- Argentine air forces in the Falklands War
This article describes the composition and actions of the Argentine air forces in the
Falklands War(Spanish:"Guerra de las Malvinas"). For an overview of the air forces of the United Kingdom, see British air services in the Falklands War.
As Argentina triggered the war it would be reasonable to think they were prepared, and had a plan on how to defend the islands. The military dictatorship that governed the country at the time regarded the seizure of the Falklands as a political act to obtain a diplomatic bargaining position, and not as an act of war. Consequently they were taken by surprise when the United Kingdom responded with a large-scale mobilization, and a task force to retake the islands [ [http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/apj/apj02/fal02/corum.html Argentine Airpower in the Falklands War] ] .
Argentine Air Force("Fuerza Aerea Argentina"; FAA) had never considered the possibility of waging a long-range naval air campaign against a major NATOpower. It was not trained or equipped for such a mission. The FAA had only two tanker aircraft to serve the whole air force and navy, and its fighter-bomber Mirage IIIs and IAI Daggers were not equipped for aerial refueling. The FAA's training, tactics and equipment were focused on a possible war against Chile, resulting from disputes such as the Beagle conflict. [ [http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/apj/apj02/fal02/corum.html Argentine Airpower in the Falklands War] ] [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1984/DWF.htm Offensive Air Operations Of The Falklands War - USMC] ]
The Chilean threat was a cause of great concern to the Argentina military during the war. The Chilean armed forces had deployed a significant force to Chile's common border with Argentina, and the FAA was forced to reinstate their retired
F-86 Sabres to bolster Argentina's air defences. In Argentina's favour, Peruimmediately offered its support to the Argentine cause, with the Peruvian Air Forceeven offering to fly combat missions. This was politely declined by the Argentine government. As the war progressed, Peru and Venezuelasent critical aircraft spare parts to Argentina, urgently needed by the FAA.
On paper, the 20 subsonic Sea Harriers could easily have been wiped out by the more than hundred Argentine combat planes, including many supersonic jets. The reality was different.
The long distances from their bases prevented them from using their top speed or they risked running out of fuel ["the Mach 2 Mirage and Dagger which in low-level attack are extremely subsonic. ..while low-level attacks by the Argentine aircraft..there would not be a lot of fuel to spare, especially if afterburner was used." page 42 in "Aviation Fact File - Harrier", 1984] . Although, the Argentines had more aeroplanes than the British Task force, a good number of them were Pucara turboprops ["The Argentine-built Pucará counter-insurgency aircraft proved its worth in numerous attacks on British land forces, and it was even used to attack shipping. About 75 Pucarás were in service at the start of the conflict." page 33 in Antony Preston:"Sea Combat off the Falklands", 1982, Willow Books, ISBN 00-218046-4] . Also, the A-4 Skyhawk force were dependent on the two available KC-130 tankers, limiting the amount of aeroplanes that could attack simultaneously ["Two A-4B Skyhawks warplanes of the Grupo 5 link up...after topping up their tanks from a KC-130H tanker." page 62 in "Air War in the Falklands 1982", 2001] .
Argentina's fleet of
A-4 Skyhawkattack jets was in very poor condition. The arms embargo placed by the United Statesin 1976, due to the "Dirty War", had made most airframes unusable. The involvement of Israelin helping to return the A-4 to full operational status has been alleged, but has never been confirmed. Commodore Ruben Oscar Moro "La Guerra Inaudita", 2000 ISBN 987-96007-3-8 ]
The small air arm of the
Argentine Navywas in the middle of the transition from the A-4Q Skyhawk to the new Super Etendard. Only five of the Etendard's anti-ship Exocetmissiles had been delivered at the time of the conflict, at which point an arms embargo prevented the delivery of further shipments. Navy pilots, particularly those of the 3rd Naval Fighters Squadron flying "A-4Qs" were the only trained in the specific art of bombing warships. Air Force pilots trained during April against the two Argentine Type 42 destroyers, similar to those of the British Fleet, and according the Naval officers all the sorties were "shot down" causing great concern to the High Command until the successful May 1st strikes which they proved that aircraft could survive [ HALCONES SOBRE MALVINAS, ISBN 950-9294-07-1] .
