- Ocular oncology
Ocular oncology is the branch of
medicinedealing with tumorsrelating to the eyeand its adnexa. Eye cancer can affect all parts of the eye.
Origin and location
Eye cancers can be primary (starts within the eye) and metastatic cancer (spread to the eye from another organ). The two most common cancers that spread to the eye from another organ are
breast cancerand lung cancer. Other less common sites of origin include the prostate, kidney, thyroid, skin, colon lymphomaand leukemia.
Tumors in the eye and orbit can be
benignlike dermoid cysts, or malignantlike rhabdomyosarcomaand retinoblastoma. The most common eyelid tumor is called basal cell carcinoma. This tumor can grow around the eye but rarely spreads to other parts of the body. Other types of common eyelid cancers include squamous carcinoma, sebaceous carcinomaand malignant melanoma.
The most common malignant primary
intraoculartumor in adults is uveal melanoma. These tumors can occur in the choroid, iris and ciliary body. The latter are sometimes called iris or ciliary body melanoma.
The most common malignant intraocular tumor in children is called
retinoblastoma. Affecting approximately 325 children per year in North America, early detection has allowed for cures exceeding 95%.Fact|date=February 2007
The most common orbital malignancy is
orbital lymphoma. This tumor can be diagnosed by biopsy with histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis. Most patients with orbital lymphoma can be offered chemotherapyor radiation therapy. Orbital dermoid cysts are benign choristomaswhich are typically found at the junction of sutures, most commonly at the fronto-zygomatic suture. Large deep orbital dermoid cysts can have cause pressure effects on the muscles and optic nerve, leading to diplopia and loss of vision.
Eye cancer symptoms
* Melanomas (choroidal, ciliary body and uveal) - In the early stages there may be no symptoms (the person does not know there is a tumor until an ophthalmologist or optometrist looks into the eye with an ophthalmoscope during a routine test). As the tumor grows, symptoms can be blurred vision, decreased vision, double vision, eventual vision loss and if they continue to grow the tumor can break past the retina causing retinal detachment. Sometimes the tumor can be visible through the pupil.
* Nevus - Are benign, freckle in the eye. These should be checked out and regular checks on the eye done to ensure it hasn't turned into a melanoma.
* Iris and conjuctival tumors (melanomas) - Presents as a dark spot. Any spot which continues to grow on the iris and the conjunctiva should be checked out.
* Retinoblastoma - Strabismus (crossed eyes), a whitish or yellowish glow through the pupil, decreasing/loss of vision, sometimes the eye may be red and painful. Retinoblastoma can occur in one or both eyes. This tumor occurs in babies and young children. It is called RB for short. Please check photographs of your child or children, normal healthy eyes would have the red eye reflex, but a white/yellow dot instead of the red eye reflex can indicate a tumor or some other kind of eye disease. Any photos of a child/children which have a white/yellow dot instead of the red eye reflex should be checked out. Photographs of a child/children are very good clues as they can save the eyes, vision and lives of children, the other object is the ophthalmoscope.
Enucleation- Removal of the eye, but the muscles, eyelids and muscles are left intact. An implant is inserted, then the person wears a conformer shield and later the person will have their prosthesis made and fitted (the prosthesis is made by someone called an ocularist and is made to look like their real eye)
Evisceration- Removal of the eye contents, leaving the sclera or the white part of the eye.
Exenteration- Removal of the eye, all orbital contents, which can involve the eyelids as well. A special prosthesis is made to cover the defect and improve appearance.
Iridectomy- Removal of the affected piece of the iris
Choroidectomy- Removal of the choroid layer (the sandwich between the sclera and the retina)
Iridocyclectomy- Removal of the iris plus the ciliary body muscle.
Eyewall resection- Cutting into the eye to remove a tumor e.g. melanoma. This operation can be quite difficult to perform.
