Soleidae


Soleidae

Taxobox
name = Soles



image_width = 250px
image_caption = Sand sole, "Pegusa lascaris"
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Chordata
classis = Actinopterygii
ordo = Pleuronectiformes
familia = Soleidae
subdivision_ranks = Genera
subdivision = "Achiroides" "Aesopia" "Aseraggodes" "Austroglossus" "Bathysolea" "Brachirus" "Buglossidium" "Dagetichthys" "Dicologlossa" "Heteromycteris" "Leptachirus" "Liachirus" "Microchirus" "Monochirus" "Parachirus" "Paradicula" "Pardachirus" "Pegusa" "Phyllichthys" "Rendahlia" "Rhinosolea" "Solea" "Soleichthys" "Strabozebrias" "Synaptura" "Synapturichthys" "Typhlachirus" "Vanstraelenia" "Zebrias" See text for species.
The true soles are a family, Soleidae, of flatfishes, and include species that live in salt water and fresh water. They are bottom-dwelling fishes feeding on small crustaceans and other invertebrates. Other flatfishes are also known as soles.

Soles begin life as bilaterally symmetric larvae, with an eye on each side of the head. But during development the left eye moves around onto the right side of the head. Adult soles lie on their left (blind) side on the sea floor, often covered in mud which, in combination with their dark colours, makes them hard to spot.

Soles (along with flounders) were observed by the Bathyscaphe Trieste at the bottom of the Mariana Trench at a depth of 35,798 feet (10,911 m).

Many soles are important food species: the common sole, "Solea solea", is popular in northern Europe and the Mediterranean.