To complete the scene, the Argentine military aviation had never been in a war since their creation, being the last conflict of the country more than a century ago.
In spite of these disadvantages, Argentine air units bore the brunt of the battle during the six-week war, and inflicted serious damage and losses to the naval forces of the
United Kingdom. Low-flying jets attacking British ships would provide the world with some of the most sobering and dramatic images of the war. By the end of the conflict, the British forces had come to admire the FAA's spirited conduct in the face of an effective air defence network [Chapter 12:"The British were awed by the courage of the Argentine pilots, flying suicidally low to attack, then vanishing amid flashes of pursuing Sea Cat, Blowpipe, Rapier, racing across the sky behind them. Alone among the enemy's three services, the air force seemed highly motivated and utterly committed to the battle. 'We should have been able to work out that any nation which produces first-class Formula One racing drivers is also likely to turn out some pretty good pilots.'" - Hastings, Max: "The Battle for the Falklands" (1983) Michael Joseph Ltd ISBN 0-7181-2228-3] during the hostilities, but as always, air power alone cannot win a war. Admiral Sandy Woodward, the British Task Force commander said: " [t] he Argentine Air Force fought extremely well and we felt a great admiration for what they did." [clarin newspaper [http://www.clarin.com/diario/2007/04/03/elpais/p-00815.htm Clarin newspaper Woodward Interview
"La fuerza aérea peleó extremadamente bien y nosotros sentimos una gran admiración por lo que hicieron"] ]
The Air units involved in the Falklands War were under the following
chain of command:
* Military Junta - Brigadier General (Lieutenant General)
Basilio Lami Dozo
** Air Defence Command (Spanish: "Comando Aereo de Defensa" ) - Brigadier Jorge Hughes. Was in charge of the radar network, Mirage IIIEA interceptors and anti-aircraft defences on the mainland.
** Strategic Air Command (Spanish: "Comando Aereo Estrategico" ) - Brigadier Helmuth Weber. Coordinated air assets through all the country. The CAE also had the main role of long range maritime surveillance with Boeing 707s and C-130 Hercules.
*** Southern Air Force (Spanish: "Fuerza Aerea Sur" ) - Brigadier Ernesto Crespo. The FAS was the main organisation involved in combat over the conflict zone.
** South Atlantic Military Theatre (Spanish: "Teatro Operaciones Atlantico Sur" ) - Vice Admiral Juan Lombardo. Basically a naval command with the role of coordinating the air, surface and submarine assets in the South Atlantic area. Initially, during the invasion of the Islands on
2 Apriland before hostilities broke out, the islands were supposedly to be under their command and was considered as the only organisation needed to managed the "crisis".
*** Falklands Military Garrison (Spanish: "Guarnicion Militar Malvinas" ) - Brigade General Mario Menendez (Army)
**** Air Component (Spanish: "Componente Aereo" ) - Brigadier Luis Castellano.
Argentine airbases: Distances to
Port Stanley Airport[ [http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/apj/apj02/fal02/corum.html Argentine Airpower in the Falklands War: An Operational View ] ] : Trelew: convert|580|nmi|km|-1, Comodoro Rivadavia: convert|480|nmi|km|-1, San Julián: convert|425|nmi|km|0, Rio Gallegos: convert|435|nmi|km|0 and Rio Grande: convert|380|nmi|km|-1.
Due to the distance required to fly to the islands, two minutes was the average time Argentine attack aircraft had available in the target area.]
