- Cape Canaveral
Cape Canaveral from the Spanish "Cabo Cañaveral", is a headland in
Brevard County, Florida, United States, near the center of that state's Atlantic coast 45 minutes East of Orlando by car. Known as Cape Kennedy from 1963 to 1973, it sits due east of Merritt Island, separated from it by the Banana River. [cite web |url=http://www.spaceline.org/capehistory/1a.html |title=Spaceline: History of Cape Canaveral B.C.-1948 |accessdate=2008-08-31 |work= |publisher= |date= ] It is part of a region known as the Space Coast, and is the site of the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Since many United States spacecraftare launched from both the station and the Kennedy Space Centeron nearby Merritt Island, the term "Cape Canaveral" or "Canaveral" has become a metonymthat refers to both as the launch site of spacecraft. In homage to its spacefaring heritage, the FloridaPublic Service Commission allocated "321" as the telephone area code for Cape Canaveral and surrounding counties.
Other features of the cape include Cape Canaveral lighthouse and
Port Canaveral. The city of Cape Canaveral is a few miles south of the cape. Mosquito Lagoon, The Indian River, Merritt Island National Wildlife Refugeand Canaveral National Seashoreare also features of this area.
As early as the 16th century Cape Canaveral has been noted on nautical maps. A point of land jutting out into the Atlanticocean with swift currents and coral shoals this area of Cape Canaveral became a landing spot for many shipwrecked sailors. Itwas named by
Juan Ponce de Leon's historian as Cape of Currents. Author Henrietta Carr stated in her book that Englishprivateer Master John Hawkins and his journalist John Sparke gave an account of their landing at Cape Canaveral in the1500's. Robert Ranson in his book "East Coast Memoirs" writes about a Presbyterian missionary who was wrecked and livedamong the Indians. Other histories tell of French survivors from Jean Ribault's Fort Carolinewhose ship the "Trinite"wrecked on the shores of Cape Canaveral and from whose timbers a fort was built.
The last naval battle of the
American Revolutionary Warwas fought off the shores of Cape Canaveral in 1783, between the USS Alliance and the HMS Sybill. [cite book | author = Sonnenberg, Maria |title = Group pays homage to the past | publisher = Florida Today, page 3B | date = January 22, 2007]
Due to the hazards of the Cape to shipping, the first
Cape Canaveral Lighthouse was built and completed in 1843.
The 1890 graduating class of
HarvardUniversity started a gun club called the "Canaveral Club" at the Cape. This was founded by C.B. Horton of Boston and George H. Reed. A number of distinguished visitors including presidents Grover Clevelandand Benjamin Harrisonwere reported to have stayed here. In the 1920s the grand building fell in disrepair and later burned to the ground.
In the 1900s several communities sprang up in Cape Canaveral. The area was predominately a farming and fishing community. One community was called
Artesiaand records indicate the following residents and their occupations:
* Burns, M.B. (fruit grower),
* Burns, R.G. (fisherman),
* Chandler, Wyatt. (fruit grower),
* Franklin, A. (painter),
* Holmes, G.W. (apiarist),
* Honeywell, CP. (lighthouse keeper),
* Jeffords, S.L. (assistant lighthouse keeper),
* Peterson, W.C. (apiarist),
* Praetorious E. (assistant lighthouse keeper),
* Quarterman, O.A. (Fishery),
* Thompson, T. (engineer),
* Wilson, F.A. (fisherman),
* Wilson, H. (fruit grower).
In the 1930s a community of wealthy journalists started a community called "Journalista" which is now called "Avon by the Sea". The Brossier brothers built houses in this area and started a publication entitled the Evening Star Reporter that was the forerunner of the
The first rocket launch from the Cape was
Bumper 8from Launch Pad 3 on 24 July 1950. On February 6, 1959 the first successful test firing of a Titan intercontinental ballistic missile was accomplished here. All manned U.S. government ( NASA) spaceflights have launched from Kennedy Space Center on nearby Merritt Island.
Cape Canaveral was chosen for rocket launches to take advantage of the earth's
rotation. The linear velocityof the Earth's surface is greatest towards the equator; the relatively southerly location of the Cape allows rockets to take advantage of this by launching eastward, in the same direction as the earth's rotation. It is also highly desirable to have the downrange area sparsely populated, in case of accidents; an ocean is ideal for this. Although the United States has sites closer to the equator with expanses of ocean to the east of them (e.g. Hawaii, Puerto Rico), the east coast of Florida has substantial logistical advantages over these island locations. The tip of the cape is at LC-46 in Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.
From 1963 to 1973 it was called Cape Kennedy. President
John F. Kennedywas an enthusiastic backer of the space program, and after his assassination in 1963, his widow Jacqueline Kennedy suggested to President Lyndon Johnsonthat renaming the Cape Canaveral facility would be an appropriate memorial. However, Johnson recommended the renaming not just of the facility, but of the entire cape. Accordingly, Cape Canaveral was renamed Cape Kennedy.
Although the name change was approved by the
United States Board on Geographic Namesof the Interior Department in 1964, it was not popular in Florida, especially in the "city" of Cape Canaveral, Florida. In 1973 the state passed a law restoring the former 400-year-old name, and the Board went along. The Kennedy familyissued a letter stating they "understood the decision"; Jacqueline Kennedy also stated if she had known that the Canaveral name had existed for 400 years, she never would have supported changing the name of the Cape. The Space Center itself retains the "Kennedy" name.
The name "Canaveral" "(Cañaveral" in Spanish) was given to the area by Spanish explorers. It literally means "
canebrake". The name can be interpreted as "Cape of Canes".
