Simulation


Simulation
Wooden mechanical horse simulator during WWI.

Simulation is the imitation of some real thing available, state of affairs, or process. The act of simulating something generally entails representing certain key characteristics or behaviours of a selected physical or abstract system.

Simulation is used in many contexts, such as simulation of technology for performance optimization, safety engineering, testing, training, education, and video games. Training simulators include flight simulators for training aircraft pilots in order to provide them with a lifelike experience. Simulation is also used for scientific modeling of natural systems or human systems in order to gain insight into their functioning.[1] Simulation can be used to show the eventual real effects of alternative conditions and courses of action. Simulation is also used when the real system cannot be engaged, because it may not be accessible, or it may be dangerous or unacceptable to engage, or it is being designed but not yet built, or it may simply not exist .[2]

Key issues in simulation include acquisition of valid source information about the relevant selection of key characteristics and behaviours, the use of simplifying approximations and assumptions within the simulation, and fidelity and validity of the simulation outcomes.

Contents

Classification and terminology

Human-in-the-loop simulation of outer space.
Visualization of a direct numerical simulation model.

Historically, simulations used in different fields developed largely independently, but 20th century studies of Systems theory and Cybernetics combined with spreading use of computers across all those fields have led to some unification and a more systematic view of the concept.

Physical simulation refers to simulation in which physical objects are substituted for the real thing (some circles[3] use the term for computer simulations modelling selected laws of physics, but this article doesn't). These physical objects are often chosen because they are smaller or cheaper than the actual object or system.

Interactive simulation is a special kind of physical simulation, often referred to as a human in the loop simulation, in which physical simulations include human operators, such as in a flight simulator or a driving simulator.

Human in the loop simulations can include a computer simulation as a so-called synthetic environment.[4]

Computer simulation

A computer simulation (or "sim") is an attempt to model a real-life or hypothetical situation on a computer so that it can be studied to see how the system works. By changing variables in the simulation, predictions may be made about the behaviour of the system. It is a tool to virtually investigate the behaviour of the system under study.[1]

Computer simulation has become a useful part of modeling many natural systems in physics, chemistry and biology,[5] and human systems in economics and social science (the computational sociology) as well as in engineering to gain insight into the operation of those systems. A good example of the usefulness of using computers to simulate can be found in the field of network traffic simulation. In such simulations, the model behaviour will change each simulation according to the set of initial parameters assumed for the environment.

Traditionally, the formal modeling of systems has been via a mathematical model, which attempts to find analytical solutions enabling the prediction of the behaviour of the system from a set of parameters and initial conditions. Computer simulation is often used as an adjunct to, or substitution for, modeling systems for which simple closed form analytic solutions are not possible. There are many different types of computer simulation, the common feature they all share is the attempt to generate a sample of representative scenarios for a model in which a complete enumeration of all possible states would be prohibitive or impossible.

Several software packages exist for running computer-based simulation modeling (e.g. Monte Carlo simulation, stochastic modeling, multimethod modeling) that makes all the modeling almost effortless.

Modern usage of the term "computer simulation" may encompass virtually any computer-based representation.

Computer science

In computer science, simulation has some specialized meanings: Alan Turing used the term "simulation" to refer to what happens when a universal machine executes a state transition table (in modern terminology, a computer runs a program) that describes the state transitions, inputs and outputs of a subject discrete-state machine. The computer simulates the subject machine. Accordingly, in theoretical computer science the term simulation is a relation between state transition systems, useful in the study of operational semantics.

Less theoretically, an interesting application of computer simulation is to simulate computers using computers. In computer architecture, a type of simulator, typically called an emulator, is often used to execute a program that has to run on some inconvenient type of computer (for example, a newly designed computer that has not yet been built or an obsolete computer that is no longer available), or in a tightly controlled testing environment (see Computer architecture simulator and Platform virtualization). For example, simulators have been used to debug a microprogram or sometimes commercial application programs, before the program is downloaded to the target machine. Since the operation of the computer is simulated, all of the information about the computer's operation is directly available to the programmer, and the speed and execution of the simulation can be varied at will.

Simulators may also be used to interpret fault trees, or test VLSI logic designs before they are constructed. Symbolic simulation uses variables to stand for unknown values.

In the field of optimization, simulations of physical processes are often used in conjunction with evolutionary computation to optimize control strategies...

Simulation in education and training

Simulation is extensively used for educational purposes. It is frequently used by way of adaptive hypermedia.

Simulation is often used in the training of civilian and military personnel.[6] This usually occurs when it is prohibitively expensive or simply too dangerous to allow trainees to use the real equipment in the real world. In such situations they will spend time learning valuable lessons in a "safe" virtual environment yet living a lifelike experience (or at least it is the goal). Often the convenience is to permit mistakes during training for a safety-critical system. For example, in simSchool teachers practice classroom management and teaching techniques on simulated students, which avoids "learning on the job" that can damage real students. There is a distinction, though, between simulations used for training and Instructional simulation.

Training simulations typically come in one of three categories:[7]

  • "live" simulation (where actual players use genuine systems in a real environment);
  • "virtual" simulation (where actual players use simulated systems in a synthetic environment [4]), or
  • "constructive" simulation (where simulated players use simulated systems in a synthetic environment). Constructive simulation is often referred to as "wargaming" since it bears some resemblance to table-top war games in which players command armies of soldiers and equipment that move around a board.

In standardized tests, "live" simulations are sometimes called "high-fidelity", producing "samples of likely performance", as opposed to "low-fidelity", "pencil-and-paper" simulations producing only "signs of possible performance",[8] but the distinction between high, moderate and low fidelity remains relative, depending on the context of a particular comparison.

Simulations in education are somewhat like training simulations. They focus on specific tasks. The term 'microworld' is used to refer to educational simulations which model some abstract concept rather than simulating a realistic object or environment, or in some cases model a real world environment in a simplistic way so as to help a learner develop an understanding of the key concepts. Normally, a user can create some sort of construction within the microworld that will behave in a way consistent with the concepts being modeled. Seymour Papert was one of the first to advocate the value of microworlds, and the Logo programming environment developed by Papert is one of the most famous microworlds. As another example, the Global Challenge Award online STEM learning web site uses microworld simulations to teach science concepts related to global warming and the future of energy. Other projects for simulations in educations are Open Source Physics, NetSim etc.

Management games (or business simulations) have been finding favour in business education in recent years.[9] Business simulations that incorporate a dynamic model enable experimentation with business strategies in a risk free environment and provide a useful extension to case study discussions.

Social simulations may be used in social science classrooms to illustrate social and political processes in anthropology, economics, history, political science, or sociology courses, typically at the high school or university level. These may, for example, take the form of civics simulations, in which participants assume roles in a simulated society, or international relations simulations in which participants engage in negotiations, alliance formation, trade, diplomacy, and the use of force. Such simulations might be based on fictitious political systems, or be based on current or historical events. An example of the latter would be Barnard College's "Reacting to the Past" series of educational simulations.[10] The "Reacting to the Past" series also includes simulation games that address science education.

