Parametric array


Parametric array

The parametric array is a nonlinear transduction mechanism that generates narrow, nearly sidelobe free beams of low frequency sound, through the mixing and interaction of high frequency sound waves, effectively overcoming the diffraction limit (a kind of spatial 'uncertainty principle') associated with linear acoustics. [ [http://asa.aip.org/books/nonlinear.html#Preface1 Nonlinear Acoustics ] ] Parametric arrays can be formed in water [ [http://asa.aip.org/books/nonuw.html Nonlinear Underwater Acoustics ] ] , air [ [http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.384959] ,] , and earth materials/rock. [ [http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.403453] ,] [ [http://www.lanl.gov/orgs/ees/ees11/geophysics/nonlinear/pubs/parabeam.html] .]

History

Priority for discovery and explanation of the Parametric Array [ [http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=JASMAN000119000005003231000004&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes] ] owes to Peter J. Westervelt, winner of the Lord Rayleigh Medal [ [http://www.ioa.org.uk/medals.asp IOA - Institute of Acoustics ] ] (currently Professor Emeritus at Brown University), although important experimental work was contemporaneously underway in the former Soviet Union [ [http://asa.aip.org/books/nonuw.html] .]

According to Muir [16, p.554] and Albers [17] , the concept for the parametric array occurred to Dr. Westervelt while he was stationed at the London, England, branch office of the Office of Naval Research in 1951.

According to Albers [17] , he (Westervelt) there first observed an accidental generation of low frequency sound "in air" by Captain H.J. Round (British pioneer of the superheterodyne receiver) via the parametric array mechanism.

The phenomenon of the parametric array,seen first experimentally by Westervelt in the 1950s, was later explained theoretically in 1960, at a meeting of the Acoustical Society of America. A few years after this, a full paper [2] was published as an extension of Westervelt's classic work on the nonlinear Scattering of Sound by Sound, as described in [8,6,12] .

Foundations

The foundation for Westervelt's theory of sound generation and scattering in nonlinear acoustic [ [http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.380612 Cookies Required ] ] media owes to an application of Lighthill's equation (see Aeroacoustics) for fluid particle motion.

The application of Lighthill’s theory to the nonlinear acoustic realm yields the Westervelt–Lighthill Equation (WLE) [ [https://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/1721.1/28762/1/59823423.pdf] .] Solutions to this equation have been developed using Green's functions [4,5] and Parabolic Equation (PE) Methods, most notably via the Kokhlov–Zablotskaya–Kuznetzov (KZK) equation [ [http://people.bu.edu/robinc/kzk/] .]

An alternate mathematical formalism using Fourier operator methods in wavenumber space, was also developed by Westervelt, and generalized in [1] for solving the WLE in a most general manner. The solution method is formulated in Fourier (wavenumber) space in a representation related to the beam patterns of the primary fields generated by linear sources in the medium. This formalism has been applied not only to parametric arrays [15] , but also to other nonlinear acoustic effects, such as the absorption of sound by sound and to the equilibrium distribution of sound intensity spectra in cavities [18] .

Applications

Practical applications are numerous and include:
* underwater sound
**sonar,
** depth sounding,
** sub-bottom profiling,
** non-destructive testing
** and 'see through walls' sensing [ [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0041-624X(99)00109-2] ]
** remote ocean sensing [ [http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.414208 Cookies Required ] ]
* medical ultrasound [ [http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0031-9155/46/11/314 A focused ultrasound method for simultaneous diagnostic and therapeutic applications ] ]
* and tomography [http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.1344160] ,
* underground sesimic prospecting [ [http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2022023] ,]
* active noise control [ [http://www.mecheng.adelaide.edu.au/anvc/abstract.php?abstract=378] ,]
* and directional high-fidelity commercial audio systems (Sound from ultrasound [ [http://en.wikinews.org/wiki/Elwood_Norris_receives_2005_Lemelson-MIT_Prize_for_invention.] ]

Parametric "receiving" arrays can also be formed for directional reception. [ [http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=1170632] .] In 2005, Elwood Norris won the $500,000 MIT-Lemelson Prize for his application of the parametric array to commercial high-fidelity loudspeakers.

References

Further reading

[1] H.C. Woodsum and P.J. Westervelt, "A General Theory for the Scattering of Sound by Sound", Journal of Sound and Vibration (1981), 76(2), 179-186.

