Greeks


Greeks
Greeks
Έλληνες
Greeks25-3.svg
1st row: Homer • King Leonidas • Pericles • Herodotus • Hippocrates
2nd row: Socrates • Plato • Aristotle • Alexander the Great • Archimedes
3rd row: Hypatia • Basil II • Alexios Komnenos • Gemistos Plethon • El Greco
4th row: Rigas Feraios • Theodoros Kolokotronis • Laskarina Bouboulina • Georgios Karaiskakis • Ioannis Kapodistrias •
5th row: Eleftherios Venizelos • Constantine Cavafy • Georgios Papanikolaou • Archbishop Makarios • Pyrros Dimas
Total population
at least. 14 - 17 million [1]
Regions with significant populations
 Greece 10,280,000 (2001 census) [2]
 United States 1,390,439[3]-3,000,000a (2009 est.) [4]
 Cyprus 792,604 (July 2008 Est.) [5]
 United Kingdom 400,000 (estimate) [6]
 Australia 365,120[7] (2006 census)-700,000a [8]
 Germany 294,891 (2007 est.) [9]
 Canada 242,685b (2006 census) [10]
 Albania approx. 200,000 [11]
 Russia 100,000 [12][13]
 Ukraine 91,500 (2001 census) [14]
 Italy 90,000c (estimate) [15][16][17]
 South Africa 55,000 (2008 estimate) [18]
 Brazil 50,000d [19]
 France 35,000(2009 est.) [20]
 Argentina 30,000 (2008 estimate) [21]
 Belgium 15,742 (2007) [22]
 Sweden 12,000–15,000 [23]
 Kazakhstan 13,000 (est) [24]
 Switzerland 11,000 estimated [25]
 Uzbekistan 9,500 estimate [26]
 Romania 6,500 2002 census [27]
 Armenia 9,000 [28]
 Turkey 2,500 [28]
 Syria 1,500 [29]
 Chile 1,500 [30]
Languages

Greek

Religion

Greek Orthodox Christianity, irreligion, other

Footnotes
a Higher figure includes those of ancestral descent.
b Those whose stated ethnic origins included "Greek" among others. The number of those whose stated ethnic origin is solely "Greek" is 145,250. An additional 3,395 Cypriots of undeclared ethnicity live in Canada.
cApprox. 60,000 Griko people and 30,000 post WW2 migrants.
d "Including descendants".

The Greeks, also known as the Hellenes (Greek: Έλληνες, [ˈelines]), are a nation and ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighboring regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.[31]

Greek colonies and communities have been historically established in most corners of the Mediterranean, but Greeks have always been centered around the Aegean Sea, where the Greek language has been spoken since antiquity.[32] Until the early 20th century, Greeks were uniformly distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, Pontus, Egypt, Cyprus and Constantinople; many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of the ancient Greek colonization.[33]

In the aftermath of the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922), a large-scale population exchange between Greece and Turkey transferred and confined Christians from Turkey, except Constantinople (effectively ethnic Greeks) into the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. Other ethnic Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and in diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.[34]

Contents

History

A reconstruction of the 3rd millennium BC "Proto-Greek area", according linguist V. I. Georgiev.

The Greeks speak the Greek language, which forms its own unique branch within the Indo-European family of languages, the Hellenic language.[32] They are part of a group of pre-modern ethnicities, described by Anthony D. Smith as an "archetypal diaspora people".[35][36]

The modern Greek state was created in 1832, when the Greeks liberated a part of their historic homelands from the Ottoman Empire.[37] The large Greek diaspora and merchant class were instrumental in transmitting the ideas of western romantic nationalism and philhellenism,[38] which together with the conception of Hellenism, formulated during the last centuries of the Byzantine Empire, formed the basis of the Diafotismos and the current conception of Hellenism.[39][40][41]

Origins

The Proto-Greeks probably arrived at the area now called Greece, in the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula, at the end of the 3rd millennium BC.[42][43][a] The sequence of migrations into the Greek mainland during the 2nd millennium BC has to be reconstructed on the basis of the ancient Greek dialects, as they presented themselves centuries later and is subject to some uncertainties. There were at least two migrations, the first of the Ionians and Aeolians which resulted in Mycenaean Greece by the 16th century BC,[32][44] and the second, the Dorian invasion, around the 11th century BC, displacing the Arcadocypriot dialects which descended from the Mycenaean period. Both migrations occur at incisive periods, the Mycenaean at the transition to the Late Bronze Age and the Doric at the Bronze Age collapse.

There were some suggestions of three waves of migration indicating a Proto-Ionian one, either contemporary or even earlier than the Mycenaean. This possibility appears to have been first suggested by Ernst Curtius in the 1880s. In current scholarship, the standard assumption is to group the Ionic together with the Arcadocypriot group as the successors of a single Middle Bronze Age migration in dual opposition to the "western" group of Doric.

Mycenaean

A Kouros, from the Archaic period. Archaeological Museum of Thebes, Greece.

The Mycenaeans were ultimately the first Greek-speaking people attested through historical sources, written records in the Linear B script,[45] and through their literary echoes in the works of Homer, a few centuries later.

The Mycenaeans quickly penetrated the Aegean Sea and by the 15th century BC had reached Rhodes, Crete, Cyprus, where Teucer is said to have founded the first colony, and the shores of Asia Minor.[32][46] Around 1200 BC the Dorians, another Greek-speaking people, followed from Epirus.[47] Traditionally, historians have believed that the Dorian invasion caused the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization, but it is likely the main attack was made by seafaring raiders (sea peoples) who sailed into the eastern Mediterranean around 1180 BC.[48] The Dorian invasion was followed by a poorly attested period of migrations, appropriately called the Greek Dark Ages, but by 800 BC the landscape of Archaic and Classical Greece was discernible.[32]

In the Homeric epics, the Greeks of prehistory are viewed as the ancestors of the early classical civilization of Homer's own time,[49] while the Mycenaean pantheon included many of the divinities (e.g. Zeus, Poseidon and Hades) attested in later Greek religion.[50][51]

Classical

Hoplites fighting. Detail from an Attic black-figure hydria, ca. 560 BC–550 BC. Louvre, Paris.