Argentine airfields The only paved runway was at Stanley although was unsuitable for fast jets and its main role was to maintain the airbridge to the mainland. "Isla de Borbon" - Pebble Island, "Pto. Argentino" - Port Stanley, "Isla Gran Malvina" - West Falkland & "Isla Soledad" - East Falkland.
Air units moved from home bases to southern facilities. Also feared about British/Chilean air strikes and/or SAS raids, Argentine aircraft were dispersed in the surrounding areas of their southern airfields, e.g., several parts of the national route #3 were used for this purpose.
Ezeiza International Airport, Buenos Aires
* NAS Almirante Zar,
Trelew, Chubut Province
Comodoro Rivadavia, IX Air Brigade, Chubut Province "( FAS command site )" [http://maps.google.com/maps?hl=en&safe=off&q=Comodoro+Rivadavia,&ie=UTF8&oe=UTF-8&z=15&ll=-45.784016,-67.465196&spn=0.012689,0.043259&t=k&om=1 map]
**FMA IA 58 Pucará
**CIC "Comodoro", air traffic control center
Puerto San Julián, Santa Cruz Province
**IAI Dagger - "La Marinete" Squadron
**Cardion AN/TPS-44 radar w/ GADA 601 "Army"
Puerto Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz Province
Rio Gallegos, Santa Cruz Province
**FMA IA 58 Pucará
**CIC "Gallegos", air traffic control center
* NAS Almirante Quijada,
Río Grande, Tierra del Fuego
**IAI Dagger - "Las Avutardas Salvajes" Squadron
* AFB Puerto Argentino,
Port Stanley Airport, Falklands Islands
**FMA IA 58 Pucará "Air Force"
**Aermacchi MB.339A "Navy"
**T-34 Mentor "Navy"
Helicopters from all services
AN/TPS-43radar and anti-aircraft defences from all services
* AFB Condor,
Goose Greengrass airfield, Falklands Islands
**FMA IA 58 Pucará "Air Force"
**Anti-aircraft cannons "Air Force"
* NAS Calderon,
Pebble Islandgrass airfield, Falklands Islands
**FMA IA 58 Pucará "Air Force"
**T-34 Mentor "Navy"
Short Skyvan"Coast Guard"
* Aircraft carrier ARA Veinticinco de Mayo, April 2nd to May 3rd
**McDonnell Douglas A-4Q Skyhawk
**Grumman S-2E Tracker
**Sikorsky SH-3 Sea King
The numbers in bold are the number of aircraft engaged in combat without counting those in reserve, the numbers in brackets are the number of aircraft lost during the war.
Argentine Air Force
"Fuerza Aérea Argentina"
* 1st Air Brigade -
**Lockheed C-130H Hercules, 7 (1)
**Lockheed KC-130H Hercules Tanker 2
* 2nd Air Brigade - English Electric B.Mk62 Canberra 8 (2)
** Grupo Aérofotográfico - Learjet 35A-L 2 (1)
* 3rd Air Brigade -
** Falkland Islands - FMA IA 58 Pucará 24 (13)
** Comodoro Rivadavia - FMA IA 58 Pucará ? (1)
* 4th Air Brigade - McDonnell Douglas A-4C Skyhawk 15 (9)
* 5th Air Brigade - McDonnell Douglas A-4B Skyhawk <35 (10)
* 6th Air Brigade - Israel Aircraft Industries Dagger 30 (11)
* 7th Air Brigade -
**Boeing CH-47C Chinook 2
* 8th Air Brigade - Dassault Mirage IIIEA 17 (2)
"Comando de Aviación Naval Argentina"
* 1st Naval Air Attack Squadron - Aermacchi MB.339A 6 (2)
* 2nd Naval Air Fighter/Attack Squadron -
Dassault Super Étendard4 (sn. 3-A-201 was cannibalized for spare parts)
* 3rd Naval Air Fighter/Attack Squadron - McDonnell Douglas A-4Q Skyhawk 8 (3)
* Naval Air Antisubmarine Squadron - Grumman S-2E Tracker 6
* Naval Air Training Squadron - Beechcraft T-34 Mentor 4 (4)
* Naval Air Exploration Squadron - Lockheed SP-2H Neptune 2 (both retired by end of May due airframe attrition)
* 1st Naval Air Helicopter Squadron -
**Aérospatiale Alouette AI03 10 (1)
**Sea Lynx 2 (1)
* 2nd Naval Air Helicopter Squadron - Sikorsky SH-3 Sea King 5
* Naval Air Transport Squadrons -
Lockheed L-188 Electra3
Fokker F-283 Argentine Army
"Comando de Aviación del Ejército Argentino"
** South Georgia April 3rd - Aérospatiale Puma SA330L 1 (1)
Argentine Coast Guard
"Prefectura Naval Argentina"
* Aviation Service -
**Aérospatiale Puma SA330L 1
Short Skyvan2 (2)
Argentine traffic planes
Escuadrón Fénix— 30 civilian business planes::: Gates Learjet, Cessna Citation, Hawker Siddeley HS-125, Commander 690and Mitsubishi MU-2.
