Hypocoristic

Hypocoristic

A hypocoristic, hypocorism, or hypochorisma (from Greek _el. ὑποκορίζεσθαι " _el. hypokorizesthai", "to use child-talk"Oxford English Dictionary, online edition: "hypocorism", accessed 2008-06-24] ) is a lesser form of the given name used in more intimate situations, as a nickname, term of endearment, a pet name.

Derivation

Hypocoristics are often generated as:

* a reduction (in English) of a longer word to a single syllable, then adding -y or -ie to the end, such as movie ('moving picture'), telly ('television') or Aussie ('Australian').
* a contracted form of a given name, such as "Tony " from "Anthony", "Rosy" for "Rosemarie" or "Vicky" from "Victoria".
* a "baby-talk" form approximating the name's pronunciation, such as "Bess" for "Elizabeth".
* a given name with a diminutive suffix; in some languages diminutive forms of names are used primarily when referring to children and the meaning can oscillate between tenderness and condescension when used for an adult.
** "-(c)ito/-(c)ita" or "-(c)ín/-(c)ina" in Spanish, such as "Juanita" from "Juana". Extra consonants may be interposed as in "Carmelina" and "Carmencita" from Carmen, or merged, as in "Carmina".
** "-chen", "-lein", "-(l)i" (usually used with names) in German, such as Hündchen or Hündlein (from 'Hund', meaning dog) or Kalli (from 'Karl', a name); a back vowel in the root is normally subjected to umlaut, i.e. shift from "u, o, a" to "ü, ö, ä" respectively (e.g. Hund → Hündchen, Arm → Ärmchen, Holz → Hölzchen).
** a similar form, "-etto/-etta", in Interlingua.
** a parallel construction in Portuguese, with "-(z)inho/-(z)inha", as in "Aninha" from "Ana" and "Joãozinho" from "João".
** same in Italian and Italian regional languages, with -ino/-ina and -etto/etta as in Paolino/Paoletto and Paolina/Paoletta from "Paolo" and "Paola". There are also -ello/-ella, as in Donatello/Donatella from "Donato" and "Donata", -uccio/-uccia, as in Guiduccio from "Guido". The forms -uzzo/-uzza, as in Santuzza from "Santa", are typical of Sicilian dialect.
** "-ĉj-" and "-nj-" affixes (for males and females respectively) in Esperanto; these replace the last consonant (or consonant cluster) of the root, thus "patro → paĉjo" (father), "patrino → panjo" (mother).
** "-chan", "-tan", or "-pi" in Japanese, such as "Kana-chan" from "Kana" and "Aki-chan" from "Akihiro". Gemination (doubling) of the consonant or lengthening of the vowel before the "-chan" to provide two moras is common, such as "Settchan" from "Setsuko" and "Hii-chan" from "Hiroki".
** reduplication in various languages, such as "John-John" or "Didi".
** the addition of a word-final very high tone, or "changed tone", in Cantonese and related dialects, sometimes in combination with the addition of the mid-toned prefix "a" before the name.
** "-ulus"/"-ula" in Latin, most famously in the case of the Roman emperor Caligula, whose moniker means "little boot". He received the name from soldiers in reference to the small army sandals ("caligae", singular "caliga") he wore when he was young. Likewise the name Ursula is derived from "ursa" (bear) and means "little bear".

As evident from the above-mentioned examples, hypocoristics frequently demonstrate (indirectly) a phonological linguistic universal (or tendency) for high-pitched sounds to be used for smaller creatures and objects (here as more "cute" or less imposing names). Higher-pitched sounds are associated with smaller creatures due to the fact that smaller creatures can only make such high frequency sounds given their smaller larynx sizes.

The word "hypocoristic" is used as a noun or adjective in English; some other languages prefer to use the original Greek word "hypocoristicon" as a noun. The noun "hypocoristicon" seems to be rarely used in English.

Hypocoristics in various languages

English

English also forms nicknames in a variety of manners.

Shortening, generally to the first syllable:

* "Abraham" → "Abe"
* "Arthur" → "Art"
* "Calvin" → "Cal"
* "Clayton" → "Clay"
* "Daniel" → "Dan"
* "Dominic" → "Dom"
* "Douglas" → "Doug"
* "Franklin" → "Frank"
* "Gregory" → "Greg"
* "Gustav" → "Gus"
* "Jeffrey" → "Jeff"
* "Jacob" → "Jake"
* "Janice" → "Jan"
* "Jason" → "Jay"
* "Joseph" → "Joe"
* "Joshua" → "Josh"
* "Megan" → "Meg"
* "Mitchell" → "Mitch"
* "Peter" → "Pete"
* "Philip" → "Phil"
* "Rachel" → "Ray" or "Rach"
* "Raymond" → "Ray"
* "Trenton" → "Trent"
* "Victor" → "Vic"
* "Zachary" → "Zach"

Addition of the diminutive suffix, "-ie" or "-y". It is often added to the end of an already shortened name. This suffix connotes smallness or endearment. Although most often applied to the names of children, it is not uncommon for an adult to be referred to by the diminutive, especially by family, friends and close acquaintances.