The classical period of Greek civilization covers a time spanning from the early 5th century BC to the death of Alexander the Great, in 323 BC (some authors prefer to split this period into 'Classical', from the end of the Persian wars to the end of the Peloponnesian War, and 'Fourth Century', up to the death of Alexander). It is so named because it set the standards by which Greek civilization would be judged in later eras.[52] The ethnogenesis of the Greek nation is marked, according to some scholars, by the first Olympic Games in 776 BC, when the idea of a common Hellenism among the Greek-speaking tribes was first translated into a shared cultural experience and Hellenism was primarily a matter of common culture.[31]

While the Greeks of the classical era understood themselves to belong to a common Greek genos their first loyalty was to their city and they saw nothing incongruous about warring, often brutally, with other Greek city-states. The Peloponnesian War, the large scale Greek civil war between Athens and Sparta and their allies, is a case in point.[53]

Most of the feuding Greek city-states were, in some scholars' opinions, united under the banner of Philip's and Alexander the Great's pan-Hellenic ideals, though others might generally opt, rather, for an explanation of "Macedonian conquest for the sake of conquest" or at least conquest for the sake of riches, glory and power and view the "ideal" as useful propaganda directed towards the city-states.[54]

In any case, Alexander's toppling of the Achaemenid Empire, after his victories at the battles of the Granicus, Issus and Gaugamela, and advance as far as modern-day Pakistan and Tajikistan,[55] provided an important outlet for Greek culture, via the creation of colonies and trade routes along the way.[56] While the Alexandrian empire did not survive its creator's death intact, the cultural implications of the spread of Hellenism across much of the Middle East and Asia were to prove long lived as Greek became the lingua franca, a position it retained even in Roman times.[57] Many Greeks migrated to Alexandria, Antioch, Seleucia and many other new Hellenistic cities founded in Alexander's wake.[58] Two thousand years later, there are still communities in Pakistan and Afghanistan, like the Kalash, who claim to be descended from Greek settlers.[59]

Hellenistic

The major Hellenistic realms; the Ptolemaic Kingdom (dark blue) and the Seleucid Empire (yellow).

The Hellenistic civilization was the next period of Greek civilization, the beginnings of which are usually placed at Alexander's death.[60] This Hellenistic age, so called because it saw the partial Hellenization of many non-Greek cultures,[61] lasted until the conquest of Egypt by Rome in 30 BC.[60]

This age saw the Greeks move towards larger cities and a reduction in the importance of the city-state. These larger cities were parts of the still larger Kingdoms of the Diadochi.[62][63] Greeks, however, remained aware of their past, chiefly through the study of the works of Homer and the classical authors.[64] An important factor in maintaining Greek identity was contact with barbarian (non-Greek) peoples which was deepened in the new cosmopolitan environment of the multi-ethnic Hellenistic kingdoms. This led to a strong desire among Greeks to organize the transmission of the Hellenic paideia to the next generation.[64]

In the religious sphere, this was a period of profound change. The spiritual revolution that took place saw a waning of the old Greek religion, whose decline beginning in the 3rd century BC continued with the introduction of new religious movements from the East.[31] The cults of deities like Isis and Mithra were introduced into the Greek world.[63][65]

In the Indo-Greek and Greco-Bactrian kingdoms, Greco-Buddhism was spreading and Greek missionaries would play an important role in propagating it to China.[66] Further east, the Greeks of Alexandria Eschate became known to the Chinese people as the Dayuan.[67]

Byzantine

Of the new eastern religions introduced into the Greek world the most successful was Christianity. While ethnic distinctions still existed in the Roman Empire, they became secondary to religious considerations and the renewed empire used Christianity as a tool to support its cohesion and promoted a robust Roman national identity.[68] Concurrently the secular, urban civilization of late antiquity survived in the Eastern Mediterranean along with Greco-Roman educational system, although it was from Christianity that the culture's essential values were drawn.[69]

"Much of what we know of antiquity – especially of Hellenic and Roman literature and of Roman law — would have been lost for ever but for the scholars and scribes and copyists of Constantinople."
J.J. Norwich[70]

The Eastern Roman Empire – today conventionally named the Byzantine Empire, a name not in use during its own time[71] – became increasingly influenced by Greek culture after the 7th century, when Emperor Heraclius (AD 575 - 641) decided to make Greek the empire's official language.[72][73] Certainly from then on, but likely earlier, the Roman and Greek cultures were virtually fused into a single Greco-Roman world. Although the Latin West recognized the Eastern Empire's claim to the Roman legacy for several centuries, after Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne, king of the Franks, as the "Roman Emperor" on December 25, 800, an act which eventually led to the formation of the Holy Roman Empire, the Latin West started to favour the Franks and began to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire largely as the Empire of the Greeks (Imperium Graecorum).[74] Greek-speakers at the time, however, referred to themselves as Romaioi ("Romans").[71]

These Byzantine Greeks were largely responsible for the preservation of the literature of the classical era.[69][70][75] Byzantine grammarians were those principally responsible for carrying, in person and in writing, ancient Greek grammatical and literary studies to the West during the 15th century, giving the Italian Renaissance a major boost.[76][77] The Aristotelian philosophical tradition was nearly unbroken in the Greek world for almost two thousand years, until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.[78]

To the Slavic world, Roman era Greeks contributed by the dissemination of literacy and Christianity. The most notable example of the later was the work of the two Greek brothers Saints Cyril and Methodius from Thessaloniki, who are credited today with formalizing the first Slavic alphabet.[79]

A distinct Greek political identity re-emerged in the 11th century in educated circles and became more forceful after the fall of Constantinople to the Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade in 1204, so that when the empire was revived in 1261, it became in many ways a Greek national state.[39] That new notion of nationhood engendered a deep interest in the classical past culminating in the ideas of the Neoplatonist philosopher Gemistus Pletho, who abandoned Christianity.[39] However, it was the combination of Orthodox Christianity with a specifically Greek identity that shaped the Greeks' notion of themselves in the empire's twilight years.[39]

Ottoman

Engraving of a Greek merchant by Cesare Vecellio (16th century).

