- Colombian National Police
Infobox Law enforcement agency
agencyname = Colombian National Police
nativename = Policía Nacional de Colombia
logocaption = Colombian National Police Emblem
imagesize = 200
motto = "Dios y Patria"
mottotranslated = God and Country
formedyear = 1891
formedmonthday = November 5
employees = 143,557 (2008)
country = Colombia
national = Yes
police = Yes
local = Yes
Colombian Ministry of Defense
Rosso Jose Serrano
person1reason = ethics and anticorruption
person1type = head of agency
footnotes = Colors: White and Green
Hymn of the Colombian National Police
reference = http://www.mindefensa.gov.co/descargas/Documentos_Home/Balance_Mindefensa_2007_2008.pdfThe Colombian National Police (Spanish: "Policía Nacional de Colombia") is the
national policeforce of the Republic of Colombia. It is the largest police force in Colombia under the control of the Ministry of Defense. Its main function is to protect the Colombian nation, enforce the law by constitutional mandate to maintain and guarantee the necessary conditions for public freedoms and rights and to ensure peaceful cohabitation among the population.
Creation in the 19th Century
During the second half of the 19th century Colombia went through many political changes and struggles to define itself as a nation. Tensions between the two main political parties, the
Colombian Liberal Partyand the Colombian Conservative Party, escalated to numerous civil wars trying to establish a political system between federalismor centralismand other major differences.
The Colombian National Police was established by Law 90 of 1888 to be under government orders and as a dependency of the then Ministry of Government intended to function as a
gendarmeriefor Bogotá. The new institution was planned to be a force of 300 gendarmes divided into three companies; commanded by a captain, two lieutenants and a second lieutenant, all commanded by two high ranking officers.
October 23, 1890, acting president Carlos Holguín Mallarinosanctioned into law the authorization to hire any qualified trainers from either the United Statesor Europeto organize and train the newly established National Police. The Colombian officials selected a French commissioner named Jean Marie Marcelin Gilibert. The institution was formally established by decree 1000 of November 5, 1891.
The initial mission of the National Police was to preserve public tranquility, protecting people and public and private properties. By constitutional law the institution had to enforce and guarantee the rights of the people, the constitution and its laws, and obey their authority. Its function also included the authority to take action to prevent crimes and prosecute and arrest law-breakers. The National Police was intended to recognize no privileges or distinctions among the general population. The only exception was for international treaties established in the Constitution that gave immunity to members of diplomatic missions.
After a civil war broke out in 1895 during the presidency of
Rafael Nuñez, the president went absent and Miguel Antonio Carotook over office temporarily. Caro declared a general state of emergencyin which the National Police was transferred to the Ministry of War on January 21, 1896, and its members received same privileges as the military personnel.
When aged president
Manuel Antonio Sanclementewas replaced by Vice-president José Manuel Marroquín, who assumed the presidency, the National Police was restructured and organized in a military manner. It was transferred back to the Ministry of Government. To guarantee the security of Bogotá, the National Police was divided into seven districts to cover the entire city. A mutual fund called "Caja de Gratificaciones" was set up to pay benefits to service members, financed by the penalties imposed to the civilian population. By 1899 the National Police had a force of 944 agents divided into eight divisions.
When the most intense of the civil wars broke out, known as the
Thousand Days War(1899–1902), the National Police was once again assigned to the Ministry of War until September 6, 1901. Under the Decree 1380 of September 16, 1902the National Police created the Presidential Palace Honor Guard Corps with the name "Guardia Civil de la Ciudad de Bogotá" (Civil Guard of the City of Bogotá).
During the presidency of
Rafael Reyes, the government authorized by decree 743 of 1904 the Police was once again transferred to the Ministry of War, with the president micro-managing the institution. By authorization of Law 43 the Judicial Commissary of Police was established under the dependency of the General Command of the National Police to investigate crimes within its jurisdiction.
From 1906 to 1909 the government created a cloned institution with similar functions to the National Police named National Gendarmerie Corps ("Cuerpo de Gendarmeria Nacional") intended to function decentralized from the National Police command and more militarized regime, managed by the Ministry of War. When General Jorge Holguín suppressed the National Gendarmerie Corps, the province governors were given the authority to organize police service at their own will.