In recent years, there has been increasing use of social simulations for staff training in aid and development agencies. The Carana simulation, for example, was first developed by the United Nations Development Programme, and is now used in a very revised form by the World Bank for training staff to deal with fragile and conflict-affected countries.[11]

Common User Interaction Systems for Virtual Simulations

Virtual Simulations represent a specific category of simulation that utilizes simulation equipment to create a simulated world for the user. Virtual Simulations allow users to interact with a virtual world. Virtual worlds operate on platforms of integrated software and hardware components. In this manner, the system can accept input from the user (e.g., body tracking, voice/sound recognition, physical controllers) and produce output to the user (e.g., visual display, aural display, haptic display) .[12] Virtual Simulations use the aforementioned modes of interaction to produce a sense of immersion for the user.

Virtual Simulation Input Hardware

There is a wide variety of input hardware available to accept user input for virtual simulations. The following list briefly describes several of them:

Body Tracking The motion capture method is often used to record the user’s movements and translate the captured data into inputs for the virtual simulation. For example, if a user physically turns their head, the motion would be captured by the simulation hardware in some way and translated to a corresponding shift in view within the simulation.

  • Capture Suits and/or gloves may be used to capture movements of users body parts. The systems may have sensors incorporated inside them to sense movements of different body parts (e.g., fingers). Alternatively, these systems may have exterior tracking devices or marks that can be detected by external ultrasound, optical receivers or electromagnetic sensors. Internal inertial sensors are also available on some systems. The units may transmit data either wirelessly or through cables.
  • Eye trackers can also be used to detect eye movements so that the system can determine precisely where a user is looking at any given instant.

Physical Controllers Physical controllers provide input to the simulation only through direct manipulation by the user. In virtual simulations, tactile feedback from physical controllers is highly desirable in a number of simulation environments.

  • Omni directional treadmills can be used to capture the users locomotion as they walk or run.
  • High fidelity instrumentation such as instrument panels in virtual aircraft cockpits provides users with actual controls to raise the level of immersion. For example, pilots can use the actual global positioning system controls from the real device in a simulated cockpit to help them practice procedures with the actual device in the context of the integrated cockpit system.

Voice/Sound Recognition This form of interaction may be used either to interact with agents within the simulation (e.g., virtual people) or to manipulate objects in the simulation (e.g., information). Voice interaction presumably increases the level of immersion for the user.

  • Users may use headsets with boom microphones, lapel microphones or the room may be equipped with strategically located microphones.

Current Research into User Input Systems Research in future input systems hold a great deal of promise for virtual simulations. Systems such as brain-computer interfaces (BCIs)Brain-computer interface offer the ability to further increase the level of immersion for virtual simulation users. Lee, Keinrath, Scherer, Bischof, Pfurtscheller [13] proved that naïve subjects could be trained to use a BCI to navigate a virtual apartment with relative ease. Using the BCI, the authors found that subjects were able to freely navigate the virtual environment with relatively minimal effort. It is possible that these types of systems will become standard input modalities in future virtual simulation systems.

Virtual Simulation Output Hardware

There is a wide variety of output hardware available to deliver stimulus to users in virtual simulations. The following list briefly describes several of them:

Visual Display Visual displays provide the visual stimulus to the user.

  • Stationary displays can vary from a conventional desktop display to 360-degree wrap around screens to stereo three-dimensional screens. Conventional desktop displays can vary in size from 15 to 60+ inches. Wrap around screens are typically utilized in what is known as a Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE) Cave Automatic Virtual Environment. Stereo three-dimensional screens produce three-dimensional images either with or without special glasses—depending on the design.
  • Head mounted displays (HMDs) have small displays that are mounted on headgear worn by the user. These systems are connected directly into the virtual simulation to provide the user with a more immersive experience. Weight, update rates and field of view are some of the key variables that differentiate HMDs. Naturally, heavier HMDs are undesirable as they cause fatigue over time. If the update rate is too slow, the system is unable to update the displays fast enough to correspond with a quick head turn by the user. Slower update rates tend to cause simulation sickness and disrupt the sense of immersion. Field of view or the angular extent of the world that is seen at a given moment Field of view can vary from system to system and has been found to affect the users sense of immersion.

Aural Display Several different types of audio systems exist to help the user hear and localize sounds spatially. Special software can be used to produce 3D audio effects 3D audio to create the illusion that sound sources are placed within a defined three-dimensional space around the user.

  • Stationary conventional speaker systems may be used provide dual or multi-channel surround sound. However, external speakers are not as effective as headphones in producing 3D audio effects.[12]
  • Conventional headphones offer a portable alternative to stationary speakers. They also have the added advantages of masking real world noise and facilitate more effective 3D audio sound effects.[12]

Haptic Display These displays provide sense of touch to the user Haptic technology. This type of output is sometimes referred to as force feedback.

  • Tactile Tile Displays use different types of actuators such as inflatable bladders, vibrators, low frequency sub-woofers, pin actuators and/or thermo-actuators to produce sensations for the user.
  • End Effector Displays can respond to users inputs with resistance and force.[12] These systems are often used in medical applications for remote surgeries that employ robotic instruments.[14]

Vestibular Display These displays provide a sense of motion to the user Motion simulator. They often manifest as motion bases for virtual vehicle simulation such as driving simulators or flight simulators. Motion bases are fixed in place but use actuators to move the simulator in ways that can produce the sensations pitching, yawing or rolling. The simulators can also move in such a way as to produce a sense of acceleration on all axes (e.g., the motion base can produce the sensation of falling).

Clinical healthcare simulators

Medical simulators are increasingly being developed and deployed to teach therapeutic and diagnostic procedures as well as medical concepts and decision making to personnel in the health professions. Simulators have been developed for training procedures ranging from the basics such as blood draw, to laparoscopic surgery [15] and trauma care. They are also important to help on prototyping new devices[16] for biomedical engineering problems. Currently, simulators are applied to research and development of tools for new therapies,[17] treatments[18] and early diagnosis[19] in medicine.

Many medical simulators involve a computer connected to a plastic simulation of the relevant anatomy.[citation needed] Sophisticated simulators of this type employ a life size mannequin that responds to injected drugs and can be programmed to create simulations of life-threatening emergencies. In other simulations, visual components of the procedure are reproduced by computer graphics techniques, while touch-based components are reproduced by haptic feedback devices combined with physical simulation routines computed in response to the user's actions. Medical simulations of this sort will often use 3D CT or MRI scans of patient data to enhance realism. Some medical simulations are developed to be widely distributed (such as web-enabled simulations that can be viewed via standard web browsers) and can be interacted with using standard computer interfaces, such as the keyboard and mouse.

Another important medical application of a simulator — although, perhaps, denoting a slightly different meaning of simulator — is the use of a placebo drug, a formulation that simulates the active drug in trials of drug efficacy (see Placebo (origins of technical term)).

Improving Patient Safety through New Innovations

Patient safety is a concern in the medical industry. Patients have been known to suffer injuries and even death due to management error, and lack of using best standards of care and training. According to Building a National Agenda for Simulation-Based Medical Education (Eder-Van Hook, Jackie, 2004) , “A health care provider’s ability to react prudently in an unexpected situation is one of the most critical factors in creating a positive outcome in medical emergency, regardless of whether it occurs on the battlefield, freeway, or hospital emergency room.” simulation. Eder-Van Hook (2004) also noted that medical errors kill up to 98,000 with an estimated cost between $37 and $50 million and $17 to $29 billion for preventable adverse events dollars per year. “Deaths due to preventable adverse events exceed deaths attributable to motor vehicle accidents, breast cancer, or AIDS” Eder-Van Hook (2004). With these types of statistics it is no wonder that improving patient safety is a prevalent concern in the industry.