Following the Fall of Constantinople on May 29, 1453, many Greeks sought better employment and education opportunities by leaving for the West, particularly Italy, Central Europe, Germany and Russia.[76]

For those that remained under the Ottoman Empire's millet system, religion was the defining characteristic of national groups (milletler), so the exonym "Greeks" (Rumlar from the name Rhomaioi) was applied by the Ottomans to all members of the Orthodox Church, regardless of their language or ethnic origin.[40] The Greek speakers were the only ethnic group to actually call themselves Romioi,[80] (as opposed to being so named by others) and, at least those educated, considered their ethnicity (genos) to be Hellenic.[81]

The roots of Greek success in the Ottoman Empire can be traced to the Greek tradition of education and commerce.[82] It was the wealth of the extensive merchant class that provided the material basis for the intellectual revival that was the prominent feature of Greek life in the half century and more leading to the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence in 1821.[38] Not coincidentally, on the eve of 1821, the three most important centres of Greek learning were situated in Chios, Smyrna and Aivali, all three major centres of Greek commerce.[38]

Modern

The cover of Hermes o Logios, a Greek literary publication of the late 18th and early 19th century.

The relationship between ethnic Greek identity and Greek Orthodox religion continued after the creation of the Modern Greek state in 1830. According to the second article of the first Greek constitution of 1822, a Greek was defined as any Christian resident of the Kingdom of Greece, a clause removed by 1840.[83] A century later, when the Treaty of Lausanne was signed between Greece and Turkey in 1923, the two countries agreed to use religion as the determinant for ethnic identity for the purposes of population exchange, although most of the Greeks displaced (over a million of the total 1.5 million) had already been driven out by the time the agreement was signed.[N 1][84][85][86][87] The Greek genocide, contemporaneous with the failed Greek Asia Minor Campaign, was part of this process of turkification of the Ottoman Empire and the placement of its economy and trade, then largely in Greek hands under ethnic Turkish control.[88]

While most Greeks today are descended from Greek-speaking Romioi (Roman) there are sizeable groups of ethnic Greeks who trace their descent to Aromanian-speaking Vlachs and Albanian-speaking Arvanites as well as Slavophones and Turkish-speaking Karamanlides.[89][90] Today, Greeks are to be found all around the world.[91]

Identity

The terms used to define Greekness have varied throughout history but were never limited or completely identified with membership to a Greek state.[92] By Western standards, the term Greeks has traditionally referred to any native speakers of the Greek language, whether Mycenaean, Byzantine or modern Greek.[40][93] Byzantine Greeks called themselves Romioi and considered themselves the political heirs of Rome, but at least by the 12th century a growing number of those educated, deemed themselves the heirs of ancient Greece as well, although for most of the Greek speakers, "Hellene" still meant pagan.[94] On the eve of the Fall of Constantinople the Last Emperor urged his soldiers to remember that they were the descendants of Greeks and Romans.[95]

Before the establishment of the Modern Greek state, the link between ancient and modern Greeks was emphasized by the scholars of Greek Enlightenment especially by Rigas Feraios. In his "Political Constitution", he addresses to the nation as "the people descendant of the Greeks".[96]

The Greeks today are a nation in the meaning of an ethnos, defined by possessing Greek culture and having a Greek mother tongue, not by citizenship, race, and religion or by being subjects of any particular state.[97] In ancient and medieval times and to a lesser extent today the Greek term was genos, which also indicates a common ancestry.[98][99]

Names

Map showing ancient regions of central Greece in relation to geographical features

Throughout the centuries, Greeks and Greek speakers have been known by a number of names, including:

