Arabic influence on the Spanish language


Arabic influence on the Spanish language

Arabic influence on the Spanish language has been significant, due to the Islamic presence in the Iberian peninsula between 711 and 1492 A.D. (see Al-Andalus).

Modern day Spanish language (also called "castellano" in Spanish) first appeared in the small Christian Kingdom of Castile in Northern Spain during this period of Islamic domination over most of the Iberian peninsula. As a result, the language was influenced by Andalusi Arabic practically from its inception. Arabic imprint on the language increased as the Kingdom of Castile expanded into Muslim lands where the Castilian language had never been spoken and as arabized Christians (Mozarabs) from Al Andalus emigrated northwards during times of sectarian violence, and particularly as a result of the Almoravid conquest in the 12th century. Although the degree to which Arabic percolated the peninsula is the subject of academic debate, it is generally agreed that Arabic was used among the local elites and local Arabic-influenced Romance dialects, known collectively as Mozarabic were more prevalent as the vernacular language. Only the kingdom of Granada, under the Nasrid dynasty was totally arabized after many centuries of Muslim rule.

Modern Spanish is thus a mixture of Old Castilian and the Mozarabic dialects which it absorbed. This fusion explains why Spanish has, in many cases, both Latin and Arabic derived words for the same meaning. For example, "aceituna" and "oliva" (olive), "alacrán" and "escorpión" (scorpion), "jaqueca" and "migraña" (migraine) or "alcancía" and "hucha" (piggy bank). The imprint of Mozarabic and Arabic is evidently more noticeable in the southern dialects of Peninsular Spanish than in the northern ones.

A small number of words have also been borrowed from Moroccan Arabic both due to geographic proximity, but principally as a result of Spain's protectorate over Spanish Morocco in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Although the influence of Arabic on Spanish is fundamentally lexical, other influences are briefly examined in this article.

Lexical influence

It is estimated that there are over four thousand Arabic loanwords in the Spanish language (including derivations) and well over one thousand Arabic roots, making up around 8% of the Spanish language. This makes Arabic the largest influence on Spanish after Latin.

A majority of these are nouns, with a more limited number of verbs, adjectives, adverbs and prepositions, thus not substantially changing the grammar or basic structure of the language. The exact number of words of Arabic origin in Spanish is not known and many words not included on this list are regionalisms: words which are used in certain parts of Spain and/or Latin America but are generally unknown elsewhere.

List of words of Arabic origin

This is an open list of Spanish words acquired "directly" from Classical and Andalusi Arabic, listed in alphabetical order. This list includes the Spanish meaning of the word as well as the Arabic etymology. No fixed standard of Arabic transliteration is used.

Rationale for inclusion

Due to the heavy influence of Arabic on Spanish, this list is relatively restrictive:

*This list has been edited to include only words which are considered to appertain to the Spanish language and the Hispanic culture and society. Arabic words which may be understood by Spanish speakers, but remain foreign to the Hispanic civilisation such as Yihad or Chiita, are excluded from this list.

*Only words which have passed directly from Arabic are included. Arabic words which entered the Spanish language through other, non-Iberian, European languages (such as "Beduino", "Sofá" or "sorbete") are not included.

*Generally, only Spanish root words are listed, derivations not being included. For example, "aceite" (from "az-zeit", oil) is included but not "aceitería", "aceitero", "aceitón" or "aceitoso". On the other hand, "aceituna" (olive) is included since it derives not from "az-zeit" but from "az-zeituna" in Arabic, even though the root of the "Arabic" word is the same. "Aceituno" (olive tree), on the other hand, would not be included, since it shares the same root as "aceituna". An exception to this rule may be made when the derived word is much more commonly used than the root word, when the meaning of the derivative has no evident connection with the root word or when it is not clear that one is derived from the other (e.g. horro and ahorrar).

*Words derived from Mozarabic are not included (Mozarabic being fundamentally a Romance language), unless the Mozarabic word is itself derived from classical or Andalusi Arabic.

*Words acquired from Berber or Hebrew (or other Afro-Asiatic languages) are not included.

The etymology and meaning of most of these words can be verified on the site of the [http://www.rae.es Real Academia de la Lengua Española] , although a small minority are only available in other sources or past editions of this dictionary.