Species

FishBase lists 135 species in 28 genera but comments, "The taxonomy of this family needs revision." [FishBase family|family=Soleidae|month=February|year=2006]
* Genus "Achiroides"
** "Achiroides leucorhynchos" Bleeker, 1851.
** "Achiroides melanorhynchus" (Bleeker, 1851).
* Genus "Aesopia"
** Unicorn sole, "Aesopia cornuta" Kaup, 1858. [
Unicorn sole, "Aesopia cornuta"]
* Genus "Aseraggodes"
** "Aseraggodes bahamondei" Randall & Meléndez, 1987.
** "Aseraggodes borehami" Randall, 1996.
** "Aseraggodes crypticus" Randall & Allen, 2007. [cite journal | journal = Records of the Western Australian Museum | volume = 24 | issue = 1 | year = 2007 | pages = 109–112 | title = "Aseraggodes crypticus", a new sole (Pleuronectiformes: Soleidae) from Christmas Island, Indian Ocean | author = Randall & Allen]
** "Aseraggodes cyaneus" (Alcock, 1890).
** "Aseraggodes dubius" Weber, 1913.
** "Aseraggodes filiger" Weber, 1913.
** "Aseraggodes guttulatus" Kaup, 1858.
** Southern sole, "Aseraggodes haackeanus" (Steindachner, 1883).
** Herre's sole, "Aseraggodes herrei" Seale, 1940.
** "Aseraggodes holcomi" Randall, 2002.
** "Aseraggodes kaianus" (Günther, 1880).
** Tailed sole, "Aseraggodes klunzingeri" (Weber, 1907).
** "Aseraggodes kobensis" (Steindachner, 1896).
** Narrowbanded sole, "Aseraggodes macleayanus" (Ramsay, 1881).
** Mottled sole, "Aseraggodes melanostictus" (Peters, 1877).
** "Aseraggodes microlepidotus" (Fowler, 1946).
** "Aseraggodes normani" Chabanaud, 1930.
** "Aseraggodes ocellatus" Weed, 1961.
** Ocellated sole, "Aseraggodes persimilis" (Günther, 1909).
** "Aseraggodes ramsayi" (Ogilby, 1889).
** "Aseraggodes sinusarabici" Chabanaud, 1931.
** Smith's sole, "Aseraggodes smithi" Woods, 1966.
** "Aseraggodes texturatus" Weber, 1913.
** "Aseraggodes therese" Randall, 1996.
** Whitaker's sole, "Aseraggodes whitakeri" Woods, 1966.
* Genus "Austroglossus"
** West coast sole, "Austroglossus microlepis" (Bleeker, 1863).
** Mud sole, "Austroglossus pectoralis" (Kaup, 1858).
* Genus "Bathysolea"
** "Bathysolea lactea" Roule, 1916.
** "Bathysolea lagarderae" Quéro & Desoutter, 1990.
** "Bathysolea polli" (Chabanaud, 1950).
** Deepwater sole, "Bathysolea profundicola" (Vaillant, 1888).
* Genus "Brachirus"
** "Brachirus aenea" (Smith, 1931).
** Annular sole, "Brachirus annularis" Fowler, 1934.
** "Brachirus aspilos" (Bleeker, 1852).
** "Brachirus dicholepis" (Peters, 1877).
** Mekong blind sole, "Brachirus elongatus" (Day, 1877).
** "Brachirus harmandi" (Sauvage, 1878).
** "Brachirus heterolepis" (Bleeker, 1856).
** "Brachirus macrolepis" (Bleeker, 1858).
** Tufted sole, "Brachirus muelleri" (Steindachner, 1879).
** Oriental sole, "Brachirus orientalis" (Bloch & Schneider, 1801).
** Pan sole, "Brachirus pan" (Hamilton, 1822).
** "Brachirus panoides" (Bleeker, 1851).
** "Brachirus siamensis" (Sauvage, 1878).
** "Brachirus sorsogonensis" (Evermann & Seale, 1907).
** "Brachirus swinhonis" (Steindachner, 1867).
* Genus "Buglossidium"
** Solenette, "Buglossidium luteum" (Risso, 1810).
* Genus "Dagetichthys"
** "Dagetichthys lakdoensis" Stauch & Blanc, 1964.
* Genus "Dicologlossa"
** Wedge sole, "Dicologlossa cuneata" (Moreau, 1881).
** Ocellated wedge sole, "Dicologlossa hexophthalma" (Bennett, 1831).
* Genus "Heteromycteris"
** Cape sole, "Heteromycteris capensis" Kaup, 1858.
** Hook-nosed sole, "Heteromycteris hartzfeldii" (Bleeker, 1853).
** Bamboo sole, "Heteromycteris japonicus" (Bleeker, 1860).
** "Heteromycteris matsubarai" Ochiai, 1963.
** Eyed sole, "Heteromycteris oculus" (Alcock, 1889).
** True sole, "Heteromycteris proboscideus" (Chabanaud, 1925).
* Genus "Leptachirus"cite journal | journal = Records of the Western Australian Museum | volume = 24 | issue = 1 | year = 2007 | pages = 81–108 | title = "Leptachirus", a new soleid fish genus from New Guinea and northern Australia with descriptions of eight new species | author = Randall]
** "Leptachirus alleni" Randall, 2007.
** "Leptachirus bensbach" Randall, 2007.
** "Leptachirus darwinensis" Randall, 2007.
** "Leptachirus kikori" Randall, 2007.
** "Leptachirus lorentz" Randall, 2007.
** "Leptachirus polylepis" Randall, 2007.
** "Leptachirus robertsi" Randall, 2007.
** "Leptachirus triramus" Randall, 2007.
* Genus "Liachirus"
** "Liachirus melanospilos" (Bleeker, 1854).
** "Liachirus whitleyi" Chabanaud, 1950.
* Genus "Microchirus"
** "Microchirus azevia" (Brito Capello, 1867).
** Lusitanian sole, "Microchirus boscanion" (Chabanaud, 1926).
** Frechkop's sole, "Microchirus frechkopi" Chabanaud, 1952.
** Foureyed sole, "Microchirus ocellatus" (Weed, 1961).
** Bastard sole, "Microchirus theophila" (Risso, 1810).
** Thickback sole, "Microchirus variegatus" (Donovan, 1808).
** Banded sole, "Microchirus wittei" Chabanaud, 1950.
* Genus "Monochirus"