  • HellenesHomer is referring originally to Hellenes as a relatively small tribe settled in Thessalic Phthia, with its warriors under the command of Achilleus.[100] In the Parian Chronicle is mentioned that Phthia was the homeland of Hellenes and that this name was given to those previously called Greeks (Γραικοί).[101] In Greek mythology, Hellen, the patriarch of Hellenes, was son of Deucalion, who ruled around Phthia and Pyrrha, the only survivors after the great deluge.[102] It seems that the myth was invented when the Greek tribes started to separate from each other in certain areas of Greece and it indicates their common origin.Aristotle names Ancient Hellas an area in Epirus between Dodona and the Achelous river, the location of the great deluge of Deucalion, a land occupied by the Selloi and the "Greeks" who later came to be known as "Hellenes".[103] Selloi were the priests of Dodonian Zeus[104] and the word probably means "sacrificers" (to Goth. saljan: present,sacrifice ).There is currently no satisfactory etymology of the name Hellenes. Some scholars assert that the name Selloi changed to Sellanes (as Akarnanes) and then to Hellanes-Hellenes.[105][106] However this etymology connects the name Hellenes with the Dorians who occupied Epirus and the relation with the name Greeks given by the Romans becomes uncertain.The name Hellenes seems to be older and it was probably used by the Greeks with the establishment of the Great Amphictyonic League.This was an ancient asocciation of Greek tribes with twelve founders which was organized to protect the great temples of Apollo in Delphi (Phocis) and of Demeter near Thermopylae(Locris).[107] According to the legend it was founded after the Troyan war,by the eponymous Amphictyon,brother of Hellen.
  • Greeks (Γραικοί) –Hesiod is referring to Graecus the son of Pandora,sister of Hellen the patriarch of Hellenes.[108] Hellen was the son of Deucalion who ruled around Phthia in central Greece.The Parian Chronicle mentions that when Deucalion became king of Phthia,the previously called Graekhes were named Hellenes. Aristotle notes that the Hellenes were related with Grai/Greeks (Meteorologica I.xiv) a native name of a Dorian tribe in Epirus which was used by the Illyrians.He also claims that the great deluge must have occurred in the region around Dodona,where the Selloi dwelt.However according to the Greek tradition it is more possible that the homeland of the Greeks was originally in central Greece. A modern theory derives the name Greek (Lt. Graeci) from Graecos inhabitant of Graia -or Graea-(Γραία), a town on the coast of Boeotia. Greek colonists from Graia helped to found Cumae (900 BC) in Italy,where they were called Graeces.When the Romans encountered them they used this name for the colonists and then for all Greeks.(Graeci)[109] In Greek, graia (γραία) means "old woman" and is derived from the PIE root *gere: "to grow old"[110][111] in Proto-Greek guraj, "old age" and later "gift of honour" (Mycenean:"kera, geras"), and grau-j, "old lady".[112] The Germanic languages borrowed the word Greeks with an initial "k" sound which probably was their initial sound closest to the Latin "g" at the time (Goth. Kreks). The area out of ancient Attica including Boeotia was called Graiki and is connected with the older deluge of Ogyges[113] the mythological ruler of Boeotia. The region was originally occupied by the Minyans who were autochthonous or Proto-Greek speaking people.[114] In ancient Greek the name Ogygios came to mean "from earliest days".[115]
  • Achaeans (Αχαιοί) – Homer uses the terms Achaeans and Danaans as a generic term for Greeks in Iliad,[116] and they were probably a part of the Mycenean civilization. The names Achaioi and Danaoi seem to be pre-Dorian belonging to the people who were overthrown. They were forced to the region that later bore the name Achaea after the Dorian invasion.[117] In the 5th century BC they were redefined as contemporary speakers of Aeolic Greek which was spoken mainly in Thessaly, Boetia and Lesbos. There are many controversial theories on the origin of the Achaeans. According to one view, the Achaeans were one of the fair-headed tribes of upper Europe, who pressed down over the Alps during the early Iron age (1300 BC) to southern Europe.[118] Another theory suggests that the Peloponnesian Dorians were the Achaeans.[119] These theories are rejected by other scholars who, based on linguistic criteria, suggest that the Achaeans were mainland pre-Dorian Greeks.[120] There is also the theory that there was an Achaean ethnos that migrated from Asia minor to lower Thessaly prior to 2000 BC.[121] Some Hittite texts mention a nation lying to the west called Ahhiyava or Ahhiya.[122] Egyptian documents are referring to Ekwesh, one of the groups of sea peoples who attached Egypt during the reign of Merneptah (1213-1203 BCE), who may have been Achaeans.[123]
  • Danaans or Danaoi (Δαναοί) and Argives (Αργείοι). In Homer's Iliad, the names Danaans and Argives are used to designate the Greek forces opposed to the Trojans. The myth of Danaus, whose origin is Egypt, is a foundation legend of Argos. His daughters Danaides, were forced in Tartarus to carry a jug to fill a bathtub without a bottom. This myth is connected with a task that can never be never be fullfilled (Sisyphos) and the name can be derived from the PIE root *danu: "river".[124][125] There is not any satisfactory theory on their origin. Some scholars connect Danaans with the Denyen, one of the groups of the sea peoples who attacked Egypt during the reign of Ramesses III (1187-1156 BCE).[126] The same inscription mentions the Weshesh who might have been the Achaeans. The Denyen seem to have been inhabitants of the city Adana in Cilicia. Pottery similar to that of Mycenae itself has been found in Tarsus of Cilicia and it seems that some refugees from the Aegean went there after the collapse of the Mycenean civilization. These Cilicians seem to have been called Dananiyim,the same word as Danaoi who attacked Egypt in 1191 BC along with the Quaouash (or Weshesh) who may be Achaeans.[127] They were also called Danuna according to a Hittite inscription and the same name is mentioned in the Amarna letters.[128]Julius Pokorny reconstructs the name from the PIE root da:-: "flow, river", da:-nu: "any moving liquid, drops", da: navo "people living by the river, Skyth. nomadic people (in Rigveda water-demons, fem.Da:nu primordial goddess), in Greek Danaoi, Egypt. Danuna".[129] It is also possible that the name Danaans is pre-Greek. A country Danaja with a city Mukana (propaply: Mycenea) is mentioned in inscriptions from Egypt from Amenophis III (1390-1352 BC), Thutmosis III (1437 BC).[130]

Modern and Ancient

Family group on a funerary stele from Athens, National Archaeological Museum, Athens.

The most obvious link between modern and ancient Greeks is their language, which has a documented tradition from at least the 14th century BC to the present day, albeit with a break during the Greek Dark Ages.[131] Scholars compare its continuity of tradition to Chinese alone.[131][132] Since its inception, Hellenism was primarily a matter of common culture[31] and the national continuity of the Greek world is a lot more certain than its demographic.[133] Yet, Hellenism also embodied an ancestral dimension through aspects of Athenian literature that developed and influenced ideas of descent based on autochthony.[134] During the later years of the Eastern Roman Empire, areas such as Ionia and Constantinople experienced a Hellenic revival in language, philosophy, and literature and on classical models of thought and scholarship.[133] This revival provided a powerful impetus to the sense of cultural affinity with ancient Greece and its classical heritage.[133] The cultural changes undergone by the Greeks are, despite a surviving common sense of ethnicity, undeniable.[133] At the same time, the Greeks have retained their language and alphabet, certain values, customs, a sense of religious and cultural difference and exclusion, (the word barbarian was used by 12th century historian Anna Komnene to describe non-Greek speakers),[135] a sense of Greek identity and common sense of ethnicity despite the global political and social changes of the past two millennia.[133]

Demographics

Scenes of marriage and family life in Constantinople.

Today, Greeks are the majority ethnic group in the Hellenic Republic,[136] where they constitute 93% of the country's population,[137] and the Republic of Cyprus where they make up 78% of the island's population (excluding Turkish settlers in the occupied part of the country).[138] Greek populations have not traditionally exhibited high rates of growth; nonetheless, the population of Greece has shown regular increase since the country's first census in 1828.[139] A large percentage of the population growth since the state's foundation has resulted from annexation of new territories and the influx of 1.5 million Greek refugees after the 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey.[139] About 80% of the population of Greece is urban, with 28% concentrated in the city of Athens[140]

Greeks from Cyprus have a similar history of emigration, usually to the English-speaking world because of the island's colonization by the British Empire. Waves of emigration followed the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974, while the population decreased between mid-1974 and 1977 as a result of emigration, war losses, and a temporary decline in fertility.[141] After the ethnic cleansing of a third of the Greek population of the island in 1974,[142][143][144][145][146] there was also an increase in the number of Greek Cypriots leaving, especially for the Middle East, which contributed to a decrease in population that tapered off in the 1990s.[141] Today more than two-thirds of the Greek population in Cyprus is urban.[141]

