Epiglottal consonant

Epiglottal consonant
Places of
articulation

Labial
Bilabial
Labial–velar
Labial–coronal
Labiodental
Dentolabial

Bidental

Coronal
Linguolabial
Interdental
Dental
Denti-alveolar
Alveolar
Postalveolar
Palato-alveolar
Alveolo-palatal
Retroflex

Dorsal
Palatal
Labial–palatal
Velar
Uvular
Uvular–epiglottal

Radical
Pharyngeal
Epiglotto-pharyngeal
Epiglottal

Glottal
Tongue shape

Apical
Laminal
Subapical

Lateral
Sulcal

Palatal
Pharyngeal

See also: Manner of articulation
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An epiglottal consonant is a consonant that is articulated with the aryepiglottic folds (see larynx) against the epiglottis. They are occasionally called aryepiglottal consonants.

Contents

Epiglottal consonants in the IPA

The epiglottal consonants identified by the International Phonetic Alphabet are:

IPA Description Example
Language Orthography IPA Meaning
Xsampa-greaterthanslash.png voiceless epiglottal plosive Aghul jaʡ[citation needed] center
Xsampa-lessthanslash.png voiced epiglottal fricative or approximant Arabic تَعَشَّى tɑʢɑʃʃæ to have supper
Xsampa-Hslash.png voiceless epiglottal fricative Aghul mɛʜ whey
  • A voiced epiglottal plosive may not be possible. When one becomes voiced intervocalically in Dahalo, for example, it becomes a tap.
  • Although traditionally placed in the fricative row of the IPA chart, [ʢ] is usually an approximant. The IPA symbol itself is ambiguous, but no language has a distinct fricative and approximant at this place of articulation. Sometimes the lowering diacritic is used to specify that the manner is approximant: [ʢ̞].
  • Epiglottal trills are quite common (for epiglottals, that is), but this can usually be considered a phonemic plosive or a fricative, with the trill being phonetic detail. The IPA has no symbol for this, though [я] is sometimes seen in the literature.

Characteristics

Epiglottals are not known from many languages. However, this may partially be an effect of the difficulty European language-speaking linguists have in recognizing them. On several occasions[which?], when supposedly pharyngeal consonants were actually measured, they turned out to be epiglottals. This was the case for Dahalo, for example.

Epiglottals are primarily known from the Mideast (in the Semitic languages) and from British Columbia ("pharyngeal trills" in northern Haida), but may occur elsewhere. It is likely that several of the Salish or Wakashan languages of British Columbia reported to have "pharyngeals" actually have epiglottals, and the same may be true of some of the languages of the Caucasus.

Recently[when?], a new possible radical place of articulation, epiglotto-pharyngeal, was reported.

See also

References


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Uvular-epiglottal consonant — A uvular epiglottal consonant is a doubly articulated consonant pronounced by making a simultaneous uvular consonant and epiglottal consonant. An example is the Somali uvular plosive /q/, which is actually a voiceless uvular epiglottal plosive… …   Wikipedia

  • Epiglottal trill — Epiglottal consonants are often allophonically trilled, and in some languages the trill is the primary realization of the consonant. Although there is no official symbol for an epiglottal trill in the IPA, я (reversed IPA|ʀ, homographic to… …   Wikipedia

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  • Epiglottal plosive — The epiglottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is IPA|ʡ, and the equivalent X SAMPA symbol is gt;.FeaturesFeatures of the… …   Wikipedia

  • Trill consonant — In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. Standard Spanish lt;rr gt; as in perro is an alveolar trill, while in Parisian French it is almost always uvular.Trills are …   Wikipedia

  • Doubly articulated consonant — Doubly articulated consonants are consonants with two simultaneous primary places of articulation of the same manner (both plosive, or both nasal, etc.). They are a subset of co articulated consonants. They are to be distinguished from co… …   Wikipedia

  • Epiglotto-pharyngeal consonant — An epiglotto pharyngeal consonant is a newly reported type of consonant, articulated with the epiglottis against the back wall of the pharynx. This contrasts with the pharyngeal consonants, where the root of the tongue contacts the back wall of… …   Wikipedia

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  • Fricative consonant — Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. These may be the lower lip against the upper teeth, in the case of IPA| [f] ; the back of the tongue against the soft… …   Wikipedia

  • Velar consonant — Velar redirects here. For the village in Rajasthan, India, see Velar (village). Places of articulation Labial Bilabial Labial–velar Labial–coronal Labiodental Dentolabial …   Wikipedia


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