A (Ababol to Alguaza)

#ababol: Poppy. In Aragon, Navarre, Albacete and Murcia. From Andalusian Arabic "Happapáwr", a fusion of the Arabic word "Hab" (حب) "seed" and the Latin "papāver".
#abacero: owner of an abacería, small food shop. From Andalusi Arabic "SaHb azzád" (صاحب الزاد) "owner of the supplies."
#abadí: descendant/lineage of "Mohammed ben Abad", founder of the Taifa Kingdom of Seville in the 11th century AD. From Andalusi Arabic "abbadi" (عبّادي).
#abalorio: cheap jewelery or jewelery beads. From Andalusi Arabic "al balluri" (البلوري) "made of glass."
#abarraz: stavesacre ("Delphinium staphisagria"), a medicinal plant. From Andalusi Arabic "Hab ar-ras" (حب الرأس) "head seeds."
#abasí: pertaining to the Abbasid dynasty, which overthrew the Umayyads in the 8th century.
#abelmosco: musk seeds, an aromatic plant. From Andalusi Arabic "Hab el musk" (حب المسك) literally "musk seeds."
#abencerraje: used in expression: "Zegríes y abencerrajes", which means "partisans of opposite interests". The "Abencerrajes" (in Arabic "aban as-sarráǧ") was an Arabic family of the Kingdom of Granada, rivals of the Zegríes in the 15th century.
#abenuz: ebony. From Arabic "abanus" (أبنوس) of the same meaning.
#abismal: screw in head of a spear. From Arabic "al-mismar" (المسمار) "nail."
#abitaque: a cut of wood used in construction of a certain shape and dimension. From Arabic "Tabaqa" (طبقة) "layer" or "intermediate chamber."
#acebibe: raisin. From Arabic "zabib" (زبيب) of the same meaning.
#acebuche: wild olive tree, or wood from such a tree. From Andalusi Arabic "azzabbúǧ".
#aceche: copper, iron or zinc sulphate. From Arabic "zāǧ".
#aceifa: Muslim summer military expedition. From Arabic "Sa'ifah" "harvest" or "summer expedition."
#aceite: oil. From Arabic "az-zayt" (الزيت) "oil."
#aceituna: olive. From Arabic الزيتون ("az-zaytun") "olive."
#aceituní: precious cloth from the Orient. From Arabic "az-zaytuni", a possible adaptation of the Chinese city Tsö-Thung.
#acelga: chard. From Arabic "as-silqa" of the same meaning.
#acémila: beast of burden; tax formerly paid in Spain. From Arabic "az-zamilah" "beast of burden."
#acemite: wheat husk; a type of wheat porridge. From Arabic "as-samid" (السميد).
#acenefa see cenefa.
#aceña: watermill. From Arabic "as-saniyah" "the lifter."
#acequia: irrigation canal. From Arabic "as-saqiyah" (الساقية)"the irrigator."
#acerola: fruit of the tree Malpighia emarginata or glabra, generally found in the Americas, of the Malpighiaceae family. This should be differentiated from the European service tree, Sorbus domestica, family Rosaceae. From Arabic "zu 'rūrah" (زعرورة). Originally from Syriac "za‘rārā".
#acetre: bucket or Cauldron used to extract water from a well; small cauldron used to spray holy water in Christian liturgy. From Arabic "as-saTl" (السطل).
#aciar: (or acial): instrument used to keep farm-animals still by squeezing their ear or snout. From Arabic "az-ziyār".
#acíbar: aloe (both the plant and its bitter juice); bitterness, grief, distaste. From Arabic "aS-Sabr" (الصّبر).
#acicalar: to clean or polish (Acicalarse in reflexive form); to make oneself look good by combing, shaving etc. From Arabic "aS-Siqal", an instrument used for polishing things.
#acicate: spurs or the spikes on spurs; incentive. From Arabic "(Muzil) as-siqaT" "what takes away weaknesses."
#acidaque: Muslim dowry. From Arabic "as-Sidaq", dowry in Islamic law.
#acimut: azimuth, an astrological concept - the angle with which the meridian forms a vertical circle which passes through a point in the globe. From Arabic "assumut" plural of "samt".
#ación: handle on the stirrup. From Arabic "suyūr" (سيور), plural of "sayr" (سير) "strap."
#acirate: line of soil used to separate different plots of land; path between two lines of trees. From Arabic "SirāT" (صراط).
#acitara or citara: thin wall, normally on a bridge. From Arabic "sitārah" (ستارة), wall to avoid falls.
#achacar: to blame. From Arabic "tashakkà" (تشكى): to complain or to blame.
#adafina: pot used by Hebrews to cook. It is buried in embers on Friday night, where it cooks until Saturday. From Arabic: "dafina" (دفينة) "buried."
#adalid: leader; general of Spanish militia. From Arabic "dalil" (دليل).