[2] Peter J. Westervelt, "Parametric Acoustic Array", Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 35, No. 4 (535-537), 1963

[4] Mark B. Moffett and Robert H. Mellen, "Model for Parametric Sources", J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Vol. 61, No. 2, Feb. 1977

[5] Mark B. Moffett and Robert H. Mellen, "On Parametric Source Aperture Factors", J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Vol. 60, No. 3, Sept. 1976

[6] Ronald A. Roy and Junru Wu, "An Experimental Investigation of the Interaction of Two Non-Collinear Beams of Sound", Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Nonlinear Acoustics, H. Hobaek, Editor, Elsevier Science Ltd., London (1993)

[7] Harvey C. Woodsum, "Analytical and Numerical Solutions to the 'General Theory for the Scattering of Sound by Sound”, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Vol. 95, No. 5, Part 2 (2PA14), June, 1994 (Program of the 134th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, Cambridge Massachusetts)

[8] Robert T. Beyer , Nonlinear Acoustics, 1st Edition (1974),. Published by the Naval Sea Systems Command.

[9] H.O. Berktay and D.J. Leahy, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 55, p.539 (1974)

[10] M.J. Lighthill, "On Sound Generated Aerodynamically”, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A211, 564-687 (1952)

[11] M.J. Lighhill, “On Sound Generated Aerodynamically”, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A222, 1-32 (1954)

[12] J.S. Bellin and R. T. Beyer, “Scattering of Sound by Sound”, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 32, 339-341 (1960)

[13] M.J. Lighthill, Math. Revs. 19, 915 (1958)

[14] H.C. Woodsum, Bull. Of Am. Phys. Soc., Fall 1980; “A Boundary Condition Operator for Nonlinear Acoustics”

[15] H.C. Woodsum, Proc. 17th International Conference on Nonlinear Acoustics, AIP Press (NY), 2006; " Comparison of Nonlinear Acoustic Experiments with a Formal Theory for the Scattering of Sound by Sound", paper TuAM201.

[16] T.G. Muir, Office of Naval Research Special Report - "Science, Technology and the Modern Navy, Thirtieth Anniversary (1946-1976), Paper ONR-37, "Nonlinear Acoustics: A new Dimension in Underwater Sound", published by the Departmetn of the Navy (1976)

[17] V.M. Albers,"Underwater Sound, Benchmark Papers in Acoustics, p.415; Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Inc., Stroudsburg, PA (1972)

[18] M. Cabot and Seth Putterman, "Renormalized Classical Non-linear Hydrodynamics, Quantum Mode Coupling and Quantum Theory of Interacting Phonons", Physics Letters Vol. 83A, No. 3, 18 May 1981, pp. 91-94 (North Holland Publishing Company-Amsterdam)

[19] Nonlinear Parameter Imaging Computed Tomography by Parametric Acoustic ArrayY. Nakagawa; M. Nakagawa; M. Yoneyama; M. KikuchiIEEE 1984 Ultrasonics SymposiumVolume , Issue , 1984 Page(s):673 - 676


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • parametric array — noun An array of sound sources or receivers formed by variation of appropriate parameters of the propagating medium, typically the local speed of sound …   Wiktionary

  • Array data type — Not to be confused with Array data structure. In computer science, an array type is a data type that is meant to describe a collection of elements (values or variables), each selected by one or more indices that can be computed at run time by the …   Wikipedia

  • Associative array — In computer science, an associative array (also called a map or a dictionary) is an abstract data type composed of a collection of (key,value) pairs, such that each possible key appears at most once in the collection. Operations associated with… …   Wikipedia

  • Sound from ultrasound — Contents 1 Parametric array 2 Applications 2.1 Commercial advertising …   Wikipedia

  • Sonar — This article is about underwater sound propagation. For atmospheric sounding, see SODAR. For other uses, see Sonar (disambiguation) …   Wikipedia

  • Peter Westervelt — (born 1919) is an American physicist and Professor Emeritus of Physics at Brown University. A nephew of George Conrad Westervelt, he is known for his work in nonlinear acoustics.He is especially renowned for his application of the theory of Sir… …   Wikipedia

  • List of mathematics articles (P) — NOTOC P P = NP problem P adic analysis P adic number P adic order P compact group P group P² irreducible P Laplacian P matrix P rep P value P vector P y method Pacific Journal of Mathematics Package merge algorithm Packed storage matrix Packing… …   Wikipedia

  • NuvoSonic — It has swimmer detection, underwater hailing by voice, and non lethal deterrent. It uses a sonar system called Parametric Port Security Sonar System (P2S3), which uses a narrow beam sound technology called Parametric Array Sonic Echo Ranging… …   Wikipedia

  • Paser (disambiguation) — Paser may refer to: Paser, a device which generates a coherent beam of electrons Paser (Vizier), of Ancient Egypt; other Pasers, including the author of the Paser Crossword Stela 4 Aminosalicylic acid, an antibiotic sold by Jacobus Pharmaceutical …   Wikipedia

  • Sound — This article is about audible acoustic waves. For other uses, see Sound (disambiguation). In a drum sound is produ …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.