There is a sizeable Greek minority of about 105,000 people, in Albania.[147] The Greek minority of Turkey, which numbered upwards of 200,000 people after the 1923 exchange, has now dwindled to a few thousand, after the 1955 Constantinople Pogrom and other state sponsored violence and discrimination.[148] This effectively ended, though not entirely, the three thousand year old presence of Hellenism in Asia Minor.[149][150] There are smaller Greek minorities in the rest of the Balkan countries, the Levant and the Black Sea states, remnants of the Old Greek Diaspora (pre-19th century).[151]

Diaspora

The total number of Greeks living outside Greece and Cyprus today is a contentious issue. Where Census figures are available, they show around 3 million Greeks outside Greece and Cyprus. Estimates provided by the SAE - World Council of Hellenes Abroad put the figure at around 7 million worldwide.[152] According to George Prevelakis of Sorbonne University, the number is closer to just below 5 million.[153] Integration, intermarriage, and loss of the Greek language influence the self-identification of the Omogeneia. Important centres of the New Greek Diaspora today are London, New York, Melbourne and Toronto.[151] Recently, the Hellenic Parliament passed a law that enables Diaspora Greeks to vote in the elections of the Greek state.[154]

Ancient

Greek colonization in antiquity.

In ancient times, the trading and colonizing activities of the Greek tribes and city states spread the Greek culture, religion and language around the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, especially in Sicily and southern Italy (also known as Magna Grecia, Spain, the south of France and the Black sea coasts.[155] Under Alexander the Great's empire and successor states, Greek and Hellenizing ruling classes were established in the Middle East, India and in Egypt.[155] The Hellenistic period is characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization that established Greek cities and kingdoms in Asia and Africa.[156] Under the Roman Empire, easier movement of people spread Greeks across the Empire and in the eastern territories, Greek became the lingua franca rather than Latin.[72] The modern-day Griko community of southern Italy, numbering about 60,000,[15][16] may represent a living remnant of the ancient Greek populations of Italy.

Modern

During and after the Greek War of Independence, Greeks of the Diaspora were important in establishing the fledgling state, raising funds and awareness abroad.[157] Greek merchant families already had contacts in other countries and during the disturbances many set up home around the Mediterranean (notably Marseilles in France, Livorno in Italy, Alexandria in Egypt), Russia (Odessa and Saint Petersburg), and Britain (London and Liverpool) from where they traded, typically in textiles and grain.[158] Businesses frequently comprised the extended family, and with them they brought schools teaching Greek and the Greek Orthodox Church.[158]

Greek Diaspora (20th century).

As markets changed and they became more established, some families grew their operations to become shippers, financed through the local Greek community, notably with the aid of the Ralli or Vagliano Brothers.[159] With economic success, the Diaspora expanded further across the Levant, North Africa, India and the USA.[159][160]

In the 20th century, many Greeks left their traditional homelands for economic reasons resulting in large migrations from Greece and Cyprus to the United States, Great Britain, Australia, Canada, Germany, and South Africa, especially after the Second World War (1939–45), the Greek Civil War (1946–49), and the Turkish Invasion of Cyprus in 1974.[161]

Culture

Greek culture has evolved over thousands of years, with its beginning in the Mycenaean civilization, continuing through the Classical period, the Roman and Eastern Roman periods and was profoundly affected by Christianity, which it in turn influenced and shaped.[162][163] Ottoman Greeks had to endure through several centuries of adversity that culminated in genocide in the 20th century but nevertheless included cultural exchanges and enriched both cultures.[164][165][166][167][168] The Diafotismos is credited with revitalizing Greek culture and giving birth to the synthesis of ancient and medieval elements that characterize it today.[39][40]

Language

Ancient Greek Ostracon bearing the name of Cimon. Museum of the Ancient Agora, Athens.

Most Greeks speak the Greek language, an Indo-European language that forms a branch itself, with its closest relations being Armenian (see Graeco-Armenian) and the Indo-Iranian languages (see Graeco-Aryan).[131] It has one of the longest documented histories of any language and Greek literature has a continuous history of over 2,500 years.[169] Several notable literary works, including the Homeric epics, Euclid's Elements and the New Testament, were originally written in Greek.

Greek demonstrates several linguistic features that are shared with other Balkan languages, such as Albanian, Bulgarian and Eastern Romance languages (see Balkan sprachbund), and has absorbed many foreign words, primarily of Western European and Turkish origin.[170] Because of the movements of Philhellenism and the Diafotismos in the 19th century, which emphasized the modern Greeks' ancient heritage, these foreign influences were excluded from official use via the creation of Katharevousa, a somewhat artificial form of Greek purged of all foreign influence and words, as the official language of the Greek state. In 1976, however, the Hellenic Parliament voted to make the spoken Dimotiki the official language, making Katharevousa obsolete.[171]

Modern Greek has, in addition to Standard Modern Greek or Dimotiki, a wide variety of dialects of varying levels of mutual intelligibility, including Cypriot, Pontic, Cappadocian, Griko and Tsakonian (the only surviving representative of ancient Doric Greek).[172] Yevanic is the language of the Romaniotes, and survives in small communities in Greece, New York and Israel. In addition to Greek, many Greeks in Greece and the Diaspora are bilingual in other languages or dialects such as English, Arvanitika, Aromanian, Macedonian Slavic, Russian and Turkish.[131][173]

Religion

Papyrus 46 is one of the oldest extant New Testament manuscripts in Greek, written on papyrus, with its 'most probable date' between 175-225.

Most Greeks are Christians, belonging to the Greek Orthodox Church. During the first centuries after Jesus Christ, the New Testament was originally written in Koine Greek, which remains the liturgical language of the Greek Orthodox Church, and most of the early Christians and Church Fathers were Greek-speaking.[162][163] While the Orthodox Church was always intensely hostile to the ancient Greek religion, it did help Greeks keep their sense of identity during the Ottoman rule through its use of Greek in the liturgy and its modest educational efforts.[174] There are small groups of ethnic Greeks adhering to other Christian denominations like Greek Catholics, Greek Evangelicals, Pentecostals, and groups adhering to other religions including Romaniot and Sephardic Jews and Greek Muslims. In particular, there are Greek Muslim communities in Tripoli, Lebanon, (7,000 strong) and Al Hamidiyah in Syria, while there is a large community of indeterminate size in the Pontus region, who were spared of the population exchange because of their faith.[175] About 2,000 Greeks are members of Hellenic Polytheistic Reconstructionism congregations.[176][177][178]

Art

El Greco's Assumption of the Virgin (1577–1579).

