Guben


Guben

Infobox German Location
Art = Stadt
Wappen = Wappen Guben.pnglat_deg = 51 |lat_min = 57 |lat_sec = 12
lon_deg = 14 |lon_min = 43 |lon_sec = 00
Lageplan =
Bundesland = Brandenburg
Landkreis = Spree-Neiße
Höhe = 45
Fläche = 43.75
Einwohner = 20129
Stand = 2007-11-30
PLZ = 03172
Vorwahl = 03561
Kfz = SPN
Gemeindeschlüssel = 12 0 71 160
Gliederung = 4 Stadtteile, 5 Ortsteile
Straße = Gasstraße 4
Website = [http://www.guben.de www.guben.de]
Bürgermeister = Klaus-Dieter Hübner
Partei = FDP

Guben is a town on the Lusatian Neisse river in the state of Brandenburg, Germany. Located in the Spree-Neiße district, Guben has a population of 22,184 as of 2004. Along with Frankfurt (Oder) and Görlitz, Guben is a divided city on the border between Germany and Poland, having been separated into Guben and Gubin in 1945.

Geography

Environment

Guben is located in the district (Landkreis) of Spree-Neiße in the southeast of the state of Brandenburg. It is in the historical region of Lower Lusatia. Guben's position on the banks of the Lusatian Neisse between two plateaus was advantageous in its early economic development. These plateaus developed from ground moraines of the Wisconsin glaciation period. Both the western ("Kaltenborner Berge" = Kaltenborn Hills) and eastern ("Gubener Berge" = Guben Hills) ended up as terminal moraines. The surrounding land is covered with pine forests and lakes.

Districts

Guben is divided into the unofficial sections of:
*"Altstadt", formerly to 1945 "Klostervorstadt" (developed from the early Benedictine cloister area, which developed into the industrial suburb of pre-division Guben)
*"Sprucke" (originally "Vorwerk Altsprucke", added after 1920 with quarter "Neusprucke" and after 1963 with quarter "Obersprucke")
*"Reichenbach"

Guben is divided into the official districts (with district mayors) of:
*"Bresinchen"
*"Deulowitz"
*"Groß Breesen" (with "Grunewald")
*"Kaltenborn"
*"Schlagsdorf"

Coat of arms

The coat of arms of Guben depicts a red wall with three gates (Klostertor, Crossener Tor, Werdertor) and three towers. The smaller shields depict the arms of Saxony, Bohemia, and Prussia.

History

Medieval Guben

Guben began to develop around 1200 as a trade and marketplace on the roads between Leipzig and Poznań and between Görlitz and Frankfurt (Oder). A settlement on the eastern shore of the Lusatian Neisse was protected from swamps to the south and by the Lubst, a tributary of the Neisse, to the north and the east. Henry III, Margrave of Meissen, granted this settlement Magdeburg rights on June 1 1235 and declared it an oppidum (town). On the western shore of the river, a cloister of Benedictine nuns began developing as an outlying suburb of the town on the eastern shore of the river. In a charter of 1312 Guben received its coat of arms displaying three towers.

Until 1815, Guben belonged uninterruptedly to the Margravate of Lower Lusatia. Between 1367 and 1635 the margravate belonged to the crown of Bohemia. The city was fortified in the 14th century with earthworks, trenches, and wooden planking, and then refortified from 1523–1544. In 1635 Elector John George I of Saxony received Lower Lusatia and Guben in the Peace of Prague.

Growth of economy and infrastructure

Guben's textile industry began to develop in the 16th century, although it began to flourish in the 19th century, especially with leather gloves in 1849. Beginning in 1822, Guben's production of hats covered 65% of German demand. Later industrialization led to the production of rugs and shoes. Lignite processing began in the eastern half of the city in 1847. The tradition for weaving is still prevalent in modern times as the textile company Trevira maintains a manufacturing plant in the city.

Guben became a rail connection between Frankfurt (Oder) and Breslau (Wrocław) in 1846 and between Cottbus and Crossen an der Oder (Krosno Odrzańskie) in 1871. A direct line to Forst was finished in 1904, and a tram line ran in the city from February 24 1904 until June 8 1938.

In 1815 the Margravate of Lower Lusatia was abolished and replaced with the district system. Guben became the capital of a district within the Province of Brandenburg. On April 1 1884, the city of Guben separated from the district of Guben and became its own urban district. On December 1 1928 the region of Mückenberg was incorporated from the district of Guben into the city of Guben.