Aerolineas Argentinasand Austral airlines:::).
*Machineguns and cannons:
** 7.62 mm FM M2-20: "Pucaras"
** 20 mm Colt Mk.12 Cannon: "A-4s"
** 20 mm Hispano-Suiza HS.804 Cannon: "Pucaras"
** 30 mm
DEFA cannon: "IAI Daggers" and "Mirage IIIEA"
** 70 mm: "MB339s"
** 105 mm: "Pucaras"
*** AIM-9B Sidewinder short-range IR: only Navy "A-4Q Skyhawks" up to
*** Rafael Shafrir 2 short-range IR: only "IAI Daggers" on
*** Matra R550 Magic short-range IR: received April 15th for "Mirage IIIEA" [ [http://www.aeroespacio.com.ar/site/anteriores/520-528/520/mirage.htm Official FAA magazine "hacia el 15 Abr se producía la recepción de los misiles Matra 550 Magic adquiridos tiempo antes"] ]
Matra R530short-range semi-active radar: "Mirage IIIEA"
*** Aérospatiale AM.39 Exocet Anti-Ship Missile: 5 units on "Super Etendards"
*** By the end of May they arrived at Tandil AFB (Daggers home base)
MBDA AS 30air-ground missiles delivered by the Peruvian Air Forcebut the war ended before they could be used.
*Unguided retarders General Purpose Bomb: Thirteen unexploded bombs [ [http://www.naval-history.net/F62brshipslost.htm Battle Atlas of the Falklands War 1982 — British ships lost & damaged] .] hit British ships without detonating as they were thrown from very low altitude and there was insufficient time in the air for them to arm themselves. The problem was solved by June with new fuzes (Kappa) bought in Spain Fact|date=July 2007.
** US built Mark 82 (500 lb / 227 kg) : "A-4s" and "IAI Daggers"
** British built "1000 lb" (450 kg) : "A-4s", "IAI Daggers" and "Canberras"
Napalm[Chapter 21 The Bridgehead and Beyond, the battle for Darwin and Goose Green:"In late afternoon Pucaras attacked the British forces, two dropping napalm tanks which only just missed forward troops. Two Pucaras were shot down during the battle, along with an Aeromacchi ["sic"] . - Lawrence Freedman, "Signals of War, The Falklands Conflict of 1982", 1990, Faber and Faber-London, ISBN 0-571-14116-1 ] : "Pucaras"
HMS "Sheffield", HMS "Coventry", HMS "Ardent", HMS "Antelope", RFA "Sir Galahad", "Atlantic Conveyor" plus a
Landing Craft Utility("Foxtrot Four" from "Fearless")
Ships Damaged [
Sir Lawrence Freedman: "The Official History of the Falklands Campaign", 2005, Routledge, ISBN 0-7146-5207-5]
"HMS Glasgow", HMS "Antrim", HMS "Brilliant", HMS "Broadsword", HMS "Alacrity", HMS "Arrow", HMS "Argonaut", HMS "Plymouth", RFA "Sir Bedivere", RFA "Sir Lancelot", RFA "Sir Tristram", RFA "Stromness"
133 sorties by the A-4B and 86 by the A-4C. They flew with unreliable
ejection seats due to the US embargo placed from 1977. Naval A-4Q performed 12 sorties. They were highly dependent on the two available KC-130 tankers, limiting the number of aeroplanes that could attack simultaneously.
