Government of Croatia


Government of Croatia
Croatia

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The Government of the Republic of Croatia (Croatian: Vlada Republike Hrvatske), commonly abbreviated to Croatian Government (Croatian: Hrvatska Vlada), is the main element of the executive branch of government in Croatia. It is led by the President of the Government (Croatian: Predsjednik Vlade), commonly abbreviated to premier (Croatian: premijer). Prime Minister is nominated by the President of the Republic among those who enjoy the support of majority of the Croatian Parliament, and chosen by the Parliament. There are 18 other members of the government, serving as deputy presidents of the government, government ministers or both—nominated by the Prime Minister and approved by the Parliament. The Government of the Republic of Croatia exercises its executive powers in conformity with the Croatian Constitution and legislation enacted by the Croatian Parliament. The current government is led by prime minister Jadranka Kosor.

Following the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement of 1868, Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia and the Government of the Land (Croatian: Zemaljska Vlada), headed by crown-appointed Ban were established. The government existed until breakup of Austria-Hungary and creation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1918. In 1939, Banovina of Croatia was established and a head of the Banovina of Croatia was appointed, but no effective government was formed before the World War II. In 1943, the ZAVNOH established an executive board to act as a new government. Croatia, while a part of the Yugoslavia, had its government, with limited powers as all the previous forms of government. Following the first multi-party elections and adoption of the present Constitution of Croatia in 1990, the present form of government was adopted and Stjepan Mesić became the first person to hold title of the Prime Minister of Croatia, while Franjo Gregurić was the first prime minister of independent Croatia. Since collapse of Communism, the Republic of Croatia had a total of 11 governments headed by eight different prime ministers. Eight governments were formed by the Croatian Democratic Union, two by the Social Democratic Party of Croatia and one was a national unity government, formed during the peak of the Croatian War of Independence.

Contents

Terminology

The term Government of Croatia can have a number of different meanings. At its widest, it can refer collectively to the three traditional branches of government—the Executive branch, Legislative branch (the Parliament of Croatia) and Judicial branch (the Judiciary of Croatia) as well as other forms of government and civil services which are part of the Politics of Croatia. The term is also used by the government itself, the press and colloquially to mean the executive branch alone, as the branch of the government is responsible for day-to-day governance of the nation—this is the sense intended when it is said that a political party forms the Government.[1][2][3][4]

Powers of the Government

Banski dvori, the building of the Government of the Republic of Croatia

The Government (Croatian: Vlada) of Croatia, the main executive power of the Croatian state, is headed by the prime minister, who has six deputy presidents of the government, four of whom also serve as government ministers and 12 other ministers, appointed by the prime minister with the consent of the Sabor, in charge of particular sectors of activity. The executive branch is responsible for proposing legislation and a budget, executing the laws, and guiding the foreign and internal policies of the republic. Government's official residence is at Banski dvori in Zagreb.[5] Even though the cabinet normally meets at Banski dvori, occasionally the meetings are held elsewhere in the country.[6]

The Government of the Republic of Croatia exercises its executive powers in conformity with the Croatian Constitution and legislation enacted by the Croatian Parliament—Sabor (Croatian: Hrvatski Sabor). Its structure, operational procedures and decision-making processes are defined by the Government of the Republic of Croatia Act and the Government Rules of Procedure. The Constitution mandates that the Government proposes legislation and other documents to the parliament, proposes the budget and financial reports, implements Acts and other decisions of the parliament, enacts regulations required to implement the Acts, defines foreign and internal policies, directs and oversees operation of state administration, oversees economic development of the country, directs activities and development of public services and performs other activities conforming to provisions of the Constitution and applicable legislation. The Government also passes regulations, administrative acts and orders on appointments and relief of appointed officials and civil servants within scope of its powers. The Government makes rulings in cases of conflicts of jurisdiction between government institutions, responds to parliamentary representatives' questions, prepares proposals of new legislation and other regulations, gives opinions on legislation and other regulations and adopts strategies of economic and social development of the country.[7][8]