* "Anne" → "Annie"
* "Arthur, Arturo" → "Art → Artie"
* "George" → "Georgie"
* "James" → "Jamie, Jim → Jimmy"
* "Jonathan" → "Jon → Jonny"
* "Kirstin" → "Kirstie"
* "Robert" → "Rob/Bob" → "Robbie/Bobby"
* "Timothy" → "Tim → Timmy"
* "William" → "Will/Bill" → "Willie/Billy"
* "Alfred" → "Alfredo"

A short form that differs significantly from the name:

* "Dorothy" → "Dot, Dottie"
* "Henry" → "Hank, Harry"
* "Sarah" → "Sally"

And combinations and variants of the above:

* "Abigail" → "Abby"
* "Albert, Alan, Alastair, Alfred" → "Al"
* "Alfred → Alf, Alfie, Fred, Fredo.
* "Alexander" → "Alex, Lex, Xander, Sandy"
* "Alexandra" → "Alex, Ali, Lexie, Sandy"
* "Aloysius" → "Lou, Lewie"
* "Andrew" → "Andy, Drew"
* "Anthony" → "Ant, Tony"
* "Antoinette" → "Toni, Netta"
* "Arnold" → "Arnie"
* "Augustus" - "Gussie"
* "Barbara" → "Barb, Barbie, Babs, Bobbie"
* "Barnaby" - "Barney"
* "Bartholomew" → "Bart → Barty"
* "Benjamin" → "Ben, Benji, Benny"
* "Beverley" - "Bev"
* "Carolyn" → "Carol, Lyn"
* "Cassandra" → "Cassie, Cass, Sandra, Sandy"
* "Charles" → "Charlie, Chuck, Chas, Chazza"
* "Christine" → "Chris, Christy, Chrissy, Tina"
* "Christopher" → "Chris, Kit"
* "Daniel" → "Dan → Danny"
* "David" → "Dave → Davey"
* "Edward/Edmund" → "Ed, Eddy, Eddie, Ned, Neddie, Ted, Teddy"
* "Elaine" → "Lainie"
* "Eleanor" → "Ellie", "Nell", "Nellie", "Ella", "Elle", "Nora"
* "Elizabeth" → "Bess, Bessie, Bette, Bet, Betty, Beth, Betsy, Eliza, Elise, Elsa, Elsie, Elle, Ella, Lisa, Lisbeth, Lissie, Lily, Libby, Lizbeth, Lizzie, Liz, Liza, Lilibet"
* "Emily" → "Em, Emmy, Emma"
* "Ethel" - "Eth"
* "Frances/Francesca" → "Fran, Franny, Fanny"
* "Francis/Francesco" → "Fran, Frank, Frankie"
* "Frederick" → "Fred, Freddy, Rick, Fritz"
* "Gerald" → "Gerry/Jerry"
* "Gertrude" - "Gert, Gertie"
* "Geoffrey" → "Geoff/Jeff"
* "Harold" → "Harry, Hal"
* "Helen" → "Nell/Nellie, Eleni"
* "Herbert" → "Herb, Herbie, Bert"
* "Hilary" - "Hil, Hilly"
* "Howard" → "Howie"
* "Isabella" → "Izzy, Isa, Bella, Bell"
* "James" → "Jim, Jimmy, Jamie, Jimbo, Jambo"
* "Jennifer" → "Jen, Jenny"
* "Jeremiah" → "Jeremy, Jerry"
* "Jeremy" → "Jem, Jerry"
* "Jerome" → "Jerry"
* "Jessica" → "Jess, Jessie"
* "Joel" → "Joe, Joey"
* "John" → "Johnny, Jack, Jackie"
* "Jordan" → "Judd, Jordy"
* "Joseph" → "Joe, Joey"
* "Josephine" → "Jo, Joey, Josie"
* "Judith" → "Judy"
* "Katherine" → "Kathy, Kat, Katie, Kate, Kit, Kitty"
* "Katrina" → "Kat, Trina"
* "Kenneth" → "Ken, Kenny"
* "Kimberly" → "Kim → Kimmy"
* "Lawrence" → "Larry"
* "Leonard/Leonardo" → "Len, Lenny, Leon, Leo, Lee"
* "Louis" → "Lou → Louie"
* "Lucille" → "Lucy"
* "Madeline" → "Maddie"
* "Margaret" → "Peggy", "Daisy", "Maggie", "Marge"
* "Martin" → "Marty"
* "Matthew" → "Matt → Matty"
* "Michael" → "Mike/Mick → Mikey/Mickey"
* "Montague/Montgomery/Montmorency" - "Monty"
* "Nathan" → "Nat, Nate"
* "Nicholas" → "Nick → Nicky"
* "Nigel" - "Nig, Niggy, Niglet, Nige"
* "Norbert" - "Nobby"
* "Oliver" → "Ollie"
* "Paul" (or "Pauline", "Paula") → "Paulie/Polly"
* "Patricia" - "Patty, Patsy, Trisha"
* "Percival" - "Percy"
* "Peregrine" - "Perry"
* "Priscilla" - "Cilla"
* "Rebecca" → "Becky, Becca, Becks, Bex, Bec"
* "Regina" → "Reggie, Gina"
* "Reginald" → "Reg, Reggie"
* "Renee" → "Rae"
* "Richard" → "Rich, Richie, Rick, Ricky, Dick, Dicky"
* "Robert" → "Rob, Bob, Robbie, Bobby"
* "Roberta" - "Bobbie"
* "Roderick" - "Rod, Roddy"
* "Rodney" - "Rodders"
* "Ronald" → "Ron → Ronnie"
* "Russell" → "Russ, Rusty"
* "Samuel" → "Sam → Sammy"
* "Stephen" → "Steve → Stevie"
* "Susan" → "Sue, Susie, Suzy"
* "Teresa/Theresa" → "Tracy/Tracey"
* "Theodore" → "Ted, Teddy, Theo, Ned, Neddy"
* "Thomas" → "Tom → Tommy"
* "Tobias" → "Toby"
* "Veronica" → "Vera, Ronni/Ronnie"
* "Victoria" → "Vicky, Tori"
* "Vincent" → "Vinnie, Vince"
* "Virginia" → "Ginny, Ginger, Vergie"
* "Walter" → "Wal, Walt, Wally"
* "William" → "Will/Bill" → "Willie/Billy"