Greek art has a long and varied history. Greeks have contributed to the visual, literary and performing arts.[179] In the West, ancient Greek art was influential in shaping the Roman and later the modern Western artistic heritage. Following the Renaissance in Europe, the humanist aesthetic and the high technical standards of Greek art inspired generations of European artists.[179] Well into the 19th century, the classical tradition derived from Greece played an important role in the art of the Western World.[180] In the East, Alexander the Great's conquests initiated several centuries of exchange between Greek, Central Asian and Indian cultures, resulting in Greco-Buddhist art, whose influence reached as far as Japan.[181]

Byzantine Greek art, which grew from classical art and adapted the pagan motifs in the service of Christianity, provided a stimulus to the art of many nations.[182] Its influences can be traced from Venice in the West to Kazakhstan in the East.[182][183] In turn, Greek art was influenced by eastern civilizations in classical antiquity and the new religion of Orthodox Christianity during Roman times, while modern Greek art is heavily influenced by Western art.[184]

Notable Greek artists include Renaissance painter El Greco, soprano Maria Callas, one of the best-selling singers worldwide Nana Mouskouri, and composers Iannis Xenakis, Yanni and Vangelis. Greek Alexandrian Constantine P. Cavafy and Nobel laureates Giorgos Seferis and Odysseas Elytis are among the most important poets of the 20th century. Modern Greek actresses of international notability are Melina Mercouri, Irene Papas and Academy Award winner Katina Paxinou.

Science

The Greeks of the Classical era made several notable contributions to science and helped lay the foundations of several western scientific traditions, like philosophy, historiography and mathematics. The scholarly tradition of the Greek academies was maintained during Roman times with several academic institutions in Constantinople, Antioch, Alexandria and other centres of Greek learning while Eastern Roman science was essentially a continuation of classical science.[185] Greeks have a long tradition of valuing and investing in paideia (education).[64] Paideia was one of the highest societal values in the Greek and Hellenistic world while the first European institution described as a university was founded in 5th century Constantinople and operated in various incarnations until the city's fall to the Ottomans in 1453.[186] The University of Constantinople was Christian Europe's first secular institution of higher learning since no theological subjects were taught,[187] and considering the original meaning of the world university as a corporation of students, the world’s first university as well.[186]

As of 2007, Greece had the eighth highest percentage of tertiary enrollment in the world (with the percentages for female students being higher than for male) while Greeks of the Diaspora are equally active in the field of education.[140] Hundreds of thousands of Greek students attend Western universities every year while the faculty lists of leading Western universities contain a striking number of Greek names.[188] Notable Greek scientists of modern times include Georgios Papanikolaou (inventor of the Pap test), Nicholas Negroponte, Constantin Carathéodory, Michael Dertouzos, John Argyris and Dimitri Nanopoulos.

Symbols

The flag of the Greek Orthodox Church is based on the coat of arms of the Palaiologoi, the last dynasty of the Byzantine Empire.
Traditional Greek flag.

The most widely used symbol is the flag of Greece, which features nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white representing the nine syllables of the Greek national motto Eleftheria i thanatos (freedom or death), which was the motto of the Greek War of Independence.[189] The blue square in the upper hoist-side corner bears a white cross, which represents Greek Orthodoxy. The Greek flag is widely used by the Greek Cypriots, although Cyprus has officially adopted a neutral flag to ease ethnic tensions with the Turkish Cypriot minority – see flag of Cyprus).[190]

The pre-1978 (and first) flag of Greece, which features a Greek cross (crux immissa quadrata) on a blue background, is widely used as an alternative to the official flag, and they are often flown together. The national emblem of Greece features a blue escutcheon with a white cross surrounded by two laurel branches. A common design involves the current flag of Greece and the pre-1978 flag of Greece with crossed flagpoles and the national emblem placed in front.[191]

Another highly recognizable and popular Greek symbol is the double-headed eagle, the imperial emblem of the last dynasty of the Roman Empire and a common symbol in Asia Minor and, later, Eastern Europe.[192] It is not part of the modern Greek flag or coat of arms, although it is officially the insignia of the Greek Army and the flag of the Church of Greece. It had been incorporated in the Greek coat of arms between 1925 and 1926.[193]

Surnames

The Greeks were one of the first people in Europe to use surnames and these were widely in use by the 9th century supplanting the ancient tradition of using the father’s name, however Greek surnames are most commonly patronymics.[194] Commonly, Greek male surnames end in -s, which is the common ending for Greek masculine proper nouns in the nominative case. Exceptionally, some end in -ou, indicating the genitive case of this proper noun for patronymic reasons.[195] Although surnames in mainland Greece are static today, dynamic and changing patronymic usage survives in middle names where the genitive of father's first name is commonly the middle name (this usage having been passed onto the Russians). In Cyprus, by contrast, surnames follow the ancient tradition of being given according to the father’s name.[196][197][198] Finally, in addition to Greek-derived surnames many have Latin, Turkish and Italian origin.[199]

With respect to personal names, the two main influences are early Christianity and antiquity. The ancient names were never forgotten but have become more widely bestowed from the 18th century onwards.[200]

Sea

The traditional Greek homelands have been the Greek peninsula and the Aegean, the Black Sea and Ionian coasts of Asia Minor, the islands of Cyprus and Sicily and the south of the Italian peninsula. In Plato's Phaidon, Socrates remarks, "we (Greeks) live like ants or frogs around a pond".[201] This image is attested by the map of the Old Greek Diaspora, which corresponded to the Greek world until the creation of the Greek state in 1832. The sea and trade were natural outlets for Greeks since the Greek peninsula is rocky and does not offer good prospects for agriculture.[31]