New innovative simulation training solutions are now being used to train medical professionals in an attempt to reduce the number of safety concerns that have adverse effects on the patients. However, according to the article Does Simulation Improve Patient Safety? Self-efficacy, Competence, Operational Performance, and Patient Safety (Nishisaki A., Keren R., and Nadkarni, V., 2007), the jury is still out. Nishisaki states that “There is good evidence that simulation training improves provider and team self-efficacy and competence on manikins. There is also good evidence that procedural simulation improves actual operational performance in clinical settings.[20] However, no evidence yet shows that crew resource management training through simulation, despite its promise, improves team operational performance at the bedside. Also, no evidence to date proves that simulation training actually improves patient outcome. Even so, confidence is growing in the validity of medical simulation as the training tool of the future.” This could be because there are not enough research studies yet conducted to effectively determine the success of simulation initiatives to improve patient safety. Examples of [recently implemented] research simulations used to improve patient care [and its funding] can be found at Improving Patient Safety through Simulation Research (US Department of Human Health Services) http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/simulproj.htm.

One such attempt to improve patient safety through the use of simulations training is pediatric care to deliver just-in-time service or/and just-in-place. This training consists of 20 minutes of simulated training just before workers report to shift. It is hoped that the recentness of the training will increase the positive and reduce the negative results that have generally been associated with the procedure. The purpose of this study is to determine if just-in-time training improves patient safety and operational performance of orotracheal intubation and decrease occurrences of undesired associated events and “to test the hypothesis that high fidelity simulation may enhance the training efficacy and patient safety in simulation settings.” The conclusion as reported in Abstract P38: Just-In-Time Simulation Training Improves ICU Physician Trainee Airway Resuscitation Participation without Compromising Procedural Success or Safety (Nishisaki A., 2008), were that simulation training improved resident participation in real cases; but did not sacrifice the quality of service. It could be therefore hypothesized that by increasing the number of highly trained residents through the use of simulation training, that the simulation training does in fact increase patient safety. This hypothesis would have to be researched for validation and the results may or may not generalize to other situations.

History of simulation in healthcare

The first medical simulators were simple models of human patients.[21]

Since antiquity, these representations in clay and stone were used to demonstrate clinical features of disease states and their effects on humans. Models have been found from many cultures and continents. These models have been used in some cultures (e.g., Chinese culture) as a "diagnostic" instrument, allowing women to consult male physicians while maintaining social laws of modesty. Models are used today to help students learn the anatomy of the musculoskeletal system and organ systems.[21]

Type of models

Active models
Active models that attempt to reproduce living anatomy or physiology are recent developments. The famous “Harvey” mannequin was developed at the University of Miami and is able to recreate many of the physical findings of the cardiology examination, including palpation, auscultation, and electrocardiography.[22]
Interactive models
More recently, interactive models have been developed that respond to actions taken by a student or physician.[22] Until recently, these simulations were two dimensional computer programs that acted more like a textbook than a patient. Computer simulations have the advantage of allowing a student to make judgements, and also to make errors. The process of iterative learning through assessment, evaluation, decision making, and error correction creates a much stronger learning environment than passive instruction.
Computer simulators
3DiTeams learner is percussing the patients chest in virtual field hospital
Simulators have been proposed as an ideal tool for assessment of students for clinical skills.[23] For patients, "cybertherapy" can be used for sessions simulating traumatic expericences, from fear of heights to social anxiety.[24]
Programmed patients and simulated clinical situations, including mock disaster drills, have been used extensively for education and evaluation. These “lifelike” simulations are expensive, and lack reproducibility. A fully functional "3Di" simulator would be the most specific tool available for teaching and measurement of clinical skills. Gaming platforms have been applied to create these virtual medical environments to create an interactive method for learning and application of information in a clinical context.[25][26]
Immersive disease state simulations allow a doctor or HCP to experience what a disease actually feels like. Using sensors and transducers symptomatic effects can be delivered to a participant allowing them to experience the patients disease state.
Such a simulator meets the goals of an objective and standardized examination for clinical competence.[27] This system is superior to examinations that use "standard patients" because it permits the quantitative measurement of competence, as well as reproducing the same objective findings.[28]

Simulation in entertainment

Entertainment simulation is a term that encompasses many large and popular industries such as film, television, video games (including serious games) and rides in theme parks. Although modern simulation is thought to have its roots in training and the military, in the 20th century it also became a conduit for enterprises which were more hedonistic in nature. Advances in technology in the 1980s and 1990s caused simulation to become more widely used and it began to appear in movies such as Jurassic Park (1993) and in computer-based games such as Atari’s Battlezone.

History

Early History (1940’s and 50’s)

The first simulation game may have been created as early as 1947 by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann. This was a straightforward game that simulated a missile being fired at a target. The curve of the missile and its speed could be adjusted using several knobs. In 1958 a computer game called “Tennis for Two” was created by Willy Higginbotham which simulated a tennis game between two players who could both play at the same time using hand controls and was displayed on an oscilloscope.[29] This was one of the first electronic video games to use a graphical display.

Modern Simulation (1980’s-present)

Advances in technology in the 1980s made the computer more affordable and more capable than they were in previous decades [30] which facilitated the rise of computer gaming. The first video game consoles released in the 1970s and early 1980s fell prey to the industry crash in 1983, but in 1985, Nintendo released the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) which became the best selling console in video game history.[31] In the 1990s, computer games became widely popular with the release of such game as The Sims and Command and Conquer and the still increasing power of desktop computers. Today, computer simulation games such as World of Warcraft are played by millions of people around the world.

Computer-generated imagery was used in film to simulate objects as early as 1976, though in 1982, the film Tron was the first film to use computer-generated imagery for more than a couple of minutes. However, the commercial failure of the movie may have caused the industry to step away from the technology.[32] In 1993, the film Jurassic Park became the first popular film to use computer-generated graphics extensively, integrating the simulated dinosaurs almost seamlessly into live action scenes. This event transformed the film industry; in 1995, the film Toy Story was the first film to use only computer-generated images and by the new millennium computer generated graphics were the leading choice for special effects in films.[33]

Simulators have been used for entertainment since the Link Trainer in the 1930s.[34] The first modern simulator ride to open at a theme park was Disney’s Star Tours in 1987 soon followed by Universal’s The Funtastic World of Hanna-Barbera in 1990 which was the first ride to be done entirely with computer graphics.[35]

Examples of entertainment simulation

Computer and video games

Simulation games, as opposed to other genres of video and computer games, represent or simulate an environment accurately. Moreover, they represent the interactions between the playable characters and the environment realistically. These kinds of games are usually more complex in terms of game play.[36] Simulation games have become incredibly popular among people of all ages.[37] Popular simulation games include SimCity, Tiger Woods PGA Tour and Virtonomics.

Film

Computer-generated imagery is “the application of the field of 3D computer graphics to special effects”. This technology is used for visual effects because they are high in quality, controllable, and can create effects that would not be feasible using any other technology either because of cost, resources or safety.[38] Computer-generated graphics can be seen in many live action movies today, especially those of the action genre. Further, computer generated imagery has almost completely supplanted hand-drawn animation in children's movies which are increasingly computer-generated only. Examples of movies that use computer-generated imagery include Finding Nemo, 300 and Iron Man.