Law 14 signed on
November 4 1915defined the National Police functions to "preserve public tranquility in Bogotá and any other place were needed to execute its functions, protect citizens and aid the constitutional law by enforcing it and the judicial branch of government. The institution was divided into three groups; the first in charge of security and vigilante functions, a second group acting as civil gendarmerie guard with the main function of protecting the postal service and controlling the prison system. The third group functioning as the judicial police. In 1916 the institution gets trained by the Spanish Guardia Civilin their doctrine, mainly related to criminology.Two years later in 1918 gets restructured by the Decree 1628 of October 9of this same year, assigning the direction, sub-direction and Inspector General duties to the Colombian Army. Later this same year and authorized by Law 74 of November 19, 1919, Colombia's president hires a French instructor and chief of detectives, expert in the anthropometric system to train the National Police.
In 1924 the Criminal Investigation School is founded to update personnel working in this area. In 1929 the Colombian government in agreement with the
Argentinegovernment, hires Enrique Medina Artola to train the Colombian Police in dactylographyto replace the anthropometric system. In 1934 in agreement with the Spanish government the National Police was trained in scientific identification until 1948.
July 7, 1937by the Decree 1277, the government authorized the creation of the General Santader Academy, which began operating in 1940 as an institute for every policemen recruit in the force. In 1939 the Colombian government receives the first cooperation agreement with the United States, through a Federal Bureau of Investigation(FBI) committee headed by agent Edgar K. Thompson.
El Bogotazo and La Violencia
In 1948 when the civil unrest known as "El
Bogotazo" broke out, after the assassination of the popular presidential candidate Jorge Eliecer Gaitán, the stability of the country was abruptly interrupted. This generated a period of civil unrest known as La Violencia, which lasted for almost a decade. The government then decided to restructure the institution once again, with the cooperation and advice from the British. The English mission was integrated by Colonel Douglas Gordon, Colonel Eric M. Roger, Lieutenant Colonel Bertrand W.H. Dyer, Major Frederick H. Abbot and Major William Parham, primarily assisted by Colombian lawyers Rafael Escallón, Timoleón Moncada, Carlos Losano Losano, Jorge and Enrique Gutiérrez Anzola.
By Decree 0446 of
February 14, 1950the National Police created the Gonzálo Jiménez de Quesada Non-Commissioned School to train mid-level enlisted staff under the management of the General Santander National Police Academy.
Military Dictator, Gustavo Rojas Pinilla
June 13, 1953Lieutenant General Gustavo Rojas Pinillaseized power in a coup d'etat, assuming functions as President of Colombia. In an attempt to better organize the military forces, President Rojas declared the Decree 1814 on the same day, to group the General Command of the Military Forces under the name of General Command of the Armed Forces. It defined the conformation of the Armed Forces as comprising the Army, Navy, Air Force and Police Force, the last assigned to the Ministry of War once again as a fourth military power, functioning with its own independent budget and organization, separate from the other branches as established by law. The Ministry of War was later renamed Ministry of Defense. Many Police Academies were planned and constructed in other cities of Colombia; in 1953 Academies Antonio Nariño in Barranquillaand Alejandro Gutiérrez in Manizaleswere opened, followed by a social plan for retirement and social security called "Caja de Sueldos de la Policia Nacional" by Decree 417 of 1954. The Eduardo Cuevas Academy later opened in 1955 in the city of Villavicencioand the Carlos Holguín Academy in Medellínwas opened in 1958. During this year a cooperation mission arrived from Chileto reorganize and train the CarabinierCorps in urban and rural surveillance.
As established in Law 193 of
December 30, 1959, the Colombian nation assumed full financial responsibility for the National Police.
Colombian Armed Conflict
In 1964, as mandated by the Decree 349 of
February 19, the Police Superior Academy was founded to indoctrinate officers with the rank of Major to the grade of Lieutenant Colonels. By 1977 the institution had created the first course for female officers.