Notable Greek seafarers include people such as Pytheas of Marseilles, Scylax of Caryanda who sailed to Iberia and beyond, Nearchus, the 6th century merchant and later monk Cosmas Indicopleustes (Cosmas who sailed to India) and the explorer of the Northwestern passage Juan de Fuca.[202][203][204][205] In later times, the Romioi plied the sea-lanes of the Mediterranean and controlled trade until an embargo imposed by the Roman Emperor on trade with the Caliphate opened the door for the later Italian pre-eminence in trade.[206][207]

The Greek shipping tradition recovered during Ottoman rule when a substantial merchant middle class developed, which played an important part in the Greek War of Independence.[39] Today, Greek shipping continues to prosper to the extent that Greece has the largest merchant fleet in the world, while many more ships under Greek ownership fly flags of convenience.[140] The most notable shipping magnate of the 20th century was Aristotle Onassis, others being Yiannis Latsis, George Livanos, and Stavros Niarchos.[208][209] A famous Greek poet of the 20th century was the Chinese-born seaman Nikos Kavvadias.[210]

Timeline

The history of the Greek people is closely associated with the history of Greece, Cyprus, Constantinople, Asia Minor and the Black Sea. During the Ottoman rule of Greece, a number of Greek enclaves around the Mediterranean were cut off from the core, notably in Southern Italy, the Caucasus, Syria and Egypt. By the early 20th century, over half of the overall Greek-speaking population was settled in Asia Minor (now Turkey), while later that century a huge wave of migration to the United States, Australia, Canada and elsewhere created the modern Greek diaspora.

Some key historical events have also been included for context, but this timeline is not intended to cover history not related to migrations. There is more information on the historical context of these migrations in History of Greece.

Time Events
3rd millennium BC Proto-Greek tribes form around the Southern Balkans/Aegean.
20th century BC Greek settlements established on the Balkans. Ionians and Aeolians spread over Greece.
17th century BC Decline of the Minoan civilization, possibly because of the eruption of Thera. Emergence of the Achaeans and formation of the Mycenaean civilization.
13th century BC First colonies established in Asia Minor.
11th century BC Dorians move into peninsular Greece. Achaeans flee to Aegean Islands, Asia Minor and Cyprus.
9th century BC Major colonization of Asia Minor and Cyprus by the Greek tribes.
8th century BC First major colonies established in Sicily and Southern Italy.
6th century BC Colonies established across the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea.
5th century BC Defeat of the Persians and emergence of the Delian League in Ionia, the Black Sea and Aegean perimeter culminates in Athenian Empire and the Classical Age of Greece; ends with Athens defeat by Sparta at the close of the Peloponesian War
4th century BC Rise of Theban power and defeat of the Spartans; Campaign of Alexander the Great; Greek colonies established in newly founded cities of Ptolemaic Egypt and Asia.
2nd century BC Conquest of Greece by the Roman Empire. Migrations of Greeks to Rome.
4th century AD Eastern Roman Empire. Migrations of Greeks throughout the Empire, mainly towards Constantinople.
7th century Slavic conquest of several parts of Greece, Greek migrations to Southern Italy, Roman Emperors capture main Slavic bodies and transfer them to Cappadocia, Bosphorus re-populated by Macedonian and Cypriot Greeks.
8th century Roman dissolution of surviving Slavic settlements in Greece and full recovery of the Greek peninsula.
9th century Retro-migrations of Greeks from all parts of the Empire (mainly from Southern Italy and Sicily) into parts of Greece that were depopulated by the Slavic Invasions (mainly western Peloponnesus and Thessaly).
13th century Roman Empire dissolves, Constantinople taken by the Fourth Crusade; becoming the capital of the Latin Empire. Liberated after a long struggle by the Empire of Nicaea, but fragments remain separated. Migrations between Asia Minor, Constantinople and mainland Greece take place.
15th century
     -
19th century
Conquest of Constantinople by the Ottoman Empire. Greek diaspora into Europe begins. Ottoman settlements in Greece. Phanariot Greeks occupy high posts in Eastern European millets.
Time Events
1830s Creation of the Modern Greek State. Immigration to the New World begins. Large-scale migrations from Constantinople and Asia Minor to Greece take place.
1913 European Ottoman lands partitioned; Unorganized migrations of Greeks, Bulgarians and Turks towards their respective states.
1914–1923 Greek genocide; hundreds of thousands of Ottoman Greeks are estimated to have died during this period.[211]
1919 Treaty of Neuilly; Greece and Bulgaria exchange populations, with some exceptions.
1922 The Destruction of Smyrna (modern-day Izmir) more than 40 thousand Greeks killed, End of significant Greek presence in Asia Minor.
1923 Treaty of Lausanne; Greece and Turkey agree to exchange populations with limited exceptions of the Greeks in Constantinople, Imbros, Tenedos and the Muslim minority of Western Thrace. 1.5 million of Asia Minor and Pontic Greeks settle in Greece, and some 450 thousands of Muslims settle in Turkey.
1940s Hundred of thousands Greeks died from starvation during the Axis Occupation of Greece
1947 Communist regime in Romania begins evictions of the Greek community, approx. 75,000 migrate.
1948 Greek Civil War. Tens of thousands of Greek communists and their families flee into Eastern Bloc nations. Thousands settle in Tashkent.
1950s Massive emigration of Greeks to West Germany, the United States, Australia, Canada, and other countries.
1955 Istanbul Pogrom against Greeks. Exodus of Greeks from the city accelerates; less than 2,000 remain today.
1958 Large Greek community in Alexandria flees Nasser's regime in Egypt.
1960s Republic of Cyprus created as an independent state under Greek, Turkish and British protection. Economic emigration continues.
1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus. Almost all Greeks living in Northern Cyprus flee to the south and the United Kingdom.
1980s Many civil war refugees were allowed to re-emigrate to Greece. Retro-migration of Greeks from Germany begins.
1990s Collapse of Soviet Union. Approx. 100,000 ethnic Greeks migrate from Georgia, Armenia, southern Russia, and Albania to Greece.
2000s Some statistics show the beginning of a trend of reverse migration of Greeks from the United States and Australia.