** Whiskered sole, "Monochirus hispidus" Rafinesque, 1814.
** "Monochirus trichodactylus" (Linnaeus, 1758).
* Genus "Parachirus"
** "Parachirus diringeri" Quéro, 1997.
** Dwarf sole, "Parachirus xenicus" Matsubara & Ochiai, 1963.
* Genus "Paradicula"
** "Paradicula setifer" (Paradice, 1927).
* Genus "Pardachirus"
** Piebald sole, "Pardachirus balius" Randall & Mee, 1994.
** Southern peacock sole, "Pardachirus hedleyi" Ogilby, 1916.
** Finless sole, "Pardachirus marmoratus" (Lacépède, 1802).
** Persian carpet sole, "Pardachirus morrowi" (Chabanaud, 1954).
** Peacock sole, "Pardachirus pavoninus" (Lacépède, 1802).
** Estuary sole, "Pardachirus poropterus" (Bleeker, 1851).
* Genus "Pegusa"
** Cadenat's sole, "Pegusa cadenati" Chabanaud, 1954.
** Adriatic sole, "Pegusa impar" (Bennett, 1831).
** Sand sole, "Pegusa lascaris" (Risso, 1810).
** Cyclope sole, "Pegusa triophthalma" (Bleeker, 1863).
* Genus "Phyllichthys"
** Spotted sole, "Phyllichthys punctatus" McCulloch, 1916.
** "Phyllichthys sclerolepis" (Macleay, 1878).
** "Phyllichthys sejunctus" Whitley, 1935.
* Genus "Rendahlia"
** "Rendahlia jaubertensis" (Rendahl, 1921).
* Genus "Rhinosolea"
** "Rhinosolea microlepidota" Fowler, 1946.
* Genus "Solea"
** Egyptian sole, "Solea aegyptiaca" Chabanaud, 1927.
** Blackhand sole, "Solea bleekeri" Boulenger, 1898.
** "Solea capensis" (Kaup, 1858).
** Elongate sole, "Solea elongata" Day, 1877.
** "Solea fulvomarginata" Gilchrist, 1904.
** "Solea heinii" Steindachner, 1903.
** "Solea humilis" Cantor, 1849.
** Ovate sole, "Solea ovata" Richardson, 1846.
** Senegalese sole, "Solea senegalensis" Kaup, 1858.
** Common sole, "Solea solea" (Linnaeus, 1758).
** Stanaland's sole, "Solea stanalandi" Randall & McCarthy, 1989.
* Genus "Soleichthys"
** "Soleichthys heterorhinos" (Bleeker, 1856).
** "Soleichthys maculosus" Muchhala & Munroe, 2004. [cite journal | journal = Ichthyological Research | doi = 10.1007/s10228-003-0196-0 | volume = 51 | issue = 1 | year = 2004 | pages = 57–62 | title = A new species of "Soleichthys" (Soleidae: Pleuronectiformes) from tropical seas off northern Australia | author = Muchhala and Munroe]
** Small-head sole, "Soleichthys microcephalus" (Günther, 1862).
** "Soleichthys siammakuti" Wongratana, 1975.
** "Soleichthys tubifera" (Peters, 1876).
* Genus "Strabozebrias"
** Harrowed sole, "Strabozebrias cancellatus" (McCulloch, 1916).
* Genus "Synaptura"
** Kaup's sole, "Synaptura albomaculata" Kaup, 1858.
** Guinean sole, "Synaptura cadenati" (Chabanaud, 1954).
** Commerson's sole, "Synaptura commersonnii" (Lacépède, 1802).
** Portuguese sole, "Synaptura lusitanica lusitanica" Brito Capello, 1868.
** "Synaptura lusitanica nigromaculata" Pellegrin, 1905.
** White-margined sole, "Synaptura marginata" Boulenger, 1900.
** "Synaptura megalepidoura" (Fowler, 1934).
** Black sole, "Synaptura nigra" Macleay, 1880.
** Saltpan sole, "Synaptura salinarum" (Ogilby, 1910).
** Selheim's sole, "Synaptura selheimi" Macleay, 1882.
** Velvety sole, "Synaptura villosa" Weber, 1907.
* Genus "Synapturichthys"
** Klein's sole, "Synapturichthys kleinii" (Risso, 1827).
* Genus "Typhlachirus"
** "Typhlachirus caecus" Hardenberg, 1931.
* Genus "Vanstraelenia"
** African solenette, "Vanstraelenia chirophthalma" (Regan, 1915).
* Genus "Zebrias"
** "Zebrias altipinnis" (Alcock, 1890).
** "Zebrias annandalei" Talwar & Chakrapany, 1967.
** Convict zebra sole, "Zebrias captivus" Randall, 1995.
** Wicker work sole, "Zebrias craticula" (McCulloch, 1916).
** "Zebrias crossolepis" Zheng & Chang, 1965.
** "Zebrias fasciatus" (Basilewsky, 1855).
** Wavyband sole, "Zebrias japonica" (Bleeker, 1860).
** "Zebrias keralensis" Joglekar, 1976.
** "Zebrias lucapensis" Seigel & Adamson, 1985.
** "Zebrias maculosus" Oommen, 1977.
** "Zebrias munroi" (Whitley, 1966).
** Duskybanded sole, "Zebrias penescalaris" Gomon, 1987.
** Fringefin zebra sole, "Zebrias quagga" (Kaup, 1858).
** South African zebra sole, "Zebrias regani" (Gilchrist, 1906).
** Many-band sole, "Zebrias scalaris" Gomon, 1987.
** Indian zebra sole, "Zebrias synapturoides" (Jenkins, 1910).
** Zebra sole, "Zebrias zebra" (Bloch, 1787).
** "Zebrias zebrinus" (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846).

References


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  • Soleidae — noun soles • Syn: ↑family Soleidae • Hypernyms: ↑fish family • Member Holonyms: ↑Heterosomata, ↑order Heterosomata, ↑order Pleuronectiformes …   Useful english dictionary

  • soleidae — so·le·idae …   English syllables

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