Russian

Russian has a wide variety of diminutive forms for names, to the point that for non-Russian speakers it can be difficult to connect a nickname to the original. Diminutive forms for nouns are usually distinguished with an -ik, -ok (-yok) (masculine gender), -chk-/-shk- and -on’k-/-en’k- suffixes. Names can be somewhat more arbitrary, but still follow a loose pattern. A list of common names and their diminutive forms:

* "Aleksey" = "Alyosha, Alyoshen'ka, Alyoshka, Lyoshik, Lyosha, Lyoha"
* "Aleksandr(a)" = "Sasha, Shura, Sashen'ka, Shurik, Sashka, San'ka, Sashechka, Shurka, Shurochka"
* "Anastasiya" = "Nastya, Asya, Nasten'ka, Nastyushka, Nastyona, Nast'ka"
* "Andrey" = "Andryusha, Andryuha"
* "Anna" = "Anya, Anyuta, Anyutka, Anechka, Annushka, Nyuta, Nyura, Nyurka, Nyusha"
* "Artyom" = "Tyoma"
* "Boris" = "Borya, Boren'ka, Boryusha, Bor'ka"
* "Dmitriy" = "Dima, Mitya, Miten'ka, Dimochka, Mityusha, Dimon, Mit'ka"
* "Grigoriy" = "Grisha"
* "Ivan" = "Vanya, Ivanushka, Vanechka, Van'ka"
* "Konstantin" = "Kostya, Kostenka, Kostik, Kost'ka"
* "Leonid" = "Lyonya, Lyolik, Lyonуchka, Lyon'ka"
* "Mariya" = "Masha, Manya, Mashen'ka, Mashechka, Mashusha, Marusya, Mashka"
* "Mikhail" = "Misha, Mishen'ka, Mishanya, Mishka"
* "Nataliya" = "Natasha, Nata, Natashen'ka, Natusen'ka, Natusik, Natashka"
* "Nikolay" = "Kolya, Kolen'ka, Nikolasha, Kol'ka, Kolyan"
* "Oleg" = "Olezhka, Olezha, Olezhek"
* "Ol'ga" = "Olya, Olen'ka, Olechka"
* "Pavel" = "Pasha, Pashen'ka, Pavlik"
* "Pyotr" = "Petya, Peten'ka, Petrusha, Petyunya"
* "Roman" = "Roma, Romka"
* "Sergei" = "Seryozha, Seryoga, Seryozhen'ka, Seryozhka, Seriy"
* "Stepan" = "Styopa, Styopan'ka, Stepan'chik, Styopushka, Styopka"
* "Stanislav"= "Stasya, Stasyan, Stasik, Stasyuka, Stasenka"
* "Bratislav", "Vyacheslav" and "Svyatoslav" = "Slava, Slavochka"
* "Svetlana" = "Sveta, Svetochka, Svetik, Svetyushka, Svetka"
* "Vadim" = "Vadik, Vadimka, Dima, Vadya, Vadisha, Vadyusha"
* "Viktoriya" = "Vika"
* "Vladimir" = "Volodya, Vova, Vovochka, Voloden'ka, Vovka, Volodka, Vovan"
* "Yekaterina" = "Katya, Katerina, Katechka, Katen'ka, Katyukha, Katyusha, Kat'ka"
* "Yevgeny" = "Zhenya, Zhenechka, Zheka, Zhen'ka, Zhenich"
* "Yuriy" = "Yura, Yurka"