46 bombing sorties against ground targets, operating from
Trelew, to avoid more congestion on the closer southern airfields.
153 sorties against naval/ground targets by the two squadrons. Their lack of
aerial refuelingcapacity severely affected their performance without any chance of manouvering over the islands. They were obliged to fly the shortest flightpath and had less than 10 minutes to find their targets. The discovery of their approach corridor by the British led to 7 aircraft being shot down by Sea Harriers CAP, something just realized when one of the downed Dagger pilots was recovered by own troops. By the end of May they began carrying an improvised chaff dispenser consisting of aluminium strips inside their airbrakes.
The above figures shown a total of 430 attack sorties from the mainland of which 18 aircraft were intercepted by the Sea Harriers and other 14 were shot down by anti aircraft defences.
Argentine sources indicate that they were withheld from operations over the islands to protect the mainland against Vulcan strikes [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1984/DWF.htm] "As a result of these heavy losses...it was decided to pull the Mirage III's back to the mainland to stand alert for a possible Vulcan attack."] [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1984/HJA.htm] "Finally, the bombing raids caused the Argentines to fear an air attack on the mainland, causing them to retain some Mirage aircraft and Roland missiles for defense."] [ [http://www.aeroespacio.com.ar/site/anteriores/520-528/520/mirage.htm] La familia Mirage, Aeroespacio, Fuerza Aerea Argentina, ISSN 0001-9127, "Los M III debían defender el territorio continental argentino de posibles ataques de los bombarderos Vulcan de la RAF, brindar escolta a los cazabombarderos de la FAA, e impedir los ataques de aviones de la Royal Navy y de la RAF sobre las Malvinas." ("The M III would defend the Argentine mainland against possible attacks by Vulcan bombers from the RAF, providing escort of fighter bombers to the FAA, and to prevent attacks by aircraft of the Royal Navy and RAF on the Falklands.")] , however, they made 58 sorties providing decoys for the strike units with particular success on the June 8 attacks against the British landings ships [ [http://www.aeroespacio.com.ar/site/anteriores/520-528/520/mirage.htm Official FAA Magazine es icon] ] . Their lesser internal fuel capacity, compared to the "Daggers", prevented them from being used in their escort role.
IA 58 Pucará
They performed reconnaissance and ground attack missions from the Falklands airfields and surveillance of the Patagonian coast from bases in Southern Argentina. Most of the island-based Pucarás were destroyed on the ground, due to the lack of
Hardened Aircraft Shelters. They shot down a Royal Marines Westland Scoutduring the battle of Goose Green.
126 decoying plus 52 reconnaissance sorties. They were also extensively used as communications relay and pathfinder flights to guide the combat jets with the Learjets’ superior navigation systems.
33 night flights to BAM Puerto Argentino in May/June (Blockade runner). Among the cargo transported in those flight were the 602 Army Commandos Coy, 155 mm CITEFA cannons, an : The Official History of the Falklands Campaign, 2005, Routledge, ISBN 0-7146-5207-5 :"British Wye", carrying fuel for the Task Force, came under attack by a modified C-130 Hercules...eight bombs were released, one of which struck the tanker without exploding.] (Not officially recognized by the FAA)
Refueling sorties for A-4s and Super Étendards, also for battle damaged fighters.