Theme park rides

Simulator rides are the progeny of military training simulators and commercial simulators, but they are different in a fundamental way. While military training simulators react realistically to the input of the trainee in real time, ride simulators only feel like they move realistically and move according to prerecorded motion scripts.[35] One of the first simulator rides, Star Tours, which cost $32 million, used a hydraulic motion based cabin. The movement was programmed by a joystick. Today’s simulator rides, such as The Amazing Adventures of Spider-Man include elements to increase the amount of immersion experienced by the riders such as: 3D imagery, physical effects (spraying water or producing scents), and movement through an environment.[39] Examples of simulation rides include Mission Space and The Simpsons Ride. There are many simulation rides at themeparks like Disney, Universal etc., Examples are Flint Stones, Earth Quake, Time Machine, King Kong.

Simulation and Manufacturing

Manufacturing represents one of the most important applications of Simulation. This technique represents a valuable tool used by engineers when evaluating the effect of capital investment in equipments and physical facilities like factory plants, warehouses, and distribution centers. Simulation can be used to predict the performance of an existing or planned system and to compare alternative solutions for a particular design problem.[40]

Another important goal of manufacturing-simulations is to quantify system performance. Common measures of system performance include the following:[41]

  • Throughput under average and peak loads;
  • System cycle time (how long it take to produce one part);
  • Utilization of resource, labor, and machines;
  • Bottlenecks and choke points;
  • Queuing at work locations;
  • Queuing and delays caused by material-handling devices and systems;
  • WIP storage needs;
  • Staffing requirements;
  • Effectiveness of scheduling systems;
  • Effectiveness of control systems.

More examples in various areas

Automobile simulator

A soldier tests out a heavy-wheeled-vehicle driver simulator.

An automobile simulator provides an opportunity to reproduce the characteristics of real vehicles in a virtual environment. It replicates the external factors and conditions with which a vehicle interacts enabling a driver to feel as if they are sitting in the cab of their own vehicle. Scenarios and events are replicated with sufficient reality to ensure that drivers become fully immersed in the experience rather than simply viewing it as an educational experience.

The simulator provides a constructive experience for the novice driver and enables more complex exercises to be undertaken by the more mature driver. For novice drivers, truck simulators provide an opportunity to begin their career by applying best practice. For mature drivers, simulation provides the ability to enhance good driving or to detect poor practice and to suggest the necessary steps for remedial action. For companies, it provides an opportunity to educate staff in the driving skills that achieve reduced maintenance costs, improved productivity and, most importantly, to ensure the safety of their actions in all possible situations.

Biomechanics simulators

A biomechanics simulator is used to analyze walking dynamics, study sports performance, simulate surgical procedures, analyze joint loads, design medical devices, and animate human and animal movement.

A neuromechanical simulator that combines biomechanical and biologically realistic neural network simulation. It allows the user to test hypotheses on the neural basis of behavior in a physically accurate 3-D virtual environment.

City and urban simulation

A city simulator can be a city-building game but can also be a tool used by urban planners to understand how cities are likely to evolve in response to various policy decisions. AnyLogic is an example of modern, large-scale urban simulators designed for use by urban planners. City simulators are generally agent-based simulations with explicit representations for land use and transportation. UrbanSim and LEAM are examples of large-scale urban simulation models that are used by metropolitan planning agencies and military bases for land use and transportation planning.

Classroom of the future

The "classroom of the future" will probably contain several kinds of simulators, in addition to textual and visual learning tools. This will allow students to enter the clinical years better prepared, and with a higher skill level. The advanced student or postgraduate will have a more concise and comprehensive method of retraining — or of incorporating new clinical procedures into their skill set — and regulatory bodies and medical institutions will find it easier to assess the proficiency and competency of individuals.

The classroom of the future will also form the basis of a clinical skills unit for continuing education of medical personnel; and in the same way that the use of periodic flight training assists airline pilots, this technology will assist practitioners throughout their career.[citation needed]

The simulator will be more than a "living" textbook, it will become an integral a part of the practice of medicine.[citation needed] The simulator environment will also provide a standard platform for curriculum development in institutions of medical education.

Communication Satellite Simulation

Modern satellite communications systems (SatCom) are often large and complex with many interacting parts and elements. In addition, the need for broadband connectivity on a moving vehicle has increased dramatically in the past few years for both commercial and military applications. To accurately predict and deliver high quality of service, satcom system designers have to factor in terrain as well as atmospheric and meteorological conditions in their planning. To deal with such complexity, system designers and operators increasingly turn towards computer models of their systems to simulate real world operational conditions and gain insights in to usability and requirements prior to final product sign-off. Modeling improves the understanding of the system by enabling the SatCom system designer or planner to simulate real world performance by injecting the models with multiple hypothetical atmospheric and environmental conditions.

Digital Lifecycle Simulation

Simulation of airflow over an engine

Simulation solutions are being increasingly integrated with CAx (CAD, CAM, CAE....) solutions and processes. The use of simulation throughout the product lifecycle, especially at the earlier concept and design stages, has the potential of providing substantial benefits. These benefits range from direct cost issues such as reduced prototyping and shorter time-to-market, to better performing products and higher margins. However, for some companies, simulation has not provided the expected benefits.

The research firm Aberdeen Group has found that nearly all best-in-class manufacturers use simulation early in the design process as compared to 3 or 4 laggards who do not.

The successful use of Simulation, early in the lifecycle, has been largely driven by increased integration of simulation tools with the entire CAD, CAM and PLM solution-set. Simulation solutions can now function across the extended enterprise in a multi-CAD environment, and include solutions for managing simulation data and processes and ensuring that simulation results are made part of the product lifecycle history. The ability to use simulation across the entire lifecycle has been enhanced through improved user interfaces such as tailorable user interfaces and "wizards" which allow all appropriate PLM participants to take part in the simulation process.

Disaster Preparedness and Simulation Training

Simulation training has become a method for preparing people for disasters. Simulations can replicate emergency situations and track how learners respond thanks to a lifelike experience. Disaster preparedness simulations can involve training on how to handle terrorism attacks, natural disasters, pandemic outbreaks, or other life-threatening emergencies.

One organization that has used simulation training for disaster preparedness is CADE (Center for Advancement of Distance Education). CADE[42] has used a video game to prepare emergency workers for multiple types of attacks. As reported by News-Medical.Net, ”The video game is the first in a series of simulations to address bioterrorism, pandemic flu, smallpox and other disasters that emergency personnel must prepare for.[43]” Developed by a team from the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC), the game allows learners to practice their emergency skills in a safe, controlled environment.

The Emergency Simulation Program (ESP) at the British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT), Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada is another example of an organization that uses simulation to train for emergency situations. ESP uses simulation to train on the following situations: forest fire fighting, oil or chemical spill response, earthquake response, law enforcement, municipal fire fighting, hazardous material handling, military training, and response to terrorist attack [44] One feature of the simulation system is the implementation of “Dynamic Run-Time Clock,” which allows simulations to run a 'simulated' time frame, 'speeding up' or 'slowing down' time as desired”[44] Additionally, the system allows session recordings, picture-icon based navigation, file storage of individual simulations, multimedia components, and launch external applications.

At the University of Québec in Chicoutimi, a research team at the outdoor research and expertise laboratory (Laboratoire d'Expertise et de Recherche en Plein Air - LERPA) specializes in using wilderness backcountry accident simulations to verify emergency response coordination.

