Quilombo


Quilombo

A "quilombo" (from the Kimbundu word "kilombo") is a Brazilian hinterland settlement founded by Quilombolas, or Maroons and, in some cases, a minority of marginalised Portuguese, Brazilian aboriginals, Jews and Arabs, and/or other non-black, non-slave Brazilians that faced oppression during colonization.

Some of these settlements were near Portuguese settlements and active both in defending against "capitães do mato" commissioned to recapture slaves and in facilitating the escape of even more slaves. For this reason, they were targets of the Dutch, then Portuguese colonial authorities and, later, of the Brazilian state and slaveowners. Some quilombos that were farther from Portuguese settlements and the later Brazilian cities were tolerated and still exist as towns today, with inhabitants speaking distinctly African-Portuguese Creole languages. In the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America, such a settlement is called a "palenque" and its inhabitants are "palenqueros" who speak various Spanish-African-based creole languages.

It is widely believed that the term "quilombo" establishes a link between Palmares (see later) and the culture of central Angola where the majority of slaves were forcibly brought to Brazil, because, during the time of the slave trafficking, natives in central Angola, called Imbangala, had created an institution called a "kilombo" that united various tribes of diverse lineage into a community designed for military resistance during that time of upheaval. However, the documentation on Palmares typically uses the term mocambo to describe the settlements, and quilombo was not used until the 1670s and then primarily in more southerly parts of Brazil.

The most famous of the quilombos was Palmares, an independent, self-sustaining republic near Recife, established in about 1600. Part of the reason for the massive size of the quilombo at Palmares was because of its location in Brazil, which was at the median point between the Atlantic Ocean and Guinea, an important area of the African slave trade. At its height, Palmares was massive and consisted of several settlements with a combined population of over 30,000 renegades, mostly blacks. Ganga Zumba and Zumbi are the two most well known warrior-leaders of Palmares which, after a history of conflict with, first, Dutch and then Portuguese colonial authorities, finally fell to a Portuguese artillery assault in 1694.

In Brazil, both men are honored as heroes and symbols of black pride, freedom and democracy to this day. Zumbi's execution date (as his birthday is unknown), November 20, is acknowledged as the National Day of the Black Conscience and he has appeared in postage stamps, banknotes and coins.

The Brazilian 1988 constitution granted the remaining quilombos the collective ownership of the lands they have occupied since colonial times, thus recognizing their distinct identity at the same level of the Indians.

In the Spanish dialect of the River Plate, the word "quilombo" has come to mean "brothel"" [http://buscon.rae.es/draeI/SrvltGUIBusUsual?TIPO_HTML=2&TIPO_BUS=3&LEMA=quilombo quilombo] " at the Diccionario de la Real Academia Española.] , and later "big mess". In Venezuelan Spanish, it means "boondocks".

A 1984 film titled "Quilombo" [ [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0091816/ "Quilombo"] at IMDB] depicts the rise and fall of Palmares. Directed by Carlos Diegues, "Quilombo" is a mystical, yet mostly accurate, historical epic that chronicles the lives of Ganga Zumba and Zumbi.

ee also

*Atlantic slave trade
*San Basilio de Palenque
*Cafuzo
*Capoeira
*Garifuna
*Palenque (village) - the equivalent settlements in Spanish America
*Slavery
*Slave Revolts in Brazil prior to 1835‎
*Triangular trade
*Zambo
*Mocambos

References

* [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-216X%28199610%2928%3A3%3C545%3ATQOPAN%3E2.0.CO%3B2-R The Quilombo of Palmares: A New Overview of a Maroon State in Seventeenth-Century Brazil (scholarly article) ]
* [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2992%28197921%2964%3A2%3C116%3AFSAFST%3E2.0.CO%3B2-E Fugitive Slaves and Free Society: The Case of Brazil (scholarly article) ]
* [http://www.anthrosource.net/doi/abs/10.1525/ae.2006.33.3.340 Buried Alive: Imagining Africa in the Brazilian Northeast (scholarly article) ]
* [http://www.articlemyriad.com/69.htm "Oppression & Rebellion: The Quilombo at Palmares" (scholarly article)]
* [http://unjobs.org/tags/quilombos Articles and sources for quilombos in Brazil]
* [http://youtube.com/watch?v=JgzOlTAze3Q Maroon community in Colombia]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Quilombo —    Drame de Carlos Diegues, avec Antonio Pompéo, Zézé Motta, Toni Tornado.   Pays: Brésil et France   Date de sortie: 1984   Technique: couleurs   Durée: 1 h 50    Résumé    Au XVIIe siècle, des Noirs fuyant l esclavage fondent une communauté… …   Dictionnaire mondial des Films

  • quilombo — s. m. 1. Em Angola, acampamento no mato. 2.  [Brasil] Esconderijo no mato onde se refugiavam os escravos …   Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa

  • quilombo — sustantivo masculino 1. Uso/registro: coloquial, restringido en Chile y Perú. Origen: Argentina, Chile, Perú, Uruguay. Prostíbulo. 2. Uso/registro: coloquial. Origen …   Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española

  • quilombo — (De or. africano). 1. m. Arg.), Bol.), Chile, Par. y Ur. prostíbulo. 2. vulg. Arg.), Bol.), Hond.), Par. y Ur. Lío, barullo, gresca, desorden. 3. Ven. Lugar apartado y de difícil acceso, andurrial …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • Quilombo — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. En Afrique bantoue, dans la langue kimbundu (Angola) le quilombo est une société d’initiation de jeunes guerriers ou un lieu de repos pour les nomades[1] …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Quilombo — Para otros usos de este término, véase Quilombo (desambiguación). Quilombolas en el lanzamiento de la Agenda Social Quilombolas y el Plan Nacional para la Promoción de la Igualdad Racial, en el Palacio de Planalto, en Brasilia Quilombo (del… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Quilombo — Ein Quilombo ist eine Niederlassung von aus der Sklaverei geflohenen Schwarzen in Brasilien. Der größte und berühmteste Quilombo war der von Palmares im heutigen brasilianischen Bundesstaat Alagoas mit zeitweise zwischen 20.000 und 30.000… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • quilombo — ► sustantivo masculino 1 Venezuela Choza, cabaña campestre. 2 Chile, R de la Plata Lupanar, casa de mujeres públicas. 3 Argentina vulgar Lío, barullo, gresca, desorden. * * * quilombo (de or. africano) 1 (Ven.) m. *Choza. 2 (Arg., R. Pl.) *Burdel …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • quilombo — desorden; escándalo; burdel; cf. bochinche, zorra, escoba, tendalada, casa de putas, kilombo; se armó un quilombo el otro día en la Moneda; un choclón humano se metió al Patio de los Naranjos alegando que les estaban quitando sus casas porque no… …   Diccionario de chileno actual

  • quilombo — {{#}}{{LM Q32483}}{{〓}} {{SynQ33263}} {{[}}quilombo{{]}} ‹qui·lom·bo› {{《}}▍ s.m.{{》}} {{<}}1{{>}} {{♂}}En zonas del español meridional,{{♀}} burdel. {{<}}2{{>}} {{※}}col.{{¤}} {{♂}}En zonas del español meridional,{{♀}} lío o follón.… …   Diccionario de uso del español actual con sinónimos y antónimos


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