The Government manages property of the Republic of Croatia unless special legislation provides otherwise. Also, it may appoint special committees to manage the property on its behalf. The process is implemented through appointed members of supervisory boards and managing boards of companies partially or wholly owned by the Republic of Croatia, and determines their salaries. The Government maintains specialized bodies, agencies and offices, including the Legislation Office, the Public Relations Office and the Office for National Minorities which are required by the Government Act of 1998, as well as committees to decide administrative matters. Various branches of government may establish joint services.[7] There are further entities established by the government as companies designed to support aims of the Government, such as the Croatian Bank for Reconstruction and Development whose goal is to fund reconstruction and development of the economy of Croatia.[9] Local government is separate from the central government, latter maintains a State Administration Office in each county, subordinated to the Ministry of Administration.[10]

The Government is responsible to the Croatian Parliament, and the parliament may recall the Government as a whole or any members of the Government following a request for a confidence vote by one fifth of the parliament members or the prime minister, by a simple majority vote. The Prime Minister and the members of the Government are jointly responsible for decisions passed by the Government and individually responsible for their respective portfolios. Pursuant to a vote of confidence by the Croatian Parliament for the Government of the Republic of Croatia, the President of the Republic appoints the Prime Minister, and the appointment is counter-signed by the Speaker of the parliament. Appointments of members of the Government are issued by the Prime Minister and counter-signed by the Speaker of the parliament. The rules of procedure and regulations enacted by the Government must be published in Narodne Novine—the official gazette of Croatia.[7][8]

Operations of the Government

Government meetings are public, however the government itself may decide to close any part of its sessions or entire sessions to the public. The prime minister may authorise any deputy to represent the PM, and to take over any portion of tasks otherwise assigned to the prime minister. The government sessions are valid if attended by majority of the government members and decisions are reached by vote of simple majority. Exceptionally, a two-thirds majority vote is required to make decisions regarding changes of the constitution of the Republic of Croatia, association with other states, changes of borders of the country, dissolution of the parliament, calling a referendum.[7]

The prime minister and the PM deputies represent the core cabinet, which monitors and discusses operation of the government and may hold preliminary discussions on any matter performed by the government. The core cabinet may act as the government in emergencies when the government is unable to meet, however its decisions need be verified at the next government session to remain in force. Government secretary coordinates agencies, offices and other services subordinated to the government.[7]

Current Government

Prime Minister Jadranka Kosor

Since 1 July 2009, the prime minister of the government has been Jadranka Kosor.[51] As of 2011, Deputy Prime Ministers are Petar Čobanković, Gordan Jandroković, Darko Milinović, Domagoj Ivan Milošević, Božidar Pankretić and Slobodan Uzelac. Government ministers are from the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ) and the Croatian Peasant Party (HSS).[52]

Position Portfolio Name Party
Prime Minister Jadranka Kosor HDZ
Deputy Prime Minister Health and Social Welfare Darko Milinović HDZ
Deputy Prime Minister Agriculture, Fisheries and Rural Development Petar Čobanković HDZ
Deputy Prime Minister Regional Development, Forestry and Water Management Božidar Pankretić HSS
Deputy Prime Minister Foreign Affairs and European Integration Gordan Jandroković HDZ
Deputy Prime Minister no portfolio Domagoj Ivan Milošević HDZ
Deputy Prime Minister Deputy PM for social issues and human rights Slobodan Uzelac SDSS
Minister Finance Martina Dalić HDZ
Minister Defence Davor Božinović independent
Minister Interior Tomislav Karamarko HDZ
Minister Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship Đuro Popijač HDZ
Minister Sea, Transport and Infrastructure Božidar Kalmeta HDZ
Minister Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction Branko Bačić HDZ
Minister Culture Jasen Mesić HDZ
Minister Justice Dražen Bošnjaković HDZ
Minister Science, Education and Sports Radovan Fuchs HDZ
Minister Family, Veterans' Affairs and Intergenerational Solidarity Tomislav Ivić HDZ
Minister Public Administration Davorin Mlakar HDZ
Minister Tourism Damir Bajs HSS
Government Secretary Jagoda Premužić
Source: Government of Croatia[53]

