Infobox Russian city
CityDay=Second Sunday of September
Charter of Voronezh
Voronezh ( _ru. Воро́неж, IPA-ru|vɐˈronʲɪʂ) is a large city in southwestern Russia, not far from
Ukraine. It is located on the Voronezh River, twelve kilometers away from the spot where the Voronezh Riverempties into the Don. Voronezh is the administrative center of Voronezh Oblast. It is an important railway junction (with lines to Moscow, Rostov-on-Don, Kiev), as well as the center of Don Highway( Moscow— Rostov-on-Don). Population: ru-census2002|848752|; su-census1989|886844|; 660,000 (1970); 447,000 (1959); 344,000 (1939); 120,000 (1926). The city is divided into six administrative districts: Kominternovsky, Leninsky, Levoberezhny, Sovetsky, Tsentralny, and Zheleznodorozhny.
The Voronezh River was first mentioned in
Hypatian Codexof 1177; the town was founded in 1585–1586 by Tsar Feodor I as a fort protecting the Russian state from the raids of Crimean and Nogay Tatars. However, settlements had been present here since the Stone Age.
In the 17th century, Voronezh gradually evolved into a sizeable town, especially after Tsar Peter the Great built a dockyard in Voronezh, where the
Azov Flotillawas constructed for the Azov campaignsin 1695 and 1696. This fleet, probably the first ever built in Russia, included the first Russian ship of the line, " Goto Predestinatsia".
Owing to the
Voronezh Admiralty Wharf, Voronezh became, for a short time, the largest city of South Russia and the economic centre of a large and fertile region. In 1711 it was made the administrative centre of the Azov Province, which morphed into the Voronezh guberniya(known as "namestnichestvo" in 1779-1824).
In the 19th century Voronezh was a centre of the
Central Black Earth Region. Manufacturing industry (mills, tallow-melting, butter-making, soap, leather and other works) as well as bread, cattle, suet, and the hair trade developed in the town. A railway connected Voronezh with Rostov-on-Don in 1868 and Moscow in 1871.
World War II, Voronezh was the scene of fierce fighting between Russian and Wehrmachttroops. It was used by the Germans as a staging area for the attack on Stalingrad, and a key Don River crossing point.
In September 1989, there were famous UFO sightings in Voronezh, which drew attention from the press and TV. There were also reports on two strange creatures that came out of the UFO after it landed in the park.
Between 1991 and 2000, the city high in unemployment became a part of the
Communist-voting region known as Russia's "Red Belt". Today Voronezh is the economic, industrial, cultural, and scientific center of the so-called Black Earth Region. There are 7 theaters, 12 cinemas, 19 secondary schools in the city; it is also home to Voronezh State University. The city's large student population includes many foreigners as foreign students in Russia usually take one year of Russian languagein Voronezh before moving on to universities elsewhere. This has led in the past to tension between foreign students and the indigenous population leading to a number of murders, the last one being of Peruvian student Enrique Anhelis Hurtado on October 9, 2005, a year that saw 45 reported attacks on foreigners in Voronezh.
Many famous people were born and lived in Voronezh and the surrounding area. Among them are poets and writers such as Platonov,
Bunin, Koltsov, Nikitin, Marshak, Troepolskii; painters Kramskoi, Ge, Kuprin, Vikentii Trofimov, the physicist Cherenkov; navigator and polar explorer Valerian Albanovof ill-fated Arctic ship "St. Anna", gymnasts Davydova, Tkachyov; the anarchist Voline, and the surgeon Serge Voronoff. The Russian poet Osip Mandelstamwas exiled to Voronezh after his arrest in 1934 and wrote a series of poems there collected under the title "Voronezh Notebooks". The famous Russian punk band " Sektor Gaza" was founded in Voronezh.
Not far from Voronezh is the satellite town of
Novovoronezh("New Voronezh") which serves a local nuclear power plant. Both cities are served by Chertovitskoye Airport. Voronezh is also home to Voronezh Pridachaairport, a major aircraft manufacturing facility where the so-called "Concordski" Tupolev Tu-144was built and the only operational one is still stored. Voronezh also hosts Voronezh Malshevoair force base southwest of the city, which apparently houses nuclear bombers.
Charlotte Hobson's book, "Black Earth City", is an accessible and insightful account of life in Voronezh in the early 1990s. She wrote the book after spending a year in Voronezh as a foreign student in 1991–1992.
Nadezhda Mandelstam's "Hope Against Hope", the first volume of her memoirs concerning the dreadful fate of her husband, the poet Osip Mandelstam, provides many details about life and hardship in Voronezh in the 1930s under Stalinistrule.
And from the mid-nineteenth century is the diary of a British soldier, a sergeant in the
Royal Welch Fusiliers, published as "Prisoners of Voronesh (sic)". George Newman was captured in the Crimean War and then marched under a loose guard with a motley crew of PoWs, convicts, etc., to Voronezh. Published by Unwin in 1977, it is a vivid eyewitness account of life and types, instantly recognizable to anyone who has spent much time in that delightful city.
Brno, Czech Republic.
*flagicon|United States Charlotte,
* [http://www.vsu.ru/english/city/index.html Voronezh State University - City page]
* [http://www.voronezh.net/ Voronezh.Net City site] ru icon
* [http://www.moe-online.ru/ MOÈ Newspaper, Voronezh city site] ru icon
* [http://www.voronezh.ru/ Voronezh News] ru icon
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