Independence


Independence

Independence is the self-government of a nation, country, or state by its residents and population, or some portion thereof, generally exercising sovereignty.

The term independence is used in contrast to "subjugation," which refers to a region as a "territory" —subject to the political and military control of an external government. The word is sometimes used in a weaker sense to contrast with hegemony, the indirect control of one nation by another, more powerful nation.

Independence can be the initial status of an "emerging nation" (often filling a political void), but is often an "emancipation" from some dominating power. It can be argued that independence is a negative definition: the state of not being controlled by another power through colonialism, expansionism or imperialism. Independence may be obtained by decolonization, or by separation or dissolution.

Although the last three can often coincide with it, they are not to be confused with revolution, which typically refers to the violent overthrow of a ruling authority. This sometimes only aims to redistribute power—with or without an element of emancipation, such as in democratization—"within" a state, which as such may remain unaltered. The Russian October Revolution, for example, was not intended to seek national independence; the United States Revolutionary War, however, was.

"Autonomy" (in slight contrast) refers to a kind of independence which has been granted by an overseeing authority that itself still retains ultimate authority over that territory (see Devolution). A protectorate refers to an autonomous region that depends upon a larger government for its protection as an autonomous region. The dates of established independence (or, to a lesser degree, the commencement of revolution), are typically celebrated as a national holiday known as an independence day.

Sometimes, a state wishing to achieve independence from a dominating power will issue a declaration of independence, the earliest surviving example being Scotland's Declaration of Arbroath, and the most recent example being Kosovo's declaration of independence. Another example is the U.S. Declaration of Independence issued in 1776.

Causes for a country or province wishing to seek independence are many. Disillusionment rising from the establishment is a cause widely used in separatist movements, but it is usually severe economic difficulties that trigger these groups into action. The means can extend from peaceful demonstrations, like in the case of the Indian independence movement, to a violent civil war.

See also

*List of countries by date of independence
*Breakaway states
*Wars of independence
*Independence constitution
*Independence referendum

Article note

The dates of independence, as they have been ported into many articles from the "CIA World Factbook" are defined as follows: :"For most countries, [the given date is that] when sovereignty was achieved...For the other countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, or fundamental change in the form of government, such as state succession."


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  • Independence — Independence, MO U.S. city in Missouri Population (2000): 113288 Housing Units (2000): 50213 Land area (2000): 78.328220 sq. miles (202.869151 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.126088 sq. miles (0.326566 sq. km) Total area (2000): 78.454308 sq. miles… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Independence — (eng. Unabhängigkeit) steht für Independence (Zigarren), Zigarrenmarke USS Independence, Schiffe der US Navy Independence (1951), Linienschiff für die Hochseeschifffahrt Orte in den Vereinigten Staaten: Independence (Alabama) Independence (Iowa)… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Independence — puede referirse a: Independence, álbum del grupo Sex Museum Independence Day, película de 1996 Independence Hall, monumento nacional de Estados Unidos USS Independence, nombre de diversos buques estadounidenses Lugares Independence (Alabama)… …   Wikipedia Español

  • independence — UK US /ˌɪndɪˈpendəns/ noun [U] ► POLITICS freedom to make laws or decisions without being governed or controlled by another country, organization, etc.: gain/win/declare independence »The country gained its independence in 1991.… …   Financial and business terms

  • Independence — In de*pend ence, n. [Cf. F. ind[ e]pendance.] [1913 Webster] 1. The state or quality of being independent; freedom from dependence; exemption from reliance on, or control by, others; self subsistence or maintenance; direction of one s own affairs …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Independence, CA — U.S. Census Designated Place in California Population (2000): 574 Housing Units (2000): 342 Land area (2000): 3.997508 sq. miles (10.353498 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 3.997508 sq. miles… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Independence, IA — U.S. city in Iowa Population (2000): 6014 Housing Units (2000): 2610 Land area (2000): 3.708116 sq. miles (9.603975 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.134959 sq. miles (0.349542 sq. km) Total area (2000): 3.843075 sq. miles (9.953517 sq. km) FIPS code …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Independence, KS — U.S. city in Kansas Population (2000): 9846 Housing Units (2000): 4747 Land area (2000): 4.974332 sq. miles (12.883459 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 4.974332 sq. miles (12.883459 sq. km) FIPS… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Independence, KY — U.S. city in Kentucky Population (2000): 14982 Housing Units (2000): 5391 Land area (2000): 16.772507 sq. miles (43.440592 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.006417 sq. miles (0.016619 sq. km) Total area (2000): 16.778924 sq. miles (43.457211 sq. km)… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Independence, LA — U.S. town in Louisiana Population (2000): 1724 Housing Units (2000): 735 Land area (2000): 2.231891 sq. miles (5.780571 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.001764 sq. miles (0.004570 sq. km) Total area (2000): 2.233655 sq. miles (5.785141 sq. km) FIPS… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places


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