Fresnel lens


Fresnel lens

A Fresnel lens (pronounced ['frɛz.nəl] or [freɪ'nɛl] ) is a type of lens invented by French physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel.
Originally developed for lighthouses, the design enables the construction of lenses of large aperture and short focal length without the weight and volume of material which would be required in conventional lens design. Compared to earlier lenses, the Fresnel lens is much thinner, thus passing more light and allowing lighthouses to be visible over much longer distances.

Development

The idea of creating a thinner, lighter lens by making it with separate sections mounted in a frame is often attributed to Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon. [ [http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9035385 "Fresnel lens."] "Encyclopædia Britannica". 2005. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 11 November 2005.] However, it is difficult to find any other sources that link Buffon to work with optics. French physicist and engineer Augustin-Jean Fresnel is most often given credit for the development of this lens for use in lighthouses. According to "Smithsonian", the first Fresnel lens was used in 1823 in the Cordouan lighthouse at the mouth of the Gironde estuary; its light could be seen from more than convert|20|mi|km out. [Watson, Bruce. [http://libproxy.uncg.edu:2088/servlet/BioRC "Science Makes a Better Lighthouse Lens."] "Smithsonian". August 1999 v30 i5 p30. produced in "Biography Resource Center". Farmington Hills, Mich.: Thomson Gale. 2005.] Scottish physicist Sir David Brewster is credited with convincing The United Kingdom to use these lenses in their lighthouses. [ [http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9016395 "Brewster, Sir David."] "Encyclopædia Britannica". 2005. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 11 November 2005.] [ [http://libproxy.uncg.edu:2088/servlet/BioRC "David Brewster."] "World of Invention", 2nd ed. Gale Group, 1999. Reproduced in "Biography Resource Center". Farmington Hills, Mich.: Thomson Gale. 2005.]

Detailed information

The Fresnel lens reduces the amount of material required compared to a conventional spherical lens by breaking the lens into a set of concentric annular sections known as "Fresnel zones".

could turn out large complex pieces that these lenses were single pieces of glass.

For each of these zones, the overall thickness of the lens is decreased, effectively chopping the continuous surface of a standard lens into a set of surfaces of the same curvature, with discontinuities between them. This allows a substantial reduction in thickness (and thus weight and volume of material) of the lens, at the expense of reducing the imaging quality of the lens.

Graphic examples

Uses

The use of a Fresnel Lens reduces image quality, so they tend to be used only where quality is not critical or where the bulk of a solid lens would be prohibitive. Cheap Fresnel lenses can be stamped or moulded out of transparent plastic and are used in overhead projectors, projection televisions, and hand-held sheet magnifying glasses. Fresnel lenses have been used to increase the visual size of CRT displays in pocket televisions, notably the Sinclair TV80. Fresnel lenses are also used in traffic lights and solar forges.

Fresnel lenses are also used to correct several visual disorders. These disorders include several ocular motility disorders including strabismus.

Fresnel lenses can concentrate much more sunlight than normal convex lenses, and melt certain materials and instantly ignite others. Commercial Fresnel lenses are often available from scientific supply stores and are made of bendable plastic. They can be employed in homemade solar cookers and solar collectors to heat water for domestic use.

Perhaps the most widespread use of Fresnel lenses was in automobile headlamps, where they allow the roughly-parallel beam from the parabolic reflector to be shaped to meet requirements for dipped and main beam patterns, often both in the same headlamp unit (such as the European H4 design). For reasons of cost, weight and impact resistance, newer cars have dispensed with glass Fresnel lenses, using multi-faceted reflectors with plain polycarbonate lenses. However, Fresnel lenses continue to be widely used in automobile tail, marker and backup lights.

High-quality glass Fresnel lenses were used in lighthouses, where they were 'state of the art' in the late 19th and through the middle of the 20th Centuries; most are now retired from service. [ [http://www.terrypepper.com/lights/closeups/illumination/fresnel/fresnel.htm Terry Pepper, Seeing the Light, The Incredible Fresnel Lens.] ] Lighthouse Fresnel lens systems typically include extra annular prismatic elements, arrayed in faceted domes above and below the central planar Fresnel, in order to catch all light emitted from the light source. The light path through these elements can include an internal reflection, rather than the simple refraction in the planar Fresnel element. These lenses conferred many practical benefits upon the designers, builders, and users lighthouses and their illumination. Among other things, smaller lenses could fit into more compact spaces. Greater light transmission over longer distances, and varied patterns made it possible to triangulate a position. [ [http://www.terrypepper.com/lights/closeups/illumination/fresnel/fresnel.htm Terry Pepper, Seeing the Light, Fresnel lens.] ]