See also

Notes

a.^ Though there is a range of interpretations; Carl Blegen dates the arrival of the Greeks around 1900 BC, John Caskey believes that there were two waves of immigrants and Robert Drews places the event as late as 1600 BC.[212][213] A variety of more theories has also been supported,[214] but there is a general consensus that the coming of the Greek tribes occurred around 2100 BC.
  1. ^ While Greek authorities signed the agreement legalizing the population exchange this was done on the insistence of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and after a million Greeks had already been expelled from Asia Minor. Gilbar, Gad G. (1997). Population dilemmas in the Middle East: essays in political demography and economy. London: F. Cass. p. 8. ISBN 0-7146-4706-3. 

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  3. ^ Toal ancestry reported United States Census Bureau 2009.
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References

  • Encyclopedia Britannica. United States: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc.. 2008. Online Edition. 
  • The Columbia Encyclopedia. United States: Columbia University Press.. 2008. Online Edition. 
  • Pocket World in Figures (Economist). London: Economist Books. 2006. ISBN 1-86197-825-1. 

Further reading

Mycenaean Greeks
  • Castleden, Rodney (2005). Mycenaeans. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-36336-5. 
  • Chadwick, John (1976). The Mycenaean World. Cambridge UP. ISBN 0-521-29037-6. 
  • Mountjoy, P.A. (1986). Mycenaean Decorated Pottery: A Guide to Identification. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology 73. Göteborg: Paul Åströms Forlag. ISBN 91-86098-32-2. 
  • Mylonas, George E. (1966). Mycenae and the Mycenaean Age. Princeton UP. ISBN 0-691-03523-7. 
  • Tandy, David W. (2001). Prehistory and history: ethnicity, class and political economy. Montréal: Black Rose Books. ISBN 1-55164-188-7. 
Classical Greeks
  • Burkert, Walter (1985). Greek religion: archaic and classical. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-15624-0. 
  • Cartledge, Paul (2002). The Greeks: a portrait of self and others. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280388-3. 
  • Freeman, Charles (2004). Egypt, Greece, and Rome: civilizations of the ancient Mediterranean. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-926364-7. 
  • Finkelberg, Margalit (2005). Greeks and pre-Greeks: Aegean prehistory and Greek heroic tradition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-85216-1. 
  • Hall, Jonathan M. (2000). Ethnic Identity in Greek Antiquity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-78999-0. 
  • Hall, Jonathan M. (2002). Hellenicity: between ethnicity and culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-31329-8. 
  • MacKendrick, Paul Lachlan (1981). The Greek stones speak: the story of archaeology in Greek lands. New York: Norton. ISBN 0-393-30111-7. 
  • Malkin, Irad (2001). Ancient perceptions of Greek ethnicity. Washington, D.C: Center for Hellenic Studies, Trustees for Harvard University. ISBN 0-674-00662-3. 
  • Malkin, Irad (1998). The returns of Odysseus: colonization and ethnicity. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21185-5. 
  • Walbank, F. W. (1985). Selected papers: studies in Greek and Roman history and historiography. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-30752-X. 
Hellenistic Greeks
  • Boardman, John; Jasper Griffin, Oswyn Murray (2001). The Oxford History of Greece and the Hellenistic World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0192801376. 
  • Chamoux, François (2003). Hellenistic civilization. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-22242-1. 
  • Grant, Michael (1990). The Hellenistic Greeks: from Alexander to Cleopatra. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-82057-5. 
  • Per Bilde (1997). Conventional Values of the Hellenistic Greeks (Studies in Hellenistic Civilization ; Vol. VIII) (Pt. 8). Aarhus Univ Pr. ISBN 87-7288-555-6. 
Roman Greeks
  • Ahrweiler, Hélène (1975). L'idéologie politique de l'Empire byzantin. Presses universitaires de France. 
  • Harris, Jonathan (2007). Constantinople: Capital of Byzantium (Hambledon Continuum). Hambledon & London. ISBN 1-84725-179-X. 
  • Kazhdan, Alexander P. (1991). The Oxford dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504652-8. 
  • Laiou, Angeliki E.; Ahrweiler, Hélène (1998). Studies on the internal diaspora of the Byzantine Empire. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. ISBN 0-88402-247-1. 
  • Runciman, Steven (1966). Byzantine Civilisation. Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd.. ISBN 1-56619-574-8. 
  • Toynbee, Arnold J. (1972). Constantine Porphyrogenitus and His World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-215253-X. 
Ottoman Greeks
  • Davis, Jack E.; Fariba Zarinebaf; Bennet, John (2005). A historical and economic geography of Ottoman Greece: the southwestern Morea in the 18th century. Princeton, N.J: American School of Classical Studies at Athens. ISBN 0-87661-534-5. 
  • Davis, Jack E.; Davies, Siriol (2007). Between Venice and Istanbul: colonial landscapes in early modern Greece. Princeton, N.J: American School of Classical Studies at Athens. ISBN 0-87661-540-X. 
  • Issawi, Charles Philip; Gondicas, Dimitri (1999). Ottoman Greeks in the age of nationalism: politics, economy, and society in the nineteenth century. Princeton, N.J: Darwin Press. ISBN 0-87850-096-0. 
  • Jackson, Marvin R.; Lampe, John R. (1982). Balkan economic history, 1550-1950: from imperial borderlands to developing nations. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-30368-0. 
Modern Greeks
  • Katerina Zacharia (2008). Hellenisms: culture, identity, and ethnicity from antiquity to modernity. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate. ISBN 0-7546-6525-9. 
  • Clogg, Richard (2002). A concise history of Greece. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-00479-9. 
  • Herzfeld, Michael (1982). Ours once more: folklore, ideology, and the making of modern Greece. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-76018-3. 
  • Holden, David (1972). Greece without columns; the making of the modern Greeks. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-397-00779-5. 
  • Karakasidou, Anastasia N. (1997). Fields of wheat, hills of blood: passages to nationhood in Greek Macedonia, 1870-1990. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-42494-4. 
  • Toynbee, Arnold Joseph (1981). The Greeks and their heritages. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-215256-4. 
  • Trudgill, Peter (2001). Sociolinguistic variation and change. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-1515-6. 
  • Yannakakis, Eleni; Mackridge, Peter (1997). Ourselves and others: the development of a Greek Macedonian identity since 1912. Oxford: Berg. ISBN 1-85973-133-3. 

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