Instructionally, the benefits of emergency training through simulations are that learner performance can be tracked through the system. This allows the developer to make adjustments as necessary or alert the educator on topics that may require additional attention. Other advantages are that the learner can be guided or trained on how to respond appropriately before continuing to the next emergency segment—this is an aspect that may not be available in the live-environment. Some emergency training simulators also allows for immediate feedback, while other simulations may provide a summary and instruct the learner to engage in the learning topic again.

In a live-emergency situation, emergency responders do not have time to waste. Simulation-training in this environment provides an opportunity for learners to gather as much information as they can and practice their knowledge in a safe environment. They can make mistakes without risk of endangering lives and be given the opportunity to correct their errors to prepare for the real-life emergency.

Engineering, technology or process simulation

Simulation is an important feature in engineering systems or any system that involves many processes. For example in electrical engineering, delay lines may be used to simulate propagation delay and phase shift caused by an actual transmission line. Similarly, dummy loads may be used to simulate impedance without simulating propagation, and is used in situations where propagation is unwanted. A simulator may imitate only a few of the operations and functions of the unit it simulates. Contrast with: emulate.[45]

Most engineering simulations entail mathematical modeling and computer assisted investigation. There are many cases, however, where mathematical modeling is not reliable. Simulation of fluid dynamics problems often require both mathematical and physical simulations. In these cases the physical models require dynamic similitude. Physical and chemical simulations have also direct realistic uses,[46] rather than research uses; in chemical engineering, for example, process simulations are used to give the process parameters immediately used for operating chemical plants, such as oil refineries.

Economics simulation

In economics and especially macroeconomics, the effects of proposed policy actions, such as fiscal policy changes or monetary policy changes, are simulated in order to judge their desirability. A mathematical model of the economy, having been fitted to historical economic data, is used as a proxy for the actual economy; proposed values of government spending, taxation, open market operations, etc. are used as inputs to the simulation of the model, and various variables of interest such as the inflation rate, the unemployment rate, the balance of trade deficit, the government budget deficit, etc. are the outputs of the simulation. The simulated values of these variables of interest are compared for different proposed policy inputs to determine which set of outcomes is most desirable.

Finance simulation

In finance, computer simulations are often used for scenario planning. Risk-adjusted net present value, for example, is computed from well-defined but not always known (or fixed) inputs. By imitating the performance of the project under evaluation, simulation can provide a distribution of NPV over a range of discount rates and other variables.

Simulations are frequently used in financial training to engage participants in experiencing various historical as well as fictional situations. There are stock market simulations, portfolio simulations, risk management simulations or models and forex simulations. Using these simulations in a training program allows for the application of theory into a something akin to real life. As with other industries, the use of simulations can be technology or case-study driven.

Flight simulation

Flight Simulation Training Devices (FSTD) are used to train pilots on the ground. In comparison to training in an actual aircraft, simulation based training allows for the training of maneuvers or situations that may be impractical (or even dangerous) to perform in the aircraft, while keeping the pilot and instructor in a relatively low-risk environment on the ground. For example, electrical system failures, instrument failures, hydraulic system failures, and even flight control failures can be simulated without risk to the pilots or an aircraft.

Instructors can also provide students with a higher concentration of training tasks in a given period of time than is usually possible in the aircraft. For example, conducting multiple instrument approaches in the actual aircraft may require significant time spent repositioning the aircraft, while in a simulation, as soon as one approach has been completed, the instructor can immediately preposition the simulated aircraft to an ideal (or less than ideal) location from which to begin the next approach.

Flight simulation also provides an economic advantage over training in an actual aircraft. Once fuel, maintenance, and insurance costs are taken into account, the operating costs of an FSTD are usually substantially lower than the operating costs of the simulated aircraft. For some large transport category airplanes, the operating costs may be several times lower for the FSTD than the actual aircraft.

Some people who use simulator software, especially flight simulator software, build their own simulator at home. Some people — in order to further the realism of their homemade simulator — buy used cards and racks that run the same software used by the original machine. While this involves solving the problem of matching hardware and software — and the problem that hundreds of cards plug into many different racks — many still find that solving these problems is well worthwhile. Some are so serious about realistic simulation that they will buy real aircraft parts, like complete nose sections of written-off aircraft, at aircraft boneyards. This permits people to simulate a hobby that they are unable to pursue in real life.

Marine simulators

Bearing resemblance to flight simulators, marine simulators train ships' personnel. The most common marine simulators include:

  • Ship's bridge simulators
  • Engine room simulators
  • Cargo handling simulators
  • Communication / GMDSS simulators
  • ROV simulators

Simulators like these are mostly used within maritime colleges, training institutions and navies. They often consist of a replication of a ships' bridge, with operating console(s), and a number of screens on which the virtual surroundings are projected.

Military simulations

Military simulations, also known informally as war games, are models in which theories of warfare can be tested and refined without the need for actual hostilities. They exist in many different forms, with varying degrees of realism. In recent times, their scope has widened to include not only military but also political and social factors (for example, the NationLab series of strategic exercises in Latin America.[47] Whilst many governments make use of simulation, both individually and collaboratively, little is known about the model's specifics outside professional circles.

Robotics simulators

A robotics simulator is used to create embedded applications for a specific (or not) robot without being dependent on the 'real' robot. In some cases, these applications can be transferred to the real robot (or rebuilt) without modifications. Robotics simulators allow reproducing situations that cannot be 'created' in the real world because of cost, time, or the 'uniqueness' of a resource. A simulator also allows fast robot prototyping. Many robot simulators feature physics engines to simulate a robot's dynamics.

Production simulation

Simulations of production systems is mainly a used to examine improvements or investments in a production system. Most often is this done using a static spreadsheet with process times and transportation times. For more sophisticated simulations Discrete Event Simulation (DES) is used with the advantages to simulate dynamics in the production system. A production system is very much dynamic depending on variations in manufacturing processes, assembly times, machine set-ups, breaks, breakdowns and small stoppages.[48] There are lots of programs commonly used for discrete event simulation. They differ in usability and markets but do often share the same foundation. There is an academic project investigating the possibilities to use production simulation software for ecology labeling, named EcoProIT.

Sales process simulators

Simulations are useful in modeling the flow of transactions through business processes, such as in the field of sales process engineering, to study and improve the flow of customer orders through various stages of completion (say, from an initial proposal for providing goods/services through order acceptance and installation). Such simulations can help predict the impact of how improvements in methods might impact variability, cost, labor time, and the quantity of transactions at various stages in the process. A full-featured computerized process simulator can be used to depict such models, as can simpler educational demonstrations using spreadsheet software, pennies being transferred between cups based on the roll of a die, or dipping into a tub of colored beads with a scoop.[49]

Payment and Securities Settlement System Simulations

Simulation techniques have also been applied to payment and securities settlement systems. Among the main users are central banks who are generally responsible for the oversight of market infrastructure and entitled to contribute to the smooth functioning of the payment systems.

Central Banks have been using payment system simulations to evaluate things such as the adequacy or sufficiency of liquidity available ( in the form of account balances and intraday credit limits) to participants (mainly banks) to allow efficient settlement of payments.[50][51] The need for liquidity is also dependent on the availability and the type of netting procedures in the systems, thus some of the studies have a focus on system comparisons.[52]

Another application is to evaluate risks related to events such as communication network breakdowns or the inability of participants to send payments (e.g. in case of possible bank failure).[53] This kind of analysis falls under the concepts of Stress testing or scenario analysis.