Most recently the Anatomist Doctor Gunther von Hagens, from Heidelberg University where he developed many of his cadaver plastinating techniques, has purchased a disused woolens manufacturing factory. This has been renovated and converted into a museum-cum-work centre. He expects to employ approximately 200 people, which will have some impact on the local unemployment figures currently running at close to 20%

There have been some objections to this development on moral grounds, but the majority of the Guben's population see this development as a good thing for the future prosperity of Guben.

After World War II

At the Potsdam Conference at the end of World War II in 1945, the boundary between Germany and Poland was fixed as the Oder-Neisse Line. Because Guben was on the Lusatian Neisse, the city was separated into German Guben and Polish Gubin.

Because the historical center of Guben became Gubin, the western suburbs which grew from the Benedictine cloister remained in Guben. Although underdeveloped compared to the town across the river, the remaining Guben began to grow extensively after 1945, especially through the construction of a chemical plant and additional residential areas. From 1961–1990 Guben was officially named "Wilhelm-Pieck-Stadt Guben" by East Germany after its first and only State President Wilhelm Pieck, who was born in the eastern half of the city (today's Gubin) in 1876. From June 1950 until July 23 1952 Guben was part of the district of Cottbus.

Reunification

The German reunification in 1990 brought economic depression and unemployment to the city. When the district of Guben was abolished on December 6 1993, Guben became part of the destrict of Spree-Neiße. In recent years the city has begun developing closer ties with Gubin across the river.

Population growth

The following is an overview of Guben's population until 2005. Until 1844 the population was mostly estimated, while afterwards the figures are from census results (¹) or official administrative documents.

¹ census results

External links

All links are in German.
* [http://www.guben.de Official site of the city of Guben]
* [http://www.guben-online.de City economic site]
* [http://www.touristinformation-guben.de Tourist information]
* [http://www.literad.de/geschichte/guben.html History from 1871-1945]
* [http://www.gubenergeschichte.de Site of a local publisher with historical information]


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  • Guben — Guben,   1) polnisch Gụbin, Stadt in der Woiwodschaft Lebus, Polen, gegenüber der brandenburgischen Stadt Guben, an der Lausitzer Neiße, 18 400 Einwohner; Textil , Schuhindustrie; Grenzübergang.   Geschichte:   Guben war bis 1945 der östlich der …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Guben — Guben/Gubin …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Guben — Guben, Stadt (Stadtkreis) im preuß. Regbez. Frankfurt, am Einfluß der Lubis in die Lausitzer Neiße, die von hier an schiffbar ist, Knotenpunkt der Staatsbahnlinien Fürstenwalde Sommerfeld, Benschen Kottbus und Forst G., hat 3 evangelische und 1… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Guben — Guben, 1) Kreis im preußischen Regierungsbezirk Frankfurt; 20,45 QM., 46,400 Ew., von der Neiße durchflossen, ziemlich fruchtbar u. stark[752] bewaldet; 2) Kreisstadt darin, an der Neiße, die hier die Lubst aufnimmt u. schiffbar wird, u. an der… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Guben — Guben, Stadtkreis und Kreisstadt im preuß. Reg. Bez. Frankfurt, an der Lausitzer Neisse, (1900) 33.122 E., Land , Amtsgericht, Gymnasium, Realgymnasium; Tuchfabriken, Spinnereien, Färbereien, Gerbereien, Obstbau …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Guben — Guben, preuß. Stadt im brandenburg. Reg. Bez. Frankfurt an der von hier an schiffbaren Neiße mit 12000 E., Wolleindustrie, Tabaksfabrikation, Gerberei, starkem Obstbau …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Guben — Wappen Deutschlandkarte …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Guben — Original name in latin Guben Name in other language Guben, Gubenas, Gubin, gu ben, gwbn, Губен State code DE Continent/City Europe/Berlin longitude 51.94987 latitude 14.71447 altitude 47 Population 21608 Date 2010 09 10 …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • Guben — Wer sich in Guben will redlich ernähren, darf sich der Hack und des Spatens nicht schämen. – Loocke, Chronik von Guben, Görlitz 1803 …   Deutsches Sprichwörter-Lexikon

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