Praeses


Praeses

Praeses (plural Praesides), a Latin word meaning "Seated in front, i.e. at the head (of a meeting or company)," has both ancient and modern uses.

Roman imperial use

Praeses, a common Latin word, meaning chief or patron, ["Cassell's Latin Dictionary.] was increasingly used for Roman governors during the 2nd century AD, largely replacing procurator. ["Oxford Classical Dictionary" "s." "procurator">] When Diocletian remodeled the system at the end of the 3rd century, he reduced the sizes of the provinces and called all provincial governors praesides. He also made it impossible for Roman Senators to be governors, restricting the office entirely to the eques (knights).

According to the "Notitia dignitatum" (circa 400 AD), the following provinces were administered by a Praeses (grouped by diocese):

There were thirty-one provincial "praesides" in the Western Roman Empire:
*four in Illyricum: Dalmatia, Pannonia Prima, Noricum mediterraneum, Noricum ripense
*seven in Italia: Alpes Cottiae, Rhaetia Prima and Secunda, Samnium, Valeria, Sardinia, Corsica.
*two in Africa: Mauretania Sitifensis, Tripolitana
*four in Hispania: Tarraconensis, Carthaginensis, Mauretania Tingitana, Insulae Baleares
*eleven in Gallia: Alpes Maritimae, Alpes Poenninae et Graiae, Maxima Sequanorum, Aquitanica Prima and Secunda, Novempopulana, Narbonensis Prima and Secunda, Lugdunensis Secunda, Tertia and Senonica
*three in Britannia: Britannia Prima and Secunda, Flavia Caesariensis.

There were forty provincial "praesides" in the Eastern Roman Empire:
*five in Egypt: Libya Superior and Inferior, Thebais, Ægyptus, Arcadia.
*eight in Oriens: Palaestina Salutaris and Secunda, Phoenice Libanensis, Euphratensis, Syria Salutaris, Osrhoene, Mesopotamia, Cilicia Secunda
*seven in Asiana: Pisidia, Lycaonia, Phrygia Pacatiana and Salutaris, Lycia, Caria, Insulae.
*eight in Pontica: Honorias, Cappadocia Prima and Secunda, Helenopontus, Pontus Polemoniacus, Armenia Prima and Secunda, Galatia salutaris.
*four in Thracia: Haemimontus, Rhodope, Moesia Secunda, Scythia
*four in Dacia: Dacia ripensis, Moesia Prima, Praevalitana, Dardania
*four in Macedonia:Thessalia, Epirus vetus and nova, Macedonia salutaris.

Old German Academic Use

In German academia a doctoral advisor is called the "doktorvater". However in the 18th century and before, the doctoral system was quite different. Instead of a doktorvater, as such, the candidate had a "praeses" to act as mentor and who would also head the oral "viva voce" exam. In the 18th century the praeses often chose the subject and compiled the theses and the candidate had only to defend. Sometimes there were several candidates at the same time defending the same thesis, in order to save time.

Modern use

The chair of a student society in the Netherlands or Belgium may be called a praeses; in Dutch there is also a purist spelling, "preses." Various minor offices may be designated be a compound title, e.g. "dooppraeses" in charge of initiation and associated hazing.

The leader of the Aquila Legis Fraternity, a law based fraternity in the Philippines, is called Praeses.

In Norway, the office of archbishop has been abolished. Instead, the Church of Norway has a Bishop’s Conferance which is presided over by a praeses which is elected for four years.

References


*Pauly-Wissowa


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • PRAESES — nomen generale est, verba sunt Marci IC. leg. 1. ff. de Offic. praesid. eo quod et Proconsulet, et Legati Caesaris, et omnes Provineias regentes, licet Senatores non sint, Praesides appellantur. Vide quoque Dionem, l. 4. Speciatim vero Praesides… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Praeses — (von lateinisch prae sidere „vor sitzen“) steht für: den leitenden Geistlichen in einigen evangelischen Landeskirchen (anstelle eines Bischofs), siehe Präses den zivilen Statthalter in zahlreichen römische Provinzen, siehe Praeses (Statthalter) …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Praeses — (lat.), 1) Vorsitzender; 2) Statthalter einer römischen Provinz; 3) später Statthalter in Provinzen von geringerem Umfang; 4) der die Aufsicht führende akademische Lehrer bei einer Disputation, s.d. 4); 5) der bei Studentencommercen Vorsitzende,… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Praeses — (lat.), im alten Rom der Provinzialstatthalter; jetzt soviel wie Präsident, Vorsitzender …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • praeses — index guardian Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 …   Law dictionary

  • praeses — /priysiyz/ In Roman law, a president or governor. Called a nomen generate, including pro consuls, legates, and all who governed provinces …   Black's law dictionary

  • praeses — A Roman governor …   Ballentine's law dictionary

  • praeses — variant of preses …   Useful english dictionary

  • Praeses (Statthalter) — Praeses (Plural: praesides, von lateinisch prae sidere „vor sitzen“) war in der römischen Kaiserzeit und der Spätantike der Titel für den Statthalter einer römischen Provinz. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Definition und Rangeinteilung 2 Aufgaben 3… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • PRESES — praeses, praeses …   Abbreviations in Latin Inscriptions


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