A common way to conduct these simulations is to replicate the settlement logics of the real payment or securities settlement systems under analysis and then use real observed payment data. In case of system comparison or system development, naturally also the other settlement logics need to be implemented.

To perform stress testing and scenario analysis, the observed data needs to be altered, e.g. some payments delayed or removed. To analyze the levels of liquidity, initial liquidity levels are varried. System comparisons (benchmarking)or evaluations of new netting algorithms or rules are performed by running simulations with a fixed set of data and varying only the system setups.

Inference is usually done by comparing the benchmark simulation results to the results of altered simulation setups by comparing indicators such as unsettled transactions or settlement delays

Space Shuttle Countdown Simulation

Firing Room 1 configured for space shuttle launches

Simulation is used at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to train and certify Space Shuttle engineers during simulated launch countdown operations. The Space Shuttle engineering community participates in a launch countdown integrated simulation before each shuttle flight. This simulation is a virtual simulation where real people interact with simulated Space Shuttle vehicle and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) hardware. The Shuttle Final Countdown Phase Simulation, also known as S0044, involves countdown processes that integrate many of the Space Shuttle vehicle and GSE systems. Some of the Shuttle systems integrated in the simulation are the Main Propulsion System, Main Engines, Solid Rocket Boosters, ground Liquid Hydrogen and Liquid Oxygen, External Tank, Flight Controls, Navigation, and Avionics.[54] The high-level objectives of the Shuttle Final Countdown Phase Simulation are:

  • To demonstrate Firing Room final countdown phase operations.
  • To provide training for system engineers in recognizing, reporting and evaluating system problems in a time critical environment.
  • To exercise the launch teams ability to evaluate, prioritize and respond to problems in an integrated manner within a time critical environment.
  • To provide procedures to be used in performing failure/recovery testing of the operations performed in the final countdown phase.[55]

The Shuttle Final Countdown Phase Simulation takes place at the Kennedy Space Center Launch Control Center Firing Rooms. The firing room used during the simulation is the same control room where real launch countdown operations are executed. As a result, equipment used for real launch countdown operations is engaged. Command and control computers, application software, engineering plotting and trending tools, launch countdown procedure documents, launch commit criteria documents, hardware requirement documents, and any other items used by the engineering launch countdown teams during real launch countdown operations are used during the simulation. The Space Shuttle vehicle hardware and related GSE hardware is simulated by mathematical models (written in Shuttle Ground Operations Simulator (SGOS) modeling language [56]) that behave and react like real hardware. During the Shuttle Final Countdown Phase Simulation, engineers command and control hardware via real application software executing in the control consoles – just as if they were commanding real vehicle hardware. However, these real software applications do not interface with real Shuttle hardware during simulations. Instead, the applications interface with mathematical model representations of the vehicle and GSE hardware. Consequently, the simulations bypass sensitive and even dangerous mechanisms while providing engineering measurements detailing how the hardware would have reacted. Since these math models interact with the command and control application software, models and simulations are also used to debug and verify the functionality of application software.[57]

Satellite Navigation Simulators

The only true way to test GNSS receivers (commonly known as Sat-Nav's in the commercial world)is by using an RF Constellation Simulator. A receiver that may for example be used on an aircraft, can be tested under dynamic conditions without the need to take it on a real flight. The test conditions can be repeated exactly, and there is full control over all the test parameters. this is not possible in the 'real-world' using the actual signals. For testing receivers that will use the new Galileo (satellite navigation) there is no alternative, as the real signals do not yet exist.

Weather Simulation

Predicting weather conditions by extrapolating/interpolating previous data is one of the real use of simulation. Most of the weather forecats use this information published by Weather buereaus. This kind of simulations help in predicting and forwarning about extreme weather conditions like the path of an active hurricane/cyclone. Numerical weather prediction for forecasting involves complicated numeric computer models to predict weather accurately by taking many parameters in to account.

Simulation and games

Strategy games — both traditional and modern — may be viewed as simulations of abstracted decision-making for the purpose of training military and political leaders (see History of Go for an example of such a tradition, or Kriegsspiel for a more recent example).

Many other video games are simulators of some kind. Such games can simulate various aspects of reality, from business, to government, to construction, to piloting vehicles (see above).

Historical usage

Historically, the word had negative connotations:

…for Distinction Sake, a Deceiving by Words, is commonly called a Lye, and a Deceiving by Actions, Gestures, or Behavior, is called Simulation…
Robert SouthSouth, 1697, p.525