* 1.Choroidal Hemangioma [http://www.eyecancer.com/Patient/Condition.aspx?nID=61&Category=Choroidal+Tumors&Condition=Choroidal+Hemangioma]
* 2.Choroidal Melanoma [http://www.eyecancer.com/Patient/Condition.aspx?nID=62&Category=Choroidal+Tumors&Condition=Choroidal+Melanoma]
* 3.Choroidal Metastasis [http://www.eyecancer.com/Patient/Condition.aspx?nID=59&Category=Choroidal+Tumors&Condition=Choroidal+Metastasis]
* 4.Choroidal Nevus [http://www.eyecancer.com/Patient/Condition.aspx?nID=60&Category=Choroidal+Tumors&Condition=Choroidal+Nevus]
* 5.Choroidal Osteoma [http://www.eyecancer.com/Patient/Condition.aspx?nID=33&Category=Choroidal+Tumors&Condition=Choroidal+Osteoma]
* 6.Ciliary Body Melanoma [http://www.eyecancer.com/Patient/Condition.aspx?nID=69&Category=Choroidal+Tumors&Condition=Ciliary+Body+Melanoma]
* 7.The Nevus of Ota [http://www.eyecancer.com/Patient/Condition.aspx?nID=34&Category=Choroidal+Tumors&Condition=The+Nevus+of+Ota]
* 1.Conjunctival Kaposi's Sarcoma [http://www.eyecancer.com/Patient/Condition.aspx?nID=43&Category=Conjunctival+Tumors&Condition=Conjunctival+Kaposi%27s+Sarcoma]
* 2.Epibulbar Dermoid [http://www.eyecancer.com/Patient/Condition.aspx?nID=73&Category=Conjunctival+Tumors&Condition=Epibulbar+Dermoid]
* 3.General Information: Malignant Conjunctival Tumors [http://www.eyecancer.com/Patient/Condition.aspx?nID=35&Category=Conjunctival+Tumors&Condition=General+Information%3a+Malignant+Conjunctival+Tumors]
* 4.Lymphoma of the Conjunctiva [http://www.eyecancer.com/Patient/Condition.aspx?nID=42&Category=Conjunctival+Tumors&Condition=Lymphoma+of+the+Conjunctiva]
* 5.Melanoma and PAM with Atypia [http://www.eyecancer.com/Patient/Condition.aspx?nID=37&Category=Conjunctival+Tumors&Condition=Melanoma+and+PAM+with+Atypia]
* 6.Pigmented Conjunctival Tumors [http://www.eyecancer.com/Patient/Condition.aspx?nID=36&Category=Conjunctival+Tumors&Condition=Pigmented+Conjunctival+Tumors]
* 7.Pingueculum [http://www.eyecancer.com/Patient/Condition.aspx?nID=71&Category=Conjunctival+Tumors&Condition=Pingueculum]
* 8.Pterygium [http://www.eyecancer.com/Patient/Condition.aspx?nID=72&Category=Conjunctival+Tumors&Condition=Pterygium]
* 9.Squamous Carcinoma and Intraepithelial Neoplasia of the Conjunctiva [http://www.eyecancer.com/Patient/Condition.aspx?nID=38&Category=Conjunctival+Tumors&Condition=Squamous+Carcinoma+and+Intraepithelial+Neoplasia+of+the+Conjunctiva+]
oncologytakes into consideration that the primary requirement for patients is preservation of life by removal of the tumor, along with best efforts directed at preservation of useful vision, followed by cosmetic appearance. The treatment of ocular tumors is generally a multi-specialty effort, requiring coordination between the ophthalmologist, medical oncologist, radiation specialist, head & neck surgeon / ENT surgeon, pediatrician/internal medicine/hospitalist and a multidisciplinary team of support staff and nurses.
List of eye diseases and disorders
* [http://seeacure.com The See A Cure Foundation. A grassroots, patient-based, eye cancer nonprofit]
* [http://www.eyetumor.org/ The Ocular Oncology Service]
* [http://eyecancer.com The Eye Cancer Network]
* [http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/eyecancer.html Eye Cancer - Medline Plus]
* [http://www.eyecancermd.org/index.html Ocular Oncology - Bascom Palmer Eye Institute]
*cite web | author=William Charles Caccamise Sr | title=A photographic cache of eyelid and conjunctival malignant lesions | url=http://webeye.ophth.uiowa.edu/eyeforum/atlassearch1.htm?appSession=42615655966259 | publisher=EyeRounds.org
*DeAngelis, D; Hurwitz, J. [http://www.emedicine.com/oph/topic694.htm "Lacrimal Gland Tumors."] eMedicine.com. June 8, 2005.
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