Glass Fresnel lenses also are used in lighting instruments for theater and motion pictures (see Fresnel lantern); such instruments are often called simply "Fresnels." The entire instrument consists of a metal housing, reflector, lamp assembly, and Fresnel lens. A holder in front of the lens can hold a colored plastic film ("gel") to tint the light or wire screens or frosted plastic to diffuse it. Many Fresnel instruments allow the lamp to be moved relative to the lens focal point, to increase or decrease the size of the light beam. The Fresnel lens is useful in the making of motion pictures not only because of its ability to focus the beam brighter than a typical lens, but also because the light is a relatively consistent intensity across the entire width of the beam of light.

Aircraft carriers typically use Fresnel lenses in their optical landing system. The "meatball" light aids the pilot in maintaining proper glideslope for the landing. In the center are amber and red lights composed of Fresnel lenses. Although the lights are always on, the angle of the lens from the pilot's point of view determines the color and position of the visible light. If the lights appear above the green horizontal bar, the pilot is too high. If it is below, the pilot is too low, and if the lights are red, the pilot is very low.

New applications have appeared in solar energy, where Fresnel lenses are used to concentrate sunlight (with a ratio of almost 500) onto solar cells. Thus the active solar cell surface can be reduced to a fraction compared to conventional solar modules. This offers a considerable cost-saving potential by low material consumption, and it is possible to use high-quality and expensive solar cells, which achieve a very high efficiency under concentration due to thermodynamic effects. [cite web
title=Concentrix Solar
url=http://www.concentrixsolar.de/cms/front_content.php?changelang=2&idcat=88
accessdate=2008-05-06
]

Fresnel "reflectors" are also currently being incorporated into next-generation solar thermal energy systems. See solar power for more information. The Polaroid SX-70 camera used a Fresnel reflector as part of its viewing system.

Multi-focal Fresnel lens are also used as a part of retina identification camera, where they provide multiple in- and out-of-focus images of a fixation target inside the camera. For virtually all users, at least one of the images will be in focus, thus allowing correct eye alignment.

Fresnel lens has seen applications in to enhancing passenger reading lights on Airbus aircraft. In a dark cabin, the focused beam of light does not dazzle neighboring passengers.

Fresnel lenses have also been used in the field of popular entertainment. The British rock artist Peter Gabriel made use of them in his early solo live performances to magnify the size of his head, in contrast to the rest of his body, for dramatic and comic effect. In the Terry Gilliam film "Brazil", plastic Fresnel screens appear ostensibly as magnifiers for the small CRT monitors used throughout the offices of the Ministry of Information. However, they occasionally appear between the actors and the camera, distorting the scale and composition of the scene to humorous effect.

Sizes of lighthouse lenses

Fresnel's lighthouse lenses fell into six "orders" based on their focal length. The order of a Fresnel lens is approximately the "Dioptre" or optical power of the lens.Fact|date=October 2008 The dioptre or diopter is the reciprocal of the focal length of the lens in meters. A Fresnel lens with a focal length of 50 cm or 0.5 m would be classified as a second order lens.

The largest (first order) lens has a focal length of 920 mm (36 in), and an optical area 2590 mm (8.5 ft) high. The complete assembly is about 3.7 m (12 ft) tall and 1.8 m (6 ft) wide. The smallest (sixth order) has a focal length of 150 mm (5.9 in) and an optical area 433 mm (17 in) high. [cite web
url=http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/displayPhoto.pl?path=/pnp/habshaer/ri/ri0300/ri0392/sheet&top

title=Fresnel Orders
accessdate=2007-06-01
author=Mabel A. Baiges
year=1988
format=TIFF
] [cite web
url=http://www.marinecitymich.org/Blank%20Page.htm
title=Fresnel lenses
accessdate=2007-06-01
Note the transcription error in the "Comparative Table of Lens Orders; the "oil consumption per hour" columns should be titled grams and ounces, not gallons.
] [cite web
url=http://www.michiganlights.com/fresnel.htm
title=Fresnel lenses
accessdate=2008-08-01
]

Subsequent development extended this to seventh and eighth orders, an intermediate three-and-one-half order, and two orders even larger than first: "mesoradial" and "hyperradial".

Projection uses

Fresnel lenses of different focal lengths (one collimator, and one collector) are used in commercial and DIY projection. The collimator lens has the lower focal length, and is placed closer to the light source, and the collector lens, which focuses the light into the triplet lens, is placed after the projection image (an active matrix LCD panel in LCD projectors).