#adaraja: each of the gaps made by the bricks in a horizonally unfinished wall. From "daraja" (درجة).
#adarga: leather shield. From Arabic "daraqah".
#adárgama:(rarely used today) flour. From Arabic "darmaka".
#adarme: small portion of something; type of measurement. From Arabic "dirham" (درهم).
#adarvar: to shock. From Arabic "darb" (ضرب) "blow."
#adarve: wall of a fortress; protection, defense. From Arabic "darb" (ضرب)
#adaza: sorghum. From Arabic "duqsah".
#adefera: a small, square wall or floor tile. From Arabic "add-ddafeera".
#adehala: that which is granted or taken as obligatory with the price in the leasing or sale of a property. From Mozarabic "ad ihala" and originally from Arabic "ihala" "offering credit."
#adelfa: oleander. From Arabic "ad-difla" (الدفلى) of the same meaning.
#ademán: gesticulation which expresses the will to do something. From Arabic "aD-Daman" (الضمان), literally meaning legal guarantees. The change of meaning is due to the exaggerated promises and gesticulations which were offered in such a plea.
#ademe: wooden structures used to strengthen tunnels in mines. From Arabic "di'mah".
#aderra: cord used to press grapes or olives in order to obtain their juice. From Andalusi Arabic "ad-dirra" a noose or cord used to punish those who were guilty of fraud.
#adiafa: present or refreshment given to sailors when back from a voyage. From Arabic "Diyafa" (ضيافة) "present of hospitality."
#adivas: a disease provoking throat inflammation in animals. From Arabic "aD-Dibbah" "wolverine" - which is the old Arabic name for this disease.
#adive: a type of canid similar to a fox. From Arabic "di'b" (ذئب).
#adobe: brick made from clay. From Arabic "at-tuba" (الطوبة from Coptic "tôbe") of the same meaning, and from "ad-dabba".
#adoquín: paving-stone, cobble; block. From Arabic "Dukkan" bench of rock or wood.
#ador: in regions where water for irrigation is restricted and shared out by local authorities, irrigation-time for each farm/field. From Arabic "dawr".
#aduana: customs house; customs. From Arabic "diwan" (ديوان).
#aduar: semi-permanent rural settlement, normally used for Gypsies, beduins or Amerindians in South America. From Bedouin Arabic "duwwar".
#adúcar: type of silk made from the outside of the silk-worm's cocoon. From Andalusi Arabic "Haduqa".
#adufe:tambourine used by Spanish Muslims. From Arabic "Duff" (دف).
#adul: in Morocco, asessor of the "Cadí". From Arabic "adl" "trustworthy person."
#adula: see dula.
#adunia: (adverb) lots. From Andalusi Arabic "addunya", originally from classical Arabic "duniya" (الدنيا) "the (whole) world."
#adutaque: same meaning as adárgama. From Arabic "duqaq" (دقاق) "fine flour."
#afán: effort; desire; zeal. From afanar.
#afanar: to steal; to work with passion. From Arabic "fanaaʔ" (فناء) "extinction," "annihilation through passion."
#aguajaque: the whitish resin of fennel. From Arabic "aw-washaq" "contaminated with water."
#agüela: Renta de los derechos sobre préstamos consignados en documento público. From Arabic "Hawalah".
#ajabeba: Moorish flute. From Classical Arabic "sabbabah".
#ajaquefa: Roof. Same origin as "Azaquefa".
#ajaraca: Ornamental loop in Andalusian and Arabic architecture. From Andalusi Arabic "Ash-sharakah" "loop".
#ajarafe: terrace. From Classical Arabic "saraf" "commanding height."
#ajebe: Alum; Para rubber tree. From Arabic "as-Shabb".
#ajedrea: plant of the family of the Labiadas, about three decimeters of height, very populated with branches and narrow leaves, of dark color. It is cultivated for adornment in the gardens. From Arabic "assariyya" or "assiriyya", ultimately from Latin "satureia".
#ajedrez: chess. From Arabic "ash shitrang" (الشطرنج).
#ajenuz: nutmeg flower or Roman coriander (Nigella Sativa). From Andalusi Arabic "Shanuz" and ultimately Classical Arabic "Shuniz".
#ajimez: bent; window divided in the center by a vertical divider; salient balcony done of wood and with lattice windows. From Arabic "samis".
#ajomate: pluricellular alga formed by very thin filaments, without knots, bright and of intense green color. It abounds in fresh waters of Spain. From Classical Arabic "gumam".