15 night flights to BAM Puerto Argentino in May/June (Blockade runner)
796 helicopter flights on the islands
1st Air Brigade Construction Group Air Force
In charge of maintaining Port Stanley airbase operable. Throughout the conflict, the airport installations were attacked with 237 bombs, 1,200 shells from the Royal Navy gunline and 16 missiles, however, it was never out of action entirely. Many sources claim that the runway was covered with piles of dirt during the day causing British intelligence to surmise that repairs were still in progress. Craters were in fact heaps of earth placed there to make it look as though the runway was damaged. [http://www.britains-smallwars.com/Falklands/vulcan.htm The Avro Vulcan and the Black Buck raids] . In fact, the British were well aware that the runway was still in use by C-130 [Morgan, David, "Hostile Skies", Orion Books Limited, London, 2006, ISBN 978-0-7538-2199-2] and attempted to interdict these flights leading to the loss of a C-130 on June 1 [Ward, Sharkey,'Sea Harrier Over The Falklands: A Maverick at War", Phoenix; New Ed edition, London, 2007, ISBN 978-0304355426] .
Casualties and aircraft losses
* Human losses:
** 6 Army aviation
** 4 Naval aviation
Argentine Air Forcemembers [ [http://www.fuerzaaerea.mil.ar/conflicto/caidos.html Fuerza Aérea Argentina ] ]
*** 29 pilots
*** 12 air crew (6 on C-130H shot down
June 1, 4 on Learjet LJ-35A shot down June 7and 2 Canberra navigators)
*** 14 Ground crew
* Aircraft Lost in the Air: no suffix: "Air Force"
Argentine strike aircraft did not carry air-to-air missiles, with the exception of 8th Air Brigade Mirage IIIEA fighters and 6th Air Brigade Daggers on May 1st. All retained a secondary armament of either 20mm or 30mm cannon.
IAI Dagger A
C-403, May21, Sea Harrier ZA190/"009", pilot Capt. Donadille ejected,
C-404, May21, Sea Harrier ZA190/"009", pilot Maj. Piuma ejected,
C-407, May21, Sea Harrier ZA175/"004", pilot Lt. Senn ejected,
C-409, May21, Sea Harrier XZ455/"12", pilot Lt. Luna ejected,
C-410, May24, Sea Harrier ZA193/"93", pilot Lt. Castillo killed,
C-419, May24, Sea Harrier XZ457/"14". pilot Maj. Puga ejected,
C-430, May24, Sea Harrier XZ457/"14". pilot Capt. Diaz ejected,
C-433, May1, Sea Harrier XZ455/"12". pilot Lt. Ardiles killed,
C-437, May23, Sea Harrier ZA194. pilot Lt. Volponi killed] , 1 Sea Wolf HMS "Broadsword" [SN: C-428, May21, pilot Lt. Bean killed] , 1SAM Rapier [SN: C-436, May29, pilot Lt. Bernhardt killed]
3 [SN: C-204, C-226 and C-228] by
Sea Harrier, 3 [SN: C-206, C-208 and C-246] Sea Wolf HMS "Brilliant", 1 [SN: C-244] Sea Dart, 1 [SN: C-215] AAA HMS "Fearless", 1 [SN: C-242] SAM/AAA/small arms fire and 1 [SN: C-248] friendly fire
2 [SN: C-309 and C-325] by
Sea Harrier, 3 [SN: C-301, C-304 and C-310] Sea Dart, 2 [SN: C-305 and C-319] combination Sea Cat/Rapier/Blowpipe
FMA IA 58 Pucará
1 [SN: A-5??] by
Sea Harrier, 1 SAM Stinger, 1 small arms fire 2nd PARA
A-4Q Skyhawk "Navy"
3 [SN: 3-A-307, 3-A-312 and 3-A-314] by
Sea Harrier. (The 3rd damaged by 30mm cannon fire, attempted to land at Port Stanley but the undercarriage was inoperative and the pilot elected to eject.)