Some names can also be modified with a -ka ending to add a further level of familiarity, but are not normally used for adults who are not family members.

Polish

In Polish there are multiple affixes used to create the diminutive. Some of them are -ka, -sia, -cia, -unia, -enka, -śka, -lka for feminine nouns and -ek, -uś, -ciek, -czek, -uń, -eńki, -lki for masculine (among others). Here is a list of common names with some of them:

* "Agnieszka" = "Aga", "Asia"
* "Aleksandra" = "Ola", "Oleńka"
* "Aleksander" = "Olek", "Alek", "Oluś"
* "Anna" = "Ania", "Anka", "Anusia"
* "Antoni" = "Antek"
* "Arkadiusz" = "Arek", "Aruś"
* "Barbara" = "Basia", "Baśka"
* "Bartłomiej" = "Bartek", "Bartuś"
* "Bartosz" = "Bartek", "Bartuś"
* "Dariusz" = "Darek", "Dareczek"
* "Edward" = "Edek", "Edzio"
* "Ewa" = "Ewka", "Ewusia"
* "Grzegorz" = "Grzesiek", "Grześ"
* "Henryka" = "Henia"
* "Henryk" = "Henio", "Heniek"
* "Jakub" = "Kuba", "Kubuś"
* "Jarosław" = "Jarek", "Jaruś"
* "Jan" = "Jaś", "Janek"
* "Janusz" = "Janek"
* "Joanna" = "Joasia", "Asia"
* "Katarzyna" = "Kasia", "Kaśka", "Kasieńka, Kasiunia"
* "Krzysztof" = "Krzysiek", "Krzyś"
* "Maciej" = "Maciek", "Maciuś"
* "Małgorzata" = "Małgosia", "Małgośka", "Gośka", "Gosia", "Gosieńka"
* "Maria" = "Marysia, Maryśka, Marysieńka"
* "Mirosław" = "Mirek", Mireczek, Mirko, Miruś
* "Piotr" = "Piotrek", "Piotruś"
* "Roman" = "Romek", "Romeczek", "Romuś"
* "Ryszard" = "Rysiek"
* "Sławomir" = "Sławek"
* "Tadeusz" = "Tadek", "Tadzio"
* "Tomasz" = "Tomek", "Tomuś, Tomcio, Tomaszek, Tomeczek"
* "Władysław" = "Władek"
* "Włodzimierz" = "Włodek"
* "Witold" = "Witek"
* "Wojciech" = "Wojtek", "Wojtuś"
* "Zofia" = "Zosia, Zośka"
* "Zbigniew" = "Zbyszek"

panish

Spanish forms diminutives by adding one of several diminutive suffixes. -ito/a, -cito/a, -ecito/a, -ico/a, -cico/a -illo/a, -cillo/a, -uelo/a, -zuelo/a, -ete/a, -ín, -iño/a.

* "Juana" = "Juanita" = "Ju"
* "Jorge" = "Jorgito" = "Jor"

It is common for a person to be known by 2 first names: Jose Luis, María Teresa, Juan Carlos etc. Combining the 2 names into one is another common way to form a hypocoristicon.

* "María Teresa" = "Maritere, Marite"
* "María Luisa" = "Marisa"
* "María Isabel" = "Maribel, Marisa"
* "Luz María" = "Luzma"
* "María Fernanda" = "Marifer"
* "María Salvadora" = "Marisa"

Many Spanish nicknames, however, are or can seem very unlike the original name. Notice, however, that the -ch- /tʃ/ sound is very common in many of these diminutives.

