- Timeline of clothing and textiles technology
clothingand textiles technology.
*pre-history - spindle used to create
*c. 27000 BC - Impressions of textiles and basketry and nets left on little pieces of hard clay. [http://www.exn.ca/Stories/2000/02/03/53.asp "Stone Age clothing more advanced than thought" by Gloria Chang, February 3, 2000] ]
*c. 25000 BC - Venus figurines depicted with clothing.
*c. 8000 BC - Evidence of
flaxcultivation in the Near East."Cambridge History of Western Textiles" p. 39-47]
*c. 6500 BC - Approximate date of
Naalebindingexamples found in Nehal Hemar cave, Israel. This technique, which uses short separate lengths of thread, predated the invention of spinning (with its continuous lengths of thread) and requires that all of the as-yet unused thread be pulled through the loop in the sewn material. [Barber 1991.] This requires much greater skill than knittingin order to create a fine product. [Theaker 2006.]
*c. 6000 BC - Evidence of woven textiles used to wrap the dead at
*c. 5000 BC - Production of
linencloth in Ancient Egypt, along with other bast fibers including rush, reed, palm, and papyrus."Cambridge History of Western Textiles" p. 30-39]
*4200 BC - Date of
Mesolithicexamples of Naalebindingfound in Denmark, marking spread of technology to Northern Europe. [Bender 1990.]
*c. 3000 BC - Breeding of domesticated
sheepwith a wooly fleecerather than hair in the Near East.
*200 BC to 200 AD - Approximate date of earliest evidence of "Needle Knitting" in Peru, a form of
Naalebindingthat preceded local contact with the Spanish. [Bennett & Bird 1960.]
*c. 200 AD - Earliest
woodblock printingfrom China. Flowers in three colors on silk.Shelagh Vainker in Anne Farrer (ed), "Caves of the Thousand Buddhas" , 1990, British Museum publications, ISBN 0-7141-1447-2]
*247 AD -
Dura-Europos, a Roman outpost, is destroyed. Excavations of the city discovered early examples of naalebindingfabric.
*298 AD - earliest attestation of a foot-powered loom with a hint the invention arose at Tarsus [D.L.Carroll Dating the Foot-powered loom: the Coptic evidence "American Journal of Archaeology" 1985 vol. 89; 168-73]
*500 to 1000 AD -
spinning wheelin use in India.
*500 AD -"jia xie" method for
resist dyeing(usually silk) using wood blocks invented in China. An upper and a lower block is made, with carved out compartments opening to the back, fitted with plugs. The cloth, usually folded a number of times, is inserted and clamped between the two blocks. By unplugging the different compartments and filling them with dyes of different colors, a multi-colored pattern can be printed over quite a large area of folded cloth.
*600 AD - Oldest samples of cloth printed by
Woodblock printingfrom Egypt.
*1000's AD - Finely decorated examples of
cottonsocks made by true knitting using continuous thread appear in Egypt. [Theaker 2006.]
*1275 - Approximate date of a
silkburial cushion knitin two colors found in the tomb of Spanish royalty.
*1562 - Date of first example of use of the purl stitch, from a tomb in
Toledo, Spain, which allows knitting of panels of material. Previously material had to be knitted in the round (in a tubular form) and cut it open.
*1589 - William Lee invents the
*1733 - John Kay
patents the flying shuttle.
Lewis Paulpatents the draw roller.
James Hargreavesor Thomas Highsinvents the spinning jenny(patented 1770).
*1767 - John Kay invents the
Richard Arkwright's water frame.
Samuel Cromptoninvents the spinning mule.
Edmund Cartwrightinvents the power loom.
Samuel Slaterestablishes the first successful cotton spinning mill in the United States; beginnings of the "Rhode Island System"
Eli Whitneypatents the cotton gin.
Joseph Marie Jacquardinvents the Jacquard punched card loom.
William Horrocksimproves the power loom.
*1814 - Paul Moody builds the first power loom in the
United States; beginnings of the "Waltham System"
*1828 - Paul Moody develops the leather belt and pulley power transmission system, which would become the standard for U.S. Mills.
*1847 - William Mason Patents his "Mason self-acting" Mule
*1856 - William Henry Perkin invents the first synthetic
*1892 - Cross, Bevan & Beadle invent
*1889 - Northrop Loom:
Draper Corporation, First automaticbobbin changing weaving loomplaced in production. Over 700,000 would be sold worldwide.
*c. 1920 -
Hattersley loomdeveloped by George Hattersley and Sons.
*1953 - First commercial
Polyesterfiber production by DuPont.
*1954 - Fiber reactive dye invented.
Open-end spinningdeveloped in Czechoslovakia.
Timeline of invention
*Barber, E. J. W.; Prehistoric Textiles: The Development of Cloth in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages with special reference to the Aegean; Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1991; ISBN 0-691-03597-0 (Barber 1991)
*Barber, Elizabeth Wayland, "Women's Work: The First 20,000 Years: Women, Cloth, and Society in Early Times", W. W. Norton & Company, new edition, 1995 (Barber 1995)
*Bender Jørgensen, Lise; 'Stone-Age Textiles in North Europe' in Textiles in Northern Archaeology, Textile Symposium in York, North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles Monograph 3, NESAT III; London Archetype Publications, 1990; ISBN 1-873132-05-0.
*Bennett, Wendell C. & Bird, Junius B.; Andean Culture History; Handbook Series No. 15; second and revised edition; ©The American Museum of Natural History; A publication of the Anthropological Handbook Fund, New York, 1960
* Jenkins, David, ed.: "The Cambridge History of Western Textiles", Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003, ISBN 0521341078
* [http://www.knitty.com/ISSUEspring06/FEAThistory101.html Theaker, Julie. 'History 101' in www.knitty.com]
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