Generating solar power

Fresnel reflectors are used in concentrating solar power (CSP) plants to concentrate solar energy from the sun. In some studies the Fresnel lens provides 8 times more solar energy to solar panels.

In stage lighting

The fresnel in stage lighting is a small, box-like light that uses a fresnel lens. They are generally used for overall lighting, since the fresnel lens diffuses the intensity. This makes it ideal for use in creating natural light or an even wash. However, this light must be hung on a pipe that is closer to the stage than that of a pipe for a lekolite, also known as an ellipsoidal.

Conclusion

The first Fresnel lens was developed in 1822. Despite his short life, Augustin Jean Fresnel left a rich legacy, which has inured to society's benefits in many ways. As one commentator noted:

Augustin Jean Fresnel who lived only a short while after inventing his great device, had been dead for nearly a century and a half. Along with the lens, Fresnel left behind his theories of light, which form the basis of modern optics. Today, the principle behind the Fresnel lens is used in the headlights of cars and in the flashing lights on police and emergency vehicles. And in a few older lighthouses around the country, and the world, Fresnel's elegant beehives still shine. [Science Makes a Better Lighthouse Lens, Smithsonian magazine, August, 1999, quoted at * [http://lighthouse.cc/shorevillage/299/299-2.html] .]

References

Additional reading

*"The Fresnel Lens." The Keeper's Log (Winter 1985), pp. 12-14.
* [http://www.uscg.mil/History/weblighthouses/aton_lighthousebib.html Lighthouses, Illuminants, Lenses Engineering and Augustin Fresnel, An Historical Bibliography, United States Coast Guard.]
* United States Coast Guard, "Aids to Navigation", (Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1945).
* [http://www.uscg.mil/History/weblighthouses/h_lhbib.asp United States Coast Guard, "Aids to Navigation Historical Bibliography".]

External links

* [http://lighthousegetaway.com/lights/fresnel.html Lighthouse Getaway: Fresnel lens] (contains photographs.)
*cite web|url=http://www.terrypepper.com/lights/index.htm |author=Pepper, Terry|title="Seeing the Light: Lighthouses on the western Great Lakes"
* [http://www-personal.umich.edu/~bclee/lens.html Random Destructive Acts via Focused Solar Radiation.]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Fresnel lens — Lens Lens (l[e^]nz), n.; pl. {Lenses} ( [e^]z). [L. lens a lentil. So named from the resemblance in shape of a double convex lens to the seed of a lentil. Cf. {Lentil}.] (Opt.) A piece of glass, or other transparent substance, ground with two… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Fresnel lens — Fres nel lens [See {Fresnel lamp}.] (Optics) See under {Lens}. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Fresnel lens — n. [after FRESNEL Augustin Jean] a thin optical lens of many concentric rings, having the properties of a much thicker and heavier lens: used in cameras, lighthouse beacons, etc …   English World dictionary

  • Fresnel lens — Optics. a large lens with a surface of concentric grooves of prismatic profile, used in automobile headlights, searchlights, spotlights, etc. [1840 50; see FRESNEL] * * * Series of concentric rings, each consisting of a thin part of a simple lens …   Universalium

  • Fresnel lens — noun lens composed of a number of small lenses arranged to make a lightweight lens of large diameter and short focal length • Hypernyms: ↑lens, ↑lense, ↑lens system • Part Holonyms: ↑headlight, ↑headlamp, ↑searchlight * * * …   Useful english dictionary

  • Fresnel lens — noun Etymology: Augustin J. Fresnel Date: 1865 a lens that has a surface consisting of a concentric series of simple lens sections so that a thin lens with a short focal length and large diameter is possible and that is used especially for… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Fresnel lens — Fres·nel lens (fra nelґ) [Augustin Jean Fresnel, French physicist and engineer, 1788–1827] see under lens …   Medical dictionary

  • Fresnel lens — /frənɛl ˈlɛns/ (say fruhnel lens) noun a large lens with a short focal length, used in headlights, spotlights, etc. {See Fresnel diffraction} …   Australian English dictionary

  • fresnel lens — [freɪ nɛl] noun Photography a flat lens made of a number of concentric rings, to reduce spherical aberration. Origin C19: named after the French physicist and civil engineer Augustin J. Fresnel …   English new terms dictionary

  • fresnel lens — F/A/V a flat glass or acrylic lens in which the curvature of a normal lens surface has been collapsed in such a way that concentric circles are impressed on the lens surface; often used for the condenser lens in overhead projectors, in rear… …   Audio and video glossary


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