* "Alberto" = "Berto, Beto"
* "Alfonso" = "Fon, Fonso, Poncho"
* "Anastasio" = "Tasio, Tacho"
* "Aniceto" = "Cheto"
* "Beatriz" = "Bea, Beti"
* "Concepción" = "Concha, Conchita"
* "Consuelo" = "Chelo"
* "Diego" = "Diegui"
* "Dolores" = "Lola"
* "Eduardo" = "Edu, Lalo"
* "Enrique" = "Quique, Rico"
* "Ernesto" = "Neto"
* "Feliciano" = "Chano"
* "Fernanda" = "Fer, Nanda"
* "Fernando" = "Fer, Nando, Fercho"
* "Francisco" = "Paco, Pancho, Pacho, Quico"
* "Graciela" = "Chela, Gra"
* "Guadalupe" = "Lupe, Lupita"
* "Guillermo" = "Guille, Guillo, Memo"
* "Ignacia" = "Nacha"
* "Ignacio" = "Nacho"
* "Isabel" = "Isa, Chavela, Chabela, Chabel"
* "Jesús" = "Chuy, Chus, Chucho, Suso"
* "Jorge" = "Coque"
* "José" = "Pepe, Chepe"
* "José María" = "Chema, Josema"
* "Laura" = "Lala, Lau, Cuquis, Yaya"
* "Lidia" = "Yiya"
* "Luis" = "Lucho, Güicho"
* "Luisa" = "Lucha"
* "Manuel" = "Manu, Manolo, Lolo"
* "María Fernanda" = "Máfer"
* "Maximina" = "Chimina"
* "Refugio, María del Refugio" = "Cuca"
* "Roberto" = "Rober, Berto, Beto"
* "Rosario" = "Chayo, Charo"
* "Santiago" = "Santi, Chago"
* "Sergio" = "Checo"
* "Silvia" = "Chiva"
* "Vicente" = "Vicen, Chente"

Also, several female names may have their endings cut off and the vowel -"i" added at the end in the formation of pet names:

* "Beatriz" = "Beti"
* "Leticia" = "Leti"
* "Pilar, María del Pilar" = "Pili"
* "Susana" = "Susi"

ee also

* Diminutive
* Nickname
* Term of endearment

References


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Hypocoristic — Hyp o*co*ris tic, a. [Gr. ?; ? under + ? to caress.] Endearing; diminutive; as, the hypocoristic form of a name. [1913 Webster] The hypocoristic or pet form of William. Dr. Murray. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • hypocoristic — [hī΄pō kə ris′tik, hip΄ōkə ris′tik] adj. [< Gr hypokoristikos < hypokorizesthai, to call by endearing names < hypo (see HYPO ) + korizesthai, to pet < korē, girl < IE base * k̑er , to grow > CEREAL] of or being a pet name or a… …   English World dictionary

  • hypocoristic — [ˌhʌɪpə(ʊ)kə rɪstɪk] adjective of or denoting a pet name or diminutive form of a name. noun a hypocoristic name or form. Derivatives hypocorism noun Origin C19: from Gk hupokorisma, from hupokorizesthai play the child …   English new terms dictionary

  • hypocoristic — hy•po•co•ris•tic [[t]ˌhaɪ pə kəˈrɪs tɪk[/t]] adj. 1) endearing, as a pet name or diminutive 2) a hypocoristic term; pet name or diminutive • Etymology: 1600–10; < Gk hypokoristikós, der. of hypokorízesthai to call by endearing names =hypo hypo …   From formal English to slang

  • hypocoristic — adjective see hypocorism …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • hypocoristic — См. ipocoristico …   Пятиязычный словарь лингвистических терминов

  • hypocoristic — hypocoristically, adv. /huy peuh keuh ris tik, hip euh /, adj. endearing, as a pet name, diminutive, or euphemism. [1600 10; < Gk hypokoristikós diminutive, equiv. to hypokor(ízesthai) to play the child, call by endearing names (hypo HYPO + kor… …   Universalium

  • hypocoristic — 1. adjective pertaining to a nickname, usually indicating intimacy with the person See Also: hypocorism, hypocoristical, hypocoristically 2. noun A nickname …   Wiktionary

  • hypocoristic — adj. endearing; diminutive (of a name); used as a pet name …   English contemporary dictionary

  • hypocoristic — hypo·co·ris·tic …   English syllables

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