The City of Cape Canaveral is relatively small, with a population of around 10,000. Highway A1A runs through the City, and serves as the main link to other cities. Many houses in the City were built during the
Apollodays in the 1960s and 1970s. However, in recent years, many houses are either being modernized, or demolished and replaced with new houses or condos. The City has a high divorce rate and a history of drug problems, but this detraction is largely overcome by proximity to the beach, Kennedy Space Center, and Orlando.
In pop culture
The Simpsons" episode " Deep Space Homer", a fictitious sign shows its pre-Canaveral name as Cape Arbuckle. In another episode, Ned Flanders greets Homer, with whom he is competing via craft rocket, "Greetings from Neddidy Space Center on Cape Flandaveral."
*Made in 1964, but set in 2064, cult British TV series "Thunderbirds" refers to Cape Kennedy.
*The "Cape Kennedy" name shows up in some 1960s TV shows, at least in episodes of "Flipper" and "
I Dream of Jeannie", both of which were set on the Space Coast.
*The name is also mentioned in the 1967 film "
The Reluctant Astronaut".
*Cape Kennedy is referenced on a newspaper headline in the 1969 Disney film "The Computer Wore Tennis Shoes" starring Kurt Russell
*Cape Canaveral is referred to in the Descendents song "Blast Off", from the album "
Cool to Be You" [cite web
title = Blast Off lyrics
url = http://www.descendentsonline.com/discography/lyrics/lyrics3.html#blastoff
accessdate = 2007-03-09 ] .
*Cape Canaveral is referred to in the Jack's Mannequin song "Cellular Phone".
*One of the stops in the FOX television show Drive, references Cape Kennedy as a clue, with 1973 and the name change cited as the Death of Kennedy, leading the racers to Cape Canaveral.
Conor Oberstfrom Bright Eyesrecently performed a song called Cape Canaveral live with the Mystic Valley Band. Cape Canaveral is the opening song of their 2008 album.
Lost In Space", during the third season, a computer states that the Jupiter 2 mission lifted off from Cape Kennedy in 1997.
* [http://www.capehistory.info/ Local history exhibit with photos.]
* [http://www.spaceline.org/capehistory.html History of Cape Canaveral]
* [http://www.myflorida.com/cape/ City of Cape Canaveral, FL]
* [http://www.terraserver-usa.com/image.aspx?T=1&S=16&Z=17&X=42&Y=245&W=1&qs=%7cCape+Canaveral%7c%7c Microsoft Terra Server image of Cape Canaveral and surroundings]
* [http://maps.google.com/maps?q=Cape+Canaveral,+FL&ll=28.467636,-80.553474&spn=0.156384,0.225563&t=k Google Maps imagery]
* [http://www.discoverbrevard.com/CapeCanaveral.php/ Discover Cape Canaveral, FL]
* [http://www.straightdope.com/classics/a2_440.html The Straight Dope: Why did they change the name of Cape Kennedy back to Cape Canaveral?]
* [http://www.nasa.gov/centers/kennedy/home/index.html NASA's official Kennedy Space Center page]
* [http://www.space.gs/weather/map.html Map of Cape Canaveral, John F. Kennedy Space Center and the Space Shuttle Landing Facility]
* [http://www.amazon.com/Cape-Canaveral-Images-America-Florida/dp/0738553271/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1219213803&sr=8-1 Images of America: Cape Canaveral by Ray Osborne]
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Cape Canaveral — bezeichnet: Cape Canaveral (Küstenabschnitt), einen Küstenabschnitt an der Ostküste Floridas, Vereinigte Staaten Cape Canaveral (Florida), eine Stadt an der Ostküste Floridas, Vereinigte Staaten Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, ein… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Cape Canaveral — Cape Canaveral, FL U.S. city in Florida Population (2000): 8829 Housing Units (2000): 6641 Land area (2000): 2.330758 sq. miles (6.036635 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.016771 sq. miles (0.043436 sq. km) Total area (2000): 2.347529 sq. miles… … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places
Cape Canaveral, FL — U.S. city in Florida Population (2000): 8829 Housing Units (2000): 6641 Land area (2000): 2.330758 sq. miles (6.036635 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.016771 sq. miles (0.043436 sq. km) Total area (2000): 2.347529 sq. miles (6.080071 sq. km) FIPS… … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places
Cape Canaveral — Cape Ca|nav|er|al a ↑cape in Florida which is famous for the ↑Kennedy Space Center, where US spacecraft are sent into space. Cape Canaveral was formerly called Cape Kennedy … Dictionary of contemporary English
Cape Canaveral — Cet article concerne la ville. Pour le cap, voir Cap Canaveral. 28° 23′ 18″ N 80° 36′ 13″ W … Wikipédia en Français
Cape Canaveral — noun a sandy promontory (formerly Cape Kennedy) extending into the Atlantic Ocean from a barrier island off the eastern coast of Florida; the site of a NASA center for spaceflight • Syn: ↑Cape Kennedy • Instance Hypernyms: ↑promontory, ↑headland … Useful english dictionary
Cape Canaveral — n. (Cape Canaveral) cape in Florida (USA), site of John F. Kennedy Space Center (from 1963 to 1973 was called Cape Kennedy) … English contemporary dictionary
Cape Canaveral — Original name in latin Cape Canaveral Name in other language Cabo Canaveral, Cabo Caaveral State code US Continent/City America/New York longitude 28.40584 latitude 80.60477 altitude 6 Population 9912 Date 2011 05 14 … Cities with a population over 1000 database
Cape Canaveral — Sp Kanãveralo kyšulỹs Ap Cape Canaveral L kyš. ir kosminių skrydžių centras JAV (Florida) … Pasaulio vietovardžiai. Internetinė duomenų bazė
Cape Canaveral — Cape′ Canav′eral n. geg Canaveral, Cape … From formal English to slang