However, the connection between simulation and dissembling later faded out and is now only of linguistic interest.[58]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b In the words of the Simulation article in Encyclopedia of Computer Science, "designing a model of a real or imagined system and conducting experiments with that model".
  2. ^ Sokolowski, J.A., Banks, C.M. (2009). Principles of Modeling and Simulation. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-470-28943-3. 
  3. ^ For example in computer graphics SIGGRAPH 2007 | For Attendees | Papers Doc:Tutorials/Physics/BSoD - BlenderWiki.
  4. ^ a b Thales defines synthetic environment as "the counterpart to simulated models of sensors, platforms and other active objects" for "the simulation of the external factors that affect them"[1] while other vendors use the term for more visual, virtual reality-style simulators [2].
  5. ^ For a popular research project in the field of biochemistry where "computer simulation is particularly well suited to address these questions"Folding@home - Main, see Folding@Home.
  6. ^ For an academic take on a training simulator, see e.g. Towards Building an Interactive, Scenario-based Training Simulator, for medical application Medical Simulation Training Benefits as presented by a simulator vendor and for military practice A civilian's guide to US defense and security assistance to Latin America and the Caribbean published by Center for International Policy.
  7. ^ Classification used by the Defense Modeling and Simulation Office.
  8. ^ "High Versus Low Fidelity Simulations: Does the Type of Format Affect Candidates' Performance or Perceptions?"
  9. ^ For example All India management association maintains that playing to win, participants "imbibe new forms of competitive behavior that are ideal for today's highly chaotic business conditions"[3] and IBM claims that "the skills honed playing massive multiplayer dragon-slaying games like World of Warcraft can be useful when managing modern multinationals".[4]
  10. ^ "Reacting to the Past Home Page"
  11. ^ "Carana," at 'PaxSims' blog, 27 January 2009
  12. ^ a b c d Sherman, W.R., Craig, A.B. (2003). Understanding Virtual Reality. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann. ISBN 978-1-55860-353-0. 
  13. ^ Leeb, R., Lee, F., Keinrath, C., Schere, R., Bischof, H., Pfurtscheller, G. (2007). "Brain-Computer Communication: Motivation, Aim, and Impact of Exploring a Virtual Apartment". IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering 15 (4): 473–481. doi:10.1109/TNSRE.2007.906956. 
  14. ^ Zahraee, A.H., Szewczyk, J., Paik, J.K., Guillaume, M. (2010). Robotic hand-held surgical device: evaluation of end-effector’s kinematics and development of proof-of-concept prototypes. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention, Beijing, China.
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  16. ^ Narayan, Roger; Kumta, Prashant; Sfeir, Charles; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Choi, Daiwon; Olton, Dana (October 2004). "Nanostructured ceramics in medical devices: Applications and prospects". JOM 56 (10): 38–43. Bibcode 2004JOM....56j..38N. doi:10.1007/s11837-004-0289-x. PMID 11196953. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/tms/jom/2004/00000056/00000010/art00011. 
  17. ^ Couvreur P, Vauthier C (July 2006). "Nanotechnology: intelligent design to treat complex disease". Pharm. Res. 23 (7): 1417–50. doi:10.1007/s11095-006-0284-8. PMID 16779701. 
  18. ^ Hede S, Huilgol N (2006). ""Nano": the new nemesis of cancer". J Cancer Res Ther 2 (4): 186–95. doi:10.4103/0973-1482.29829. PMID 17998702. http://www.cancerjournal.net/article.asp?issn=0973-1482;year=2006;volume=2;issue=4;spage=186;epage=195;aulast=Hede. 
  19. ^ Leary SP, Liu CY, Apuzzo ML (June 2006). "Toward the emergence of nanoneurosurgery: part III—nanomedicine: targeted nanotherapy, nanosurgery, and progress toward the realization of nanoneurosurgery". Neurosurgery 58 (6): 1009–26; discussion 1009–26. doi:10.1227/01.NEU.0000217016.79256.16. PMID 16723880. http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage.htm?issn=0148-396X&volume=58&issue=6&spage=1009. 
  20. ^ Nishisaki A, Keren R, Nadkarni V (June 2007). "Does simulation improve patient safety? Self-efficacy, competence, operational performance, and patient safety". Anesthesiol Clin 25 (2): 225–36. doi:10.1016/j.anclin.2007.03.009. PMID 17574187. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1932-2275(07)00025-0. 
  21. ^ a b Meller, G. (1997). "A Typology of Simulators for Medical Education". Journal of Digital Imaging. http://www.medsim.com/profile/article1.html. 
  22. ^ a b Cooper Jeffery B, Taqueti VR (2008-12). "A brief history of the development of mannequin simulators for clinical education and training". Postgrad Med J. 84 (997): 563–570. doi:10.1136/qshc.2004.009886. PMID 19103813. http://pmj.bmj.com/content/84/997/563.long. Retrieved 2011-05-24. 
  23. ^ Murphy D, Challacombe B, Nedas T, Elhage O, Althoefer K, Seneviratne L, Dasgupta P. (May 2007). "[Equipment and technology in robotics]" (in Spanish; Castilian). Arch. Esp. Urol. 60 (4): 349–55. PMID 17626526. 
  24. ^ "In Cybertherapy, Avatars Assist With Healing". New York Times. 2010-11-22. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/23/science/23avatar.html?_r=1&ref=science. Retrieved 2010-11-23. 
  25. ^ Dagger, Jacob (May–June 2008). Update: "The New Game Theory". 94. Duke Magazine. http://www.dukemagazine.duke.edu/dukemag/issues/050608/depupd.html. Retrieved 2011-02-08. 
  26. ^ Steinberg, Scott (2011-01-31). "How video games can make you smarter". Cable News Network (CNN Tech). http://articles.cnn.com/2011-01-31/tech/video.games.smarter.steinberg_1_video-games-interactive-simulations-digital-world?_s=PM:TECH. Retrieved 2011-02-08. 
  27. ^ Vlaovic PD, Sargent ER, Boker JR, et al. (2008). "Immediate impact of an intensive one-week laparoscopy training program on laparoscopic skills among postgraduate urologists". JSLS 12 (1): 1–8. PMC 3016039. PMID 18402731. http://openurl.ingenta.com/content/nlm?genre=article&issn=1086-8089&volume=12&issue=1&spage=1&aulast=Vlaovic. 
  28. ^ Leung J, Foster E (April 2008). "How do we ensure that trainees learn to perform biliary sphincterotomy safely, appropriately, and effectively?". Curr Gastroenterol Rep 10 (2): 163–8. doi:10.1007/s11894-008-0038-3. PMID 18462603. http://www.current-reports.com/article_frame.cfm?PubID=GR10-2-2-03&Type=Abstract. 
  29. ^ http://www.pong-story.com/intro.htm Archived 10 September 2010 at WebCite
  30. ^ http://homepages.vvm.com/~jhunt/compupedia/History%20of%20Computers/history_of_computers_1980.htm
  31. ^ "Video Game Console Timeline - Video Game History - Xbox 360 - TIME Magazine". Time. 2005-05-23. http://www.time.com/time/covers/1101050523/console_timeline/. Retrieved 2010-05-23. 
  32. ^ http://design.osu.edu/carlson/history/tron.html
  33. ^ http://www.beanblossom.in.us/larryy/cgi.html
  34. ^ http://www.starksravings.com/linktrainer/linktrainer.htm
  35. ^ a b http://www.trudang.com/simulatr/simulatr.html
  36. ^ http://open-site.org/Games/Video_Games/Simulation
  37. ^ http://www.ibisworld.com/industry/retail.aspx?indid=2003&chid=1
  38. ^ http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/c/computer-generated_imagery.htm
  39. ^ http://www.awn.com/mag/issue4.02/4.02pages/kenyonspiderman.php3
  40. ^ Benedettini, O., Tjahjono, B. (2008). "Towards an improved tool to facilitate simulation modeling of complex manufacturing systems". International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 43 (1/2): 191–9. doi:10.1007/s00170-008-1686-z. 
  41. ^ Banks, J., Carson J., Nelson B.L., Nicol, D. (2005). Discrete-event system simulation (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-088702-3. 
  42. ^ CADE- http://www.uic.edu/sph/cade/
  43. ^ News-Medical.Net article- http://www.news-medical.net/news/2005/10/27/14106.aspx
  44. ^ a b http://www.straylightmm.com/
  45. ^ Federal Standard 1037C
  46. ^ D. Passeri et al. (May 2009). "Analysis of 3D stacked fully functional CMOS Active Pixel Sensor detectors". Journal of Instrumentation 4 (4): 4009. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/4/04/P04009. http://meroli.web.cern.ch/meroli/Analysisof3Dstacked.html. 
  47. ^ See, for example, United States Joint Forces Command "Multinational Experiment 4"
  48. ^ Ulf, Eriksson (2005). Diffusion of Discrete Event Simulation in Swedish Industry. Gothenburg: Doktorsavhandlingar vid Chalmers tekniska högskola. ISBN 91-7291-577-3. 
  49. ^ Paul H. Selden (1997). Sales Process Engineering: A Personal Workshop. Milwaukee, WI: ASQ Quality Press. ISBN 978-0-87389-418-0. 
  50. ^ Leinonen (ed.): Simulation studies of liquidity needs, risks and efficiency in payment networks (Bank of Finland Studies E:39/2007) Simulation publications
  51. ^ Neville Arjani: Examining the Trade-Off between Settlement Delay and Intraday Liquidity in Canada's LVTS: A Simulation Approach (Working Paper 2006-20, Bank of Canada) Simulation publications
  52. ^ Johnson, K. - McAndrews, J. - Soramäki, K. 'Economizing on Liquidity with Deferred Settlement Mechanisms' (Reserve Bank of New York Economic Policy Review, December 2004)
  53. ^ H. Leinonen (ed.): Simulation analyses and stress testing of payment networks (Bank of Finland Studies E:42/2009) Simulation publications
  54. ^ Sikora, E.A. (2010, July 27). Space Shuttle Main Propulsion System expert, John F. Kennedy Space Center. Interview.
  55. ^ Shuttle Final Countdown Phase Simulation. National Aeronautics and Space Administration KSC Document # RTOMI S0044, Revision AF05, 2009.
  56. ^ Shuttle Ground Operations Simulator (SGOS) Summary Description Manual. National Aeronautics and Space Administration KSC Document # KSC-LPS-SGOS-1000, Revision 3 CHG-A, 1995.
  57. ^ Math Model Main Propulsion System (MPS) Requirements Document, National Aeronautics and Space Administration KSC Document # KSCL-1100-0522, Revision 9, June 2009.
  58. ^ South, in the passage quoted, was speaking of the differences between a falsehood and an honestly mistaken statement; the difference being that in order for the statement to be a lie the truth must be known, and the opposite of the truth must have been knowingly uttered. And, from this, to the extent to which a lie involves deceptive words, a simulation involves deceptive actions, deceptive gestures, or deceptive behavior. Thus, it would seem, if a simulation is false, then the truth must be known (in order for something other than the truth to be presented in its stead); and, for the simulation to simulate. Because, otherwise, one would not know what to offer up in simulation. Bacon’s essay Of Simulation and Dissimulation expresses somewhat similar views; it is also significant that Samuel Johnson thought so highly of South's definition, that he used it in the entry for simulation in his Dictionary of the English Language.