1 [SN: I-015] by
Sea Harrier, 1 [SN: I-019] friendly fire
1 [SN: B-110] by
Sea Harrier, 1 [SN: B-108] Sea Dart
1 [SN: TC-63] by
Aermacchi MB.339A "Navy"
1 [SN: 4-A-1??] by Blowpipe
1 [SN: T-2?] by SAM Sea Dart
Puma SA330L "Army"
1 by SAM Sea Dart, 2 gun fire
Puma SA330L "Army"
Royal Marines gun fire in South Georgia, April 3
* Destroyed on the ground
** 9 FMA IA 58 Pucará
** 1 Boeing Ch-47C Chinook "Army"
** 2 Aérospatiale Puma SA330L "Army"
** 4 Beechcraft T-34 Mentor "Navy"
** 2 Skyvan 3-M "Coast Guard"
* Captured after the war
** 11 FMA IA 58 Pucará
** 9 Bell UH-1H Iroquois "Army"
** 1 Boeing CH-47C Chinook "Army"
** 1 Aérospatiale Puma SA330L "Coast Guard"
** 3 Aermacchi MB.339A "Navy"
* Lost with ARA "General Belgrano"
** 1 Aérospatiale Alouette AI03 "Navy"
* Flying accident in the war zone
** 1 [SN: 3-H-42] Westland Lynx HAS.Mk.23 "Navy" — 2nd May, hit ARA "Santísima Trinidad"
** 2 FMA IA 58 Pucará — 28th May [ [http://www.fuerzaaerea.mil.ar/conflicto/caidos/baja26.html Fuerza Aérea Argentina ] ] , hit ground, recovered in 1986, 24th May [ [http://www.fuerzaaerea.mil.ar/conflicto/caidos/baja36.html Fuerza Aérea Argentina ] ] [According to www.naval-history.net/F64argaircraftlost.htm a Pucará was lost over the Atlantic on a reconnaissance mission from Comodoro Rivadavia] .
** 1 Aermacchi MB.339A "Navy" — 3rd May, bad weather crash
** 2 [SN: C-303 and C-313] McDonnell Douglas A-4C Skyhawk — 9th May,
South Jason Island
*Total75 fixed wing aircraft and 25 helicopters.
* FAA Commodore Ruben Oscar Moro "La Guerra Inaudita", 2000 ISBN 987-96007-3-8
* "Dagger & Finger en Argentina" ISBN 987-43-8536-7 [http://www.helis.com/magazines/books.php book link]
* Frédéric Marsaly: "Super Étendard au Combat: la saga d'un guerrier", Aviation Française Magazine, Jan/Feb 2007, ISSN 1951-9583.
* [http://www.naval-history.net/F64argaircraftlost.htm British site about Argentine Aircraft lost]
* [http://britains-smallwars.com/Falklands/argentine-aircraftlosses.html Britains Small Wars.com]
* Chant, C.: "Air War in the Falklands 1982", 2001, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 1-84176-293-8
* Gunston, B.: "Aviation Fact File (Modern Fighting Aircraft) - Harrier", 1984, Salamander Books Ltd., ISBN 0-86101-128-7
* [http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/apj/apj02/fal02/corum.html Argentine Airpower in the Falklands War] - Analysis and Conclusions
* [https://research.maxwell.af.mil/papers/ay2005/acsc/3111%20-%20Green.pdf Argentina's Tactical Aircraft Employment in the Falklands Islands War ] - Air Command and Staff College, Air University, USAF
* [http://www.fuerzaaerea.mil.ar/conflicto/index_conflicto.html Argentine Air Force (FAA) official site] about the Malvinas/Falkland Air War
* [http://www.prefecturanaval.gov.ar/institucional/castellano/malvinas.php Argentine Coast Guard (PNA) official site] about the Malvinas/Falkland War
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ODalMZbmA_w YouTube video] Argentine Air Force on the Falklands War
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