- Walk to Canossa
The Walk to Canossa (sometimes called the Way to Canossa; German, "Gang nach Canossa"; Italian, "l'umiliazione di Canossa") refers to both the trek itself of Henry IV of the
Holy Roman Empirefrom Speyerto the fortress at Canossa and also to the events surrounding his journey. These events took place in and around January 1077.
When, in his early papacy, Gregory VII attempted to enact reforms to the
investitureprocess, he was met by much resistance from the Holy Roman Emperor. Henry insisted that he reserved the right to 'invest' bishops and other clergymen, despite the papal decree. Henry renounced Gregory as pope; in return, Gregory excommunicated and deposed Henry. He stated furthermore that, one year from that day, the excommunication would become permanent and irrevocable.
Fearing rebellion among the German aristocracy (violence had already broken out at Langensalza a year earlier), Henry felt he had to have his excommunication lifted. He arranged to meet with the Pope in
Gregory, however, feared that Henry would bring his army and attempt to remove the Pope from power. He spent some time on his journey northward from
Romein towns in the south of the Empire, trying to gain support among the people.
While still in the northern reaches of present-day
Italy, he met Mathilda, Countess of Tuscany. She offered to bring him to a location safe from attack by Henry. They traveled together to the fortress at Canossa and shut themselves inside.
Coming southward from
Germany, Henry found his position precarious. He was still popular among the common people, but his nobles were still threatening to elect a new king. He had to secure his position in the church before the rapidly approaching deadline given by the Pope.
Once he crossed the
Jura Mountains, Henry took on the behavior of penitence. He wore a hair-shirt, the traditional clothing of monks at the time, and allegedly walked barefoot. Many of his entourage also supposedly removed their shoes. In these conditions he crossed the Alps, a long and harsh journey in late January. On 25 January 1077he reached the gates of Canossa.
At the fortress
When Henry reached Canossa, the Pope ordered that he be refused entry. According to the first-hand accounts of the scene (letters written by both Gregory and Henry in the following years), Henry waited by the gate for three full days. During this time, he allegedly wore only his penitent hair-shirt and fasted. Although no contemporary sources report this, it has since been speculated that Henry spent much of his time during these three days in the
villageat the foot of the hill.
28 January(the feast of Saint Paul's conversion) the gates were opened for Henry and he was allowed to enter the fortress. Contemporary accounts report that he knelt before Pope Gregory and begged his forgiveness. Gregory absolved Henry and invited him back into the Church. That evening, Gregory, Henry, and Mathilda shared communion in the Cathedralof Saint Nicholasinside the fortress, signaling the official end of Henry's excommunication. [This series of events is compiled by Zimmerman (see below) as the most likely, through comparison of original sources on the subject, including letters written by both Henry and Gregory to the German bishops and princes. For a discussion of this, and for other proposed timelines, see Zimmermann's chapter 5]
Henry quickly returned to his empire, but Gregory remained with Mathilda at the fortress and in other locations in Tuscany for several months. Later historians speculated upon a romantic or sexual relationship between the two (an accusation sometimes raised by
Protestanthistorians in the 17th century) although if there was ever any evidence for this it has not survived. [Struve, 44ff] .
The immediate effects of the Canossa meeting were limited. Although Henry was restored to the Church, the Pope did not restore his support of Henry's right to the throne. His deposition still in effect, Henry was forced into civil war with
Duke Rudolph of Swabia. Gregory levied a second excommunication against Henry, who ultimately won the civil war, invaded Rome, and forced Gregory to flee, replacing him with an antipope, Clement III. [ [http://www.historychannel.com/thcsearch/thc_resourcedetail.do?encyc_id=210946 "Gregory VII"] in "HistoryChannel.Com: Encyclopedia" by John W. O'Malley, retrieved 11 July 2006.]
The meaning in the greater history of Germany and
Europe, however, was much more significant. During the Protestant Reformationin the 16th century, Henry was heroized as a defender of the rights of both Germans and opponents to the Pope. Many German Lutherans considered him the "first Protestant" and looked to his example for guidance in their struggle against what they saw as a tyrannical and unjust institution.
Later in German history the event took on a more secular meaning: it came to stand for Germany's refusal to be subjected to any outside power (although still especially, but not exclusively, the
Roman Catholic Church). Otto von Bismarck, during his so-called " Kulturkampf," assured his countrymen that "We will not go to Canossa – neither in body nor in spirit!" That is, Germany would stand for itself and not abide any outside interference in its politics, religion or culture. [For more discussion on cultural references to the Walk to Canossa, see Zimmermann's chapters 1 and 4]
On the other side, Canossa is remembered in Italy by some historians (like
Benedetto Croce) as the first concrete victory of the Pope (who represented the Italian people) against the domination of the Germans after the fall of the Roman Empire. Croce considered Canossa as the initial retreat from Italy of the Holy Roman Empire, starting the Italian Renaissancein which the Germans lost control of northern Italy by the 15th century.
Today, "Canossa" refers to an act of penance or submission. To "go to Canossa" is an expression (used often in German: "nach Canossa gehen", in Swedish: "Canossavandring", in Danish and Norwegian: "Kanossagang", and in
Italian language: "andare a Canossa") to describe doing penance, often with the connotation that it is unwilling or coerced.
*Zimmermann, Harald, "Der Canossagang von 1077. Wirkungen und Wirklichkeit". Mainz, 1975.
*Kämpf, Hellmut, "Canossa als Wende. Ausgewählte Aufsätze zur neueren Forschung". Darmstadt, 1963.
*Struve, Tilman, "Mathilde von Tuszien-Canossa und Heinrich IV."
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