Further reading

  • C. Aldrich (2003). Learning by Doing : A Comprehensive Guide to Simulations, Computer Games, and Pedagogy in e-Learning and Other Educational Experiences. San Francisco: Pfeifer — John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-7879-7735-1. 
  • C. Aldrich (2004). Simulations and the future of learning: an innovative (and perhaps revolutionary) approach to e-learning. San Francisco: Pfeifer — John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-7879-6962-2. 
  • Steve Cohen (2006). Virtual Decisions. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 978-0-8058-4994-3. 
  • R. Frigg, S. Hartmann (2007). "Models in Science". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/models-science/. 
  • S. Hartmann (1996). "The World as a Process: Simulations in the Natural and Social Sciences". In R. Hegselmann, et al.. Modelling and Simulation in the Social Sciences from the Philosophy of Science Point of View. Theory and Decision Library. Dordrecht: Kluwer. pp. 77–100. http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/archive/00002412/. 
  • J.P. Hertel (2002). Using Simulations to Promote Learning in Higher Education. Sterling, Virginia: Stylus. ISBN 978-1-57922-052-5. 
  • P. Humphreys (2004). Extending Ourselves: Computational Science, Empiricism, and Scientific Method. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-515870-0. 
  • F. Percival, S. Lodge, D. Saunders (1993). The Simulation and Gaming Yearbook: Developing Transferable Skills in Education and Training. London: Kogan Page. 
  • James J. Nutaro, Building Software for Simulation: Theory and Algorithms, with Applications in C++. Wiley, 2010.
  • D. Saunders, ed (2000). The International Simulation and Gaming Research Yearbook. London: Kogan Page. 
  • Roger D. Smith: Simulation Article, Encyclopedia of Computer Science, Nature Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-333-77879-1.
  • Roger D. Smith: "Simulation: The Engine Behind the Virtual World", eMatter, December, 1999.
  • R. South (1688). "A Sermon Delivered at Christ-Church, Oxon., Before the University, Octob. 14. 1688: Prov. XII.22 Lying Lips are abomination to the Lord", pp. 519–657 in South, R., Twelve Sermons Preached Upon Several Occasions (Second Edition), Volume I, Printed by S.D. for Thomas Bennet, (London), 1697.
  • Gabriel A. Wainer (2009) Discrete-Event Modeling and Simulation: a practitioner's approach. CRC Press, 2009.
  • Eric Winsberg (1999) Sanctioning Models: The epistemology of simulation, in Sismondo, Sergio and Snait Gissis (eds.) (1999), Modeling and Simulation. Special Issue of Science in Context 12.
  • Eric Winsberg (2001). "Simulations, Models and Theories: Complex Physical Systems and their Representations". Philosophy of Science 68: 442–454. 
  • Eric Winsberg (2003). "Simulated Experiments: Methodology for a Virtual World" (PDF). Philosophy of Science 70: 105–125. doi:10.1086/367872. http://www.cas.usf.edu/~ewinsb/methodology.pdf. 
  • Joseph Wolfe, David Crookall (1998). "Developing a scientific knowledge of simulation/gaming". Simulation & Gaming: an International Journal of Theory, Design and Research 29 (1): 7–19. http://sag.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/29/1/7. 
  • Ellen K. Levy (2004). "Synthetic Lighting: Complex Simulations of Nature". Photography Quarterly (88): 5–9. 

External links


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Synonyms:

Look at other dictionaries:

  • SIMULATION — La simulation est l’expérimentation sur un modèle . C’est une procédure de recherche scientifique qui consiste à réaliser une reproduction artificielle (modèle ) du phénomène que l’on désire étudier, à observer le comportement de cette… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • simulation — sim·u·la·tion /ˌsim yə lā shən/ n in the civil law of Louisiana 1: the act of simulating 2: a contract that by mutual agreement does not express the true intent of the parties see also counterletter compare disguised donation …   Law dictionary

  • Simulation — Sim u*la tion, n. [F. simulation, L. simulatio.] The act of simulating, or assuming an appearance which is feigned, or not true; distinguished from dissimulation, which disguises or conceals what is true. [1913 Webster] Syn: Counterfeiting;… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Simulation — (lat.), Vorstellung, Annahme des Scheins von etwas, Vorspiegelung; Vornahme eines Rechtsgeschäfts zum Schein (s. Scheingeschäft). Häufig, besonders seit Einführung der Arbeiterversicherungsgesetze, werden Krankheiten simuliert, um bestimmte… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • simulation — mid 14c., a false show, false profession, from O.Fr. simulation, from L. simulationem (nom. simulatio) an imitating, feigning, noun of action from simulare imitate, from stem of similis like (see SIMILAR (Cf. similar)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • simulation — Simulation, Simulatio, Hypocrisis. Par simulation, Simulate, Cic …   Thresor de la langue françoyse

  • Simulation — (v. lat.), 1) Verstellung in positiver Hinsicht, als hätte man Etwas; dagegen Dissimulation, Verstellung in negativer Hinsicht, als hätte man Etwas nicht, was man doch hat: 2) so v.w. Scheingeschäft 1) …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Simulation — (lat.), Verstellung, das Erheucheln des Vorhandenseins von etwas; Simulánt, ein Heuchelnder, bes. der eine Krankheit erheuchelt; simulieren, erheucheln, vorspiegeln, vorschützen; auch nachsinnen, grübeln …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Simulation — Simulation, lat. dtsch., Verstellung, Heuchelei; simuliren, vorgeben, heucheln; simulirte Krankheiten, vorgeschützte Krankheiten, welche in Wirklichkeit gar nicht bestehen; dissimulirte od. verheimlichte Krankheiten, welche wirklich vorhanden… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Simulation — (f), Tachinieren (n) eng malingering …   Arbeitssicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz Glossar

  • simulation — [n] imitation carbon copy, clone, copy, counterfeit, duplicate, duplication, facsimile, fake, image, likeness, match, mirroring, paralleling, reflection, replica, reproduction, sham; concepts 171,260,716 …   New thesaurus


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