#ajonjolí: sesame; herbaceous, annual plant of the family of the Pedaliaceae, a meter high, straight stem, serrate and almost triangular leaves, white or rosy corolla, and fruit with four delicate, yellowish, oily and edible capsules and many seeds. From Classical Arabic "gulgulan" "sesame."
#ajorca: bangle; type of gold hoop, silver or another metal, used by the women to adorn the wrists, arms or the feet. From Classical Arabic "shuruk", ultimately from the word "shirāk" "strap."
#ajorrar: To drag, to tow. See Jorro.
#ajuagas: equine animal ulcers. From Classical Arabic "shuqaq".
#ajuar: a collection of household and personal items (clothes, furniture, jewelry etc...) which women in Spain traditionally prepare from a young age for the day in which they marry and move in with their husband. From Arabic "Shawar".
#alacena: cupboard. From Classical Arabic "ẖizānah" (خزانة).
#alacet: foundation of a building. From Classical Arabic "asas" (أساس).
#alacrán: scorpion. From Classical Arabic "aqrab" (عقرب) of same meaning.
#aladar: Tuft of hair which falls on either side of the head. From Arabic "idar".
#aladroque: Anchovy. From Andalusi Arabic "Al Hatruk", "big mouthed".
#alafa: wage; pay. From Classical Arabic "alafah" "subsistence allowance."
#alafia: grace; pardon; mercy. From Andalusian Arabic "al afya" ultimately from Classical Arabic "afiyah" (عافية) "health."
#alahílca: tapestry to adorn the walls. Perhaps of "alailaca" from Andalusian Arabic "ilaqa", and this of Classical Arabic "ilāqah" (علاقة) perhaps meaning "hanger."
#alajor: Tax which was paid to owners of land where buildings were built. From Arabic "Ashur", period of ten days before Easter when debts were paid and alms were given.
#alajú: Andalusian cake made of almonds, nuts, pine nuts, bread, spices and cooked honey. From "al Hashu" "filling".
#alamar: A type of decorative attachment which is buttoned on clothing. From Andalusi Arabic "Alam", decoration (in clothes).
#alambique: alembic. From Arabic "al-anbiq" "the cup/container holding water", in turn fr Greek.
#alambor: Two meanings in Spanish with two different etymologies. 1)Embankment, from Andalusi Arabic Harabul "rim", from classical Arabic verb "Hawwala", "to alter". 2) Type of Orange tree. From Catalan "l'ambor", singular of "els zambors", derived from Andalusi Arabic "Azzambu".
#alamín: Village judge who decided on irrigation distribution or official who measured weights. From Arabic "al amin".
#alamud: Steel bar used to close windows. From Arabic "amud".
#alaqueca: A type of blood-coloured quartz. From Arabic 'aqiq.
#alárabe: Arab. From Andalusi Arabic (maintaining the definite article "al arabi".
#alarde/alardear: To boast/to show off. From Arabic ,show (Alaard العرض)
#alarido: Scream. Possibly from Arabic "Arir" "exaltation", or from the Muslim expression (and warcry) "la illah ila allah". [ [http://www.jstor.org/view/00978507/ap020037/02a00040/0 www.jstor.org] ]
#alarife: 1)Architect 2) Builder (in mining) 2) Astute or quick witted person (in Argentina and Uruguay). From Arabic "al 'arif": The expert.
#alarije (uva): A type of grape. From Arabic "al'aris".
#alaroz: Crossbar which divides a window or a door. From Arabic "al'arud": Obstacle placed to block entry.
#alaroza: Fiancée or newly wed wife. From Arabic Andalusi Arabic "al arusa".
#alatar: Drug, spice or perfume dealer. From Arabic "al attar".
#alatrón: Nitrate foam. From Arabic "nattrun".
#alazán/alazano: Reddish cinnamon coloured. (Used commonly to describe horses). From Arabic "al ashab".
#alazor: safflower. From Arabic "al usfur".
#albacara: Wall around a fortress (within which cattle were normally kept. From Arabic "bab al-baqqara" The cattle door. "baqara" (بقرة) means "cow" in Arabic.
#albacea: executor (of a will). From Andalusi Arabic "Sahb al Wassiya" (صاحب الوصية); "the owner of the will".
#albacora: Albacore. From Arabic "al-bakura" "premature" or "al-bakrah" "young camel."
#albadena: Type of tunic or silk dress. From Arabic "badan": Type of shirt which covers the torso.
#albahaca: Basil. From Arabic "habaqah".
#albahío: Pale yellowish colour (used commonly for cattle). From Arabic "bahi": Shining.
#albalá: Official document. From Arabic "al bara'ah".
#albaida: Anthyllis cystoides (Flowering plant). From