Battle of Ningyuan


Battle of Ningyuan

Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=Battle of Ningyuan


caption=
partof=the Manchu conquest
date= 1626
place= Xingcheng, Liaoning
result=Ming victory
combatant1= Later Jin
combatant2= Ming Dynasty
commander1=Nurhaci
Huang Taiji
Daišan
Manggultai
commander2=Yuan Chonghuan
Man Gui
Zu Dashou
Zhu Mei
Zuo Fu
strength1=100,000-130,000
strength2=9000-10,000
casualties1=
casualties2=
campaign=|

The Battle of Ningyuan (寧遠之戰) was a battle between the Han Chinese Ming Dynasty and the Manchurian Later Jin in 1626. The Ming won this battle. This battle marks the temporary resurgence of the Imperial Ming army after a long series of defeats.

Before 1626, the Imperial Ming army has been very badly defeated by the Manchus. Part of the Imperial Ming army's new strategy of defense after defeat was to develop Ningyuan into a military stronghold. Yuan Chonghuan, with the support of Sun Chengzong (孫承宗), was seriously strengthening the defense of Ningyuan in anticipation of a Manchu attack.

After Sun Chengzong (孫承宗) was replaced by a new commander, the new commander ordered all Ming Forces outside the Great Wall to retreat inside and abandon all land outside Shanhai Pass. Yuan Chonghuan objected stronglly and was thus left to command a lone army guarding Ningyuan (modern-day Xingcheng, Liaoning).

In 1626 Kundulun Khan Nurhaci, seeing all Ming forces leaving, decided to advance towards Ningyuan, personally leading a force of 100,000-130,000 (At least 60,000) (Nurhaci boasted an unrealistic 200,000).

Yuan Chonghuan had only 10,000 men under his command. He burnt everything outside Ningyuan and wrote an essay of defiance against Jin in his own blood; he also sent orders to guards at the Great Wall to execute any deserters from Ningyuan, thus greatly boosting City's morale.

20 days later, the Jin army arrived and immediately attacked the City. However, after two days of intense fighting, the citizens and soldiers of Ningyuan inflicted heavy losses on the Jin forces and Nurhaci himself was wounded by cannon fire and decided to retreat.

While retreating, Yuan Chonghuan chased the other and inflicted even more losses on the Jin army.Fact|date=September 2007 Nurhaci retreated back to Mukden and died from his wounds. His eighth son or the fourth Beilei (lord) Hung Taiji assumed the title of the Great Khan of the Later Jin Khanate. The Imperial Ming army adopted the same strategy of developing Jinzhou, which is further north of Ningyuan, into another military stronghold. Ningyuan became the headquarters of the Imperial Ming army with Yuan Chonghuan stationed there. Hung Taiji, like his father, was defeated in the Second Battle of Ningyuan about one year later. (Note added by a reader: The second Battle of Ningyuan was actually a very long and fierce battle involving both Ningyuan and Jinzhou. It was a great tactical and strategic defeat for the Manchus.) Then Hung Taiji plotted the death of Yuan Chonghuan. Please read the web page on Yuan Chonghuan for completeness.

On the whole, the Manchus did not manage to break the defense of the Ningyuan garrison even after the death of Yuan Chonghuan. However, in 1644, the Ming emperor ordered the Ningyuan garrison to give up Ningyuan and come to Beijing to fight a very strong rebel army. Before the Ningyuan garrison arrived, Beijing fell to the rebel army and the Ming emperor committed suicide. Subsequently, the Manchus defeated the rebel army and then after many more years of war conquered the whole China. The new Manchu empire was toppled by a revolution in 1911.


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Ningyuan — may refer to the following locations in China: Ningyuan County (宁远县), of Yongzhou, Hunan Towns named Ningyuan (宁远镇) Ningyuan, Dingxi, in Anding District, Dingxi, Gansu Ningyuan, Bin County, Heilongjiang Ningyuan, Anshan, Liaoning, in Qianshan… …   Wikipedia

  • Battle of Songjin — The Battle of Songjin (Chinese: 松錦之戰) in 1640 spelled the end of the Ming Dynasty. Hong Chengchou s 130,000 elite troops were crushed by the Eight banner armies of the Qing Dynasty.BackgroundWhile peasant bandits like Li Zicheng and Zhang… …   Wikipedia

  • Yuan Chonghuan — Yuán Chónghuàn (袁崇煥; style name: Yuánsù 元素 and Zìrú 自如; 6 June 1584 – 22 September 1630) was a famed patriot and military commander of the Ming Dynasty who battled the Manchus in Liaoning. He was known to have excelled in artillery warfare and… …   Wikipedia

  • Nurhaci — Khan of the Later Jin Dynasty Reign 17 February 1616 – 30 September 1626 ( 1000000000000001000000010 years, 10000000000000225000000225 days) …   Wikipedia

  • Manchu Conquest — Qing Dynasty in 1820. Date 1618 1696 Loc …   Wikipedia

  • Man Gui — (Chinese: 滿桂; died 1629) was a Ming Dynasty General (總兵) of Mongol origin. Biography First spotted in an inspection tour by Grand Secretary Sun Chengzong, he was highly prominent under Marshal Yuan Chonghuan. He served under Yuan Chonghuan in the …   Wikipedia

  • List of battles (geographic) — This list of battles is organized geographically, by country in its present territory. For other lists of battles, see List of battles. Angola* Battle of Mbwila 1665 * Battle of Quifangondo 1975 * Battle of Cassinga 1978 * Battle of Cuito… …   Wikipedia

  • List of Chinese battles — The following is a list of Chinese wars and battles, organized by date. The list is not exhaustive. Contents 1 Ancient China 2 Imperial China 2.1 Qin Dynasty (221 BC–207 BC) 2.2 Chu Han …   Wikipedia

  • Timeline of Chinese history — History of China ANCIENT …   Wikipedia

  • Xingcheng — (Chinese: 兴城; Pinyin: Xīngchéng), former name Ningyuan (宁远) [cite web|url=http://www.xc online.gov.cn/listxcgkshow.asp?id=3| title=History of Xingcheng| publisher=Official website of Xingcheng Government|date=|accessdate=2008 07… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.