During the 1960s and 1970s the National Police started facing guerrilla threats which were emerging during these years as a backlash from the political bipartisan struggle of the
La Violenciayears. There was also the growing problem of contraband and illegal drug trafficking and the involvement of the United Stateswith the implementation of the Plan LASO as a proxy warplan against the expansion of Communismduring the Cold War. Later, the declaration of the War on Drugsand the Plan Colombiawould eventually help develop the present and ongoing Colombian Armed Conflictinvolving mainly guerrillas: the FARC-EPincluding its Patriotic Union Party, ELN, EPL, M-19, among many others; the Drug Cartels such as the Medellín Cartel, Cali Cartel, and others; paramilitarism and the AUC. The Colombian National Police have been fighting against these many threats, tainted or involved in some cases of corruption and accusations of human rights violations, amid the efforts of the majority of the institution to change its image.
Late 1990s improvement drive
During successive weak presidencies, some Colombian National Police members were accused of being involved in many corruption cases, including guerrilla collaboration; paramilitarism and the cleansing of the leftist Patriotic Union Party, among other cases; and the corruption generated by the drug cartels' illegal money or other criminal activities. The CNP became untrusted by the general population of Colombia and the country was facing an
intense conflictor a full scale civil war.
To prevent this situation the institution began a process of change focusing on reinvigorating the values and principles of the institution, mostly led by General
Rosso Jose Serrano. Colombia's problems were demanding a strong government with strong institutions to face the numerous violations to the constitution and the population in general. The first steps towards this path was the relegation of bad policemen inside the force and targeting the major criminal organizations. The institution also focused on providing better benefits for the policemen and their families; and a particular effort to restore the trust of the community for the police force, emphasizing preventing crime, educating the population and the policemen on cordial relationships, neighborhood watch, cooperation, and community development.
Since 1995 the National Police has begun to change norms, structures, and standard operating procedures, essentially on policemen's judgment toward accomplishing missions and encouraging those who are willing to work with selfless service, integrity, leadership, and a vision of improving the population in general.
The National Police continues to have some corruption and human rights problems but the improvement has been considerable, including the education of personnel in other countries' law enforcement institutions and educational institutions through cooperation agreements. [http://snportal.policia.gov.co/inicio/portal/portal.nsf/17e5766707ce08f585256ebe004a8e6d/2539f3b976ca07700525711f004e3bf2?OpenDocument] The institution is also highly involved in the
2007 Wiretapping Scandal
In May 2007,
Revista Semanareleased transcripts of illegal wiretaps of incarcerated paramilitary leaders. After admitting his knowledge of the taps, commanding general Jorge Daniel Castrowas asked to resign, along with General Guillermo Chavez Ocana, the intelligence chief. General Oscar Naranjo Trujillo, a relatively junior general, was named to replace Castro. Due to police rules, Naranjo's appointment required the additional retirement of 10 senior generals. [http://www.economist.com/printedition/displayStory.cfm?story_id=9194275]
The Officer Corps of the Colombian National Police forms the commanding level of the institution, starting with the rank of sub-lieutenant, and ascending through lieutenant, captain, major, lieutenant colonel, colonel, brigadier general, major general, to the final and top grade of general. This branch is in charge of the administrative area of the institution and its public relations.
The executive branch is formed by chief officers of the Colombian National Police, who are commissioned to political appointee duties, and may or may not actually be professional police officers. In these circumstances, there is often a professional chief of police in charge of day-to-day operations.
This branch of the Colombian National Police is in charge of executing operations and functions under the command of the officers.
The Colombian National Police has 18 different facilities through out Colombia
General Santander Academy
The General Santander National Police Academy is the main educational center for the Colombian National Police. The academy functions as a university for the formation of its force, focusing primarily on officers. It is located in
The Police operate a very small fleet of aircraft to support operations.
! style="text-align: left; background: #aacccc;"|Aircraft! style="text-align: left; background: #aacccc;"|Origin! style="text-align: left; background: #aacccc;"|Type! style="text-align: left; background: #aacccc;"|Versions! style="text-align: left; background: #aacccc;"|In service"World Military Aircraft Inventory", Aerospace Source Book 2007, "
Aviation Week & Space Technology", January 15 2007.] ! style="text-align: left; background: #aacccc;"|Notes
Historic Civil Guards now abolished
Civil Guard (Colombia), created in 1902
*es icon [http://www.policia.gov.co/inicio/portal/unidades/institucion.nsf/paginas/Historia2 Policia Nacional de Colombia]
*es icon [http://www.fuerzasmilitares.org/policia/policia.html Fuerzas Militares; weapons of the Colombian National Police]
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