Admiral


Admiral

Admiral is the rank, or part of the name of the ranks, of the highest naval officers. It is usually considered a full admiral (equivalent to full general) and above Vice Admiral and below Admiral of the Fleet/Fleet Admiral. It is usually abbreviated to "Adm." or "ADM". Where relevant, Admiral is a 4 star rank.

History

The word Admiral in Middle English comes from Anglo-French "amiral", "commander", from Medieval Latin "admiralis", "emir", "admirallus", "admiral", from Arabic "amir-al-" أمير الـ, "commander of the" (as in "amir-al-bahr" أمير البحر, "commander of the sea") [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/admiral Merriam-Webster on-line dictionary] ] Crusaders learned the term during their encounters with the Arabs, perhaps as early as the 11th century. The Sicilians and later Genoese took the first two parts of the term and used them as one word, "amiral", from their Catalan opponents. The French and Spanish gave their sea commanders similar titles while in Portuguese the word changed to "almirante". As the word was used by people speaking Latin or Latin-based languages it gained the "d" and endured a series of different endings and spellings leading to the English spelling "admyrall" in the 14th century and to "admiral" by the 16th century.

Although temporary navies were established for engagement in naval battles beforehand, the Chinese established their first permanent, standing navy in 1132 AD, during the Song Dynasty. China's main headquarters and office for the admiral at that point was established at Dinghai, with the main base near what is now modern Shanghai.

The word Admiral has today come to be almost exclusively associated with the highest naval rank in most of the world's navies, equivalent to the Army rank of (Full) General.

The rank of Admiral has also been subdivided into various grades, several of which are historically extinct while others are used by most present day navies. The Royal Navy used colours (red, white, and blue, in descending order) to indicate the seniority of its admirals until 1864; for example, Horatio Nelson's highest rank was Vice Admiral of the White. The generic term for these naval equivalents of army generals is Flag Officer. Some navies have also used army-type titles for them, such as the Cromwellian General at Sea.

Admiral insignia by country

ee also

* Comparative military ranks
* Nebraska admiral

References


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Admiral — ist der höchste militärische Dienstgrad in der Marine (entsprechend dem General des Heeres und der Luftstreitkräfte) sowie ein Oberbegriff für Angehörige der Dienstgradgruppe der Admiräle (entsprechend den Generälen), die in verschiedenen Ländern …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Admiral T — Concert of Admiral T in Paris Background information Birth name Christy Campbell Also known as Adm …   Wikipedia

  • admiral — ADMIRAL. s. masc. Quelques uns escrivent Amiral, & tous le prononcent ainsi. Officier qui commande en chef sur la mer. Admiral de France. Admiral de Hollande, de Zelande, Admiral d Angleterre. Vice Admiral premier Officier aprés l Admiral, & qui… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

  • Admiral — Ad mi*ral, n. [OE. amiral, admiral, OF. amiral, ultimately fr. Ar. am[=i]r al bahr commander of the sea; Ar. am[=i]r is commander, al is the Ar. article, and am[=i]r al, heard in different titles, was taken as one word. Early forms of the word… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Admirał — ( Admiral ) is the highest rank in the Polish Navy, equivalent to the four star Generał.This rank was introduced in 1921. However, until 2002 this was rank equivalent to generał broni (three star general). After introduction in 2002 rank of Fleet …   Wikipedia

  • admiral — [ad′mə rəl] n. [ME admirail, amirail < OFr admiral, amiral < Ar ʾamīral ʿ ālī < ʾ amīr, leader + ʿālī, high; sp. infl. by ADMIRABLE] 1. the commanding officer of a navy or fleet 2. U.S. Navy a) an officer of the highest rank, ranking… …   English World dictionary

  • Admirał — (Dziwnów,Польша) Категория отеля: Адрес: ul. Mała 4, 72 420 Dziwnów, Польша Описани …   Каталог отелей

  • Admiral — Sm (Dienstgrad der Marine) erw. fach. (12. Jh., Form und Bedeutung 14. Jh.) Entlehnung. Entlehnt aus frz. admiral, neben älterem amiral, das sich im Französischen später erneut durchsetzt (das d wohl durch Anknüpfung an l. admirārī bewundern );… …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • Admiral B&B — (Амстердам,Нидерланды) Категория отеля: Адрес: Admiralengracht 209 HS, Де Баарсьес, 1057 EW Амсте …   Каталог отелей

  • Admirał II — (Свиноуйсьце,Польша) Категория отеля: Адрес: ul. Żeromskiego 12, 72 600 Свиноуйсьце, Польша …   Каталог отелей


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.