History of the Government

Ban Pavao Rauch at St. Mark's Square in Zagreb, with Banski dvori in the background

The first executive council in Croatia dates to 1848, when the Ban's Council (Croatian: Bansko Vijeće) acted as an administrative body governing Croatia within the Austrian Empire as a provisional government while the council existed, until 1850.[54] Following the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and the subsequent Croatian–Hungarian Settlement of 1868, Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was established along with the Government of the Land (Croatian: Zemaljska Vlada), headed by crown-appointed Ban. The establishment was carried out during appointment of Ban Levin Rauch.[55][56] Authority of the government continued until breakup of Austria-Hungary and creation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1918. In total, 15 Bans acted as head of the government in the period.[57] Cvetković–Maček Agreement was made in 1939, and it established the Banovina of Croatia and appointed Ivan Šubašić as Ban to head the Croatian government.[58] Still, an effective government was not formed before onset of the World War II.[59] In June 1943, the National Anti-Fascist Council of the People's Liberation of Croatia established an 11-member executive board to act as new government of Croatia.[60] Communist-ruled Croatia, a part of the Yugoslavia, maintained its own government, of similarly limited powers to all preceding forms of government since the 19th century. The government was appointed by and responsible to the Sabor. During the Communist era, there were 14 governments of Croatia. The official name of the government was Executive Council of the Sabor (Croatian: Izvršno vijeće Sabora).[61] Following the parliamentary elections and adoption of the present Constitution of Croatia in 1990, the present form of government was adopted. On 30 May 1990, Stjepan Mesić became the first person to hold title of the Prime Minister of Croatia, and Franjo Gregurić was the first prime minister of independent Croatia, as he held the office on 8 October 1991 when the declaration of independence came into effect.[62][63]

List of governments of the Republic of Croatia

Since 30 May 1990, and the first multi-party parliamentary election held following the 45-year Communist rule, the Republic of Croatia had a total of 11 governments headed by eight different prime ministers. Prime minister in the first government government after the first multi-party election was Stjepan Mesić, who would later go on to become the President of Croatia. That government was formed by the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), as were seven other governments of Croatia. Two governments were formed by the Social Democratic Party of Croatia (SDP) and one was a national unity government, representing a wide coalition of political parties, formed during the peak of the Croatian War of Independence, between July 1991 and August 1992, with Franjo Gregurić as the prime minister.[62]

Assumed office Prime Minister (Leading) Party in Office Cabinet
30 May 1990 Stjepan Mesić Croatian Democratic Union Cabinet of Stjepan Mesić
24 August 1990 Josip Manolić Croatian Democratic Union Cabinet of Josip Manolić
17 July 1991 Franjo Gregurić national unity government Cabinet of Franjo Gregurić
12 August 1992 Hrvoje Šarinić Croatian Democratic Union Cabinet of Hrvoje Šarinić
3 April 1993 Nikica Valentić Croatian Democratic Union Cabinet of Nikica Valentić
7 November 1995 Zlatko Mateša Croatian Democratic Union Cabinet of Zlatko Mateša
27 January 2000 Ivica Račan Social Democratic Party of Croatia Cabinet of Ivica Račan I
30 July 2002 Ivica Račan Social Democratic Party of Croatia Cabinet of Ivica Račan II
23 December 2003 Ivo Sanader Croatian Democratic Union Cabinet of Ivo Sanader I
12 January 2008 Ivo Sanader Croatian Democratic Union Cabinet of Ivo Sanader II
6 July 2009 Jadranka Kosor Croatian Democratic Union Cabinet of Jadranka Kosor
Sources: Government of Croatia;[62] HIDRA.[64]

See also

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