claim to the throne and to Italy's crown jewels. He publicly assured the Italian government that the nation and the crown properties, confiscated by the State in 1946, "are no longer ours", referring to the House of Savoy. "For that matter we have no claim on the Crown jewels", he said. "We have nothing in Italy and we are not asking for anything." Vittorio Emanuele also dropped his case at the European Court of Human Rights.Fact|date=April 2008 In February 2002, Vittorio Emanuele and his son Emanuele Filiberto wrote a signed letter, published through a law firm, in which they formally expressed their loyalty to the
Constitution of Italy. [cite news |title= Vittorio Emanuele di Savoia: "Fedeltà alla Costituzione" |url= http://www.repubblica.it/online/politica/savoia/fedeli/fedeli.html |publisher= La Repubblica|location= |date= February 2, 2002 |accessdate=2008-04-10 |language= Italian ] In line with the provisions of the Italian Constitution, in temporary disposition XIV (which deals with the abolition of titles of nobility) Vittorio Emanuele renounced his title of prince.Fact|date=April 2008
Return to Italy
October 23, 2002, the provision in the Constitution of Italythat prohibited Vittorio Emanuele's return to Italy was repealed, after he signed an agreement recognizing the Republic as the valid government of the state. Vittorio Emanuele was permitted to re-enter the country from November 10of that year. On December 23, 2002 he made his first trip home in over half a century. On the one-day visit he, his wife and his son had a 20-minute audience with PopeJohn Paul II at the Vatican. [cite news |first= Philip |last= Willan |title= Exiled Italian royals go home |url= http://www.guardian.co.uk/italy/story/0,12576,865055,00.html |publisher= The Guardian|date= December 24, 2002 |accessdate=2008-04-10 ]
Upon their first visit in 2003 to Naples, where Vittorio Emanuele was born, and from where his family sailed into exile in 1946, the reception of the Savoys was mixed; most people were indifferent to them, some hostile, few supportive. The media reported that many in
Napleswere not happy to see the return of the family, when hundreds of noisy demonstrators chanted negative slogans as they progressed through the city. Demonstrations were staged by two traditionally opposing factions: anti-monarchists on one hand, and supporters of the Bourbon Kings of the Two Sicilies, whose family was deposed when Italy was united in 1861 under the House of Savoy. [cite news |author=Johnston, Bruce |url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/03/16/witaly16.xml|publisher= Telegraph.co.uk|title= Italy's exiled royal family shunned as they return |date= 8 January 2008|accessdate=2008-04-24]
Unilateral declaration of Kingship (1969)
Vittorio Emanuele unilaterally declared himself
King of Italyon December 15, 1969. [ [http://www.realcasadisavoia.it/files/ufficiostudi/19691215_VEIV_decreto1_en.pdf Royal Decree No. 1] ] [ [http://www.realcasadisavoia.it/files/comunicati/20060707_allegato2_en.pdf Pro Veritate analysis n.1 by Prof. Edoardo Adami] ] He argued that by agreeing to submit to a referendum on his place as head of state, his father ( Umberto II) had thereby abdicated. Vittorio Emanuele took this action after his father allegedly called for Amedeo, 5th Duke of Aostato visit him in Portugal to name him his heir. [ Gigi Speroni, "Umberto II", Milan, Riscoli Libri] Under his self-assumed powers as King of Italy, Vittorio Emanuele conferred the title of Duchess of Sant'Anna di Valdieri on his then fiancee, Marina Doria. [ [http://www.realcasadisavoia.it/files/comunicati/20060707_allegato1_en.pdf Pro Veritate analysis n.2 by Prof. Edoardo Adami] ]
Killing of Dirk Hamer (1978-1989)
In the night of
August 17or the morning of August 18 1978, on the island of Cavallo (which lies off the south coast of Corsica), Vittorio Emanuele discovered his yacht's rubber dinghyhad been taken and attached to another nearby yacht. Arming himself with a rifle, he attempted to board the yacht. He shot at a passenger he had awakened; the shot missed the passenger but mortally wounded Dirk Hamer(the nineteen-year-old son of Ryke Geerd Hamer), a passenger sleeping on the deck of another adjacent yacht. The prince admitted civil liability for the death in a letter dated August 28, 1978. [http://www.worldlii.org/eu/cases/ECHR/1996/30.html HAMER v. FRANCE - 19953/92  ECHR 30 (7 August 1996)] ] Dirk Hamer died of his wounds on December 7, 1978, and Vittorio Emanuele was arrested.
October 11, 1989, Vittorio Emanuele was indicted on charges of fatal wounding and offensive- weaponpossession. But on November 18, 1991, after thirteen years of legal proceedings, the Paris Assize Courtacquitted him of the fatal wounding and unintentional homicidecharges, finding him guilty only of unauthorised possession of an M1 Garand rifle. He received a six month suspended prison sentence. [ [http://sim.law.uu.nl/SIM/CaseLaw/Hof.nsf/d0cd2c2c444d8d94c12567c2002de990/f17b35d53bcc006dc1256640004c3306?OpenDocument Summary of trial proceedings concerned the killing of Dirk Hamer] ]
When incarcerated in June, 2006, on unconnected charges of corruption (see below, "Arrest and imprisonment"), Vittorio Emanuele was recorded admitting that "I was in the wrong, [...] but I must say I fooled them [the French judges] ", [it icon [http://www.repubblica.it/2006/09/sezioni/cronaca/vittorio-emanuele/vittorio-emanuele/vittorio-emanuele.html Vittorio Emanuele, cimici in cella "Ho fregato i giudici francesi"] ] leading to a call from Dirk Hamer's sister for Vittorio Emanuele to be retried in Italy for killing her brother. [ [http://www.galleonpoint.com/content/view/994/2/ Prince's braggadocio spurs call for justice] ] He also described, in a phone call, the magistrates investigating him as "penniless, envious turds whose wives are probably cuckolding them while they keep track of me." [ [http://www.smh.com.au/news/world/italian-royal-taped-boasting-he-got-away-with-murder/2006/09/11/1157826874463.html Italian royal taped boasting he got away with murder] ] [ [http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/tm_objectid=17727432&method=full&siteid=94762&headline=prince--i-beat-rap-for-killing--name_page.html Prince: I beat rap for killing] ]
Allegations of anti-semitism (2003)
Vittorio Emanuele also said in recent years that the anti-Semitic laws passed under Mussolini's regime were "not that terrible". ["Italy's Jews wait for royal apology" (The Observer (UK), May 18, 2003). "It was a rocky start for what was intended as a romantic trip down memory lane for Italy's exiled royal family, the Savoys, who returned to Rome last week to meet government officials, only to be greeted by angry Italian Jews still waiting for an apology for the royals' anti-Semitic leanings during the Second World War. Some five years ago, Victor Emmanuel made headlines when he said in an interview that the race laws were 'not so bad'."] [ [http://www.theroyalist.net/content/view/852/1/ The Royalist] ] Other senior members of the House of Savoy have also in the past downplayed the significance of the anti-Jewish laws signed by Vittorio Emmanuele's grandfather Fact|date=February 2007. "I'm not saying it was he who signed the racial laws in 1938. But, as a Savoy heir, Victor Emmanuel has never distanced himself from them," the president of the Union of Italian Jewish Communities, Amos Luzzatto, said in an interview with "
Il Corriere della Sera" newspaper. [ [http://www.tomgrossmedia.com/mideastdispatches/archives/000224.html "An Englishman in Auschwitz and other Holocaust articles"] , Tom Gross, June 18, 2003]
On 27 January 2005, in a letter published by "Il Corriere della Sera", Vittorio Emanuele issued an apology to Italy's Jewish leadership asking forgiveness from the Italian Jewish community, and declaring that it was an error for the Italian Royal Family to have signed the racial laws of 1938 [ [http://antisemitism.tau.ac.il/asw2005/general-analysis.htm Stephen Roth Institute: Antisemitism And Racism ] ] .
Fight with Amedeo (2004)
May 21, 2004, following a dinner held by King Juan Carlos I of Spainon the eve of the wedding of his son Felipe, Prince of Asturias, Vittorio Emanuele punched his third cousin and arch-rival Amedeo of Savoy, Duke of Aosta, twice in the face. [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/spain/article/0,2763,1227375,00.html Right royal punch-up at Spanish prince's wedding] ] Part of the background to his behaviour during this incident is the support Duke Amedeo has received from monarchists as legitimate heir to the Italian throne, since Vittorio Emanuele officially had to recognise the Italian republic as the valid government of the country in order to return to Italy Fact|date=February 2007.
Arrest and imprisonment (2006)
June 16, 2006he was arrested in Varennaand imprisoned in Potenzaon charges of corruption and recruitment of prostitutes for clients of the Casinò di Campione( casino) of Campione d'Italia. [ [http://www.corriere.it/Primo_Piano/Cronache/2006/06_Giugno/16/savoia.shtml Arrest and jail] ] [ [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/13380673/ Arrested Italy prince goes from palace to jail] ] [ [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20060622/ai_n16494232 The Prince and the prostitutes] ]
The enquiry was conducted by Italian magistrate John Woodcock, of British ancestry, famous for other VIPs' arrests. [ [http://www.corriere.it/Primo_Piano/Cronache/2006/06_Giugno/16/woodckock.shtml VIP arrests by Woodstock] ] [http://www.lastampa.it/redazione/cmsSezioni/politica/200606articoli/6551girata.asp] [http://www.repubblica.it/2006/09/sezioni/cronaca/vittorio-emanuele/vittorio-emanuele/vittorio-emanuele.html]
After several days, Vittorio Emanuele was released and placed under house arrest instead. [ [http://www.galleonpoint.com/content/view/589/2/ House arrest] ] He was released from house arrest on July 20, but he had to stay inside the Italian borders. He is now free to leave Italy but he is still under investigation.
His son Emanuele Filiberto [http://www.repubblica.it/2006/06/sezioni/cronaca/vittorio-emanuele-5/emanuele-si-dissocia/emanuele-si-dissocia.html] took distances from his father
eeking compensation from Italy (2007)
In 2007 Vittorio Emanuele and his son Emanuele Filiberto requested formally that the State of Italy pay financial damages of 260 million Euro and initiate full restitution of all properties and belongings that had been confiscated from the royal house after the abdication. The financial damages claim is based on having suffered moral injustice during the exile. The government of Italy has rejected the request and, in reponse, indicated that it may seek damages for historic grievances. [cite web| url=http://uk.reuters.com/article/oddlyEnoughNews/idUKL2050234020071121 | author=Phil Stewart,
Reuters| title=Fallen savoy royals seek damages over Italy exile| date=21-11-2007]
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1= 1. Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples
Umberto II of Italy
Marie-José of Belgium
Victor Emmanuel III of Italy
5= 5. Helen of Montenegro
Albert I of Belgium
7= 7. Duchess Elisabeth in Bavaria
Umberto I of Italy
Margherita of Savoy
Nicholas I of Montenegro
Prince Philippe, Count of Flanders
Princess Marie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
Duke Karl-Theodor in Bavaria
Infanta Maria Josepha of Portugal
Victor Emmanuel II of Italy
Maria Adelaide of Austria
Ferdinand, 1st Duke of Genoa
Princess Elizabeth of Saxony
20= 20. Mirko Petrović Njegoš, Grand Duke of Grahovo
21= 21. Anastasija Martinović
22= 22. Peter Vukotić
23= 23. Jelena Voivodić
Leopold I of Belgium
25= 25. Louise-Marie of Orléans
Karl Anton, Prince of Hohenzollern
Princess Josephine of Baden
Maximilian Joseph, Duke in Bavaria
Princess Ludovika of Bavaria
Miguel of Portugal
Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg
* [http://www.disavoia.it/ Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples offical website]
* [http://www.chivalricorders.org/royalty/gotha/italygen.htm Genealogy of recent members of the House of Savoy] .
* [http://www.chivalricorders.org/royalty/gotha/italia.htm A web page about the prince] .
* [http://www.savoia.info House of Savoy fansite] .
* [http://www.italian.it/giornaliero/18Aug99.html On the murder of Dirk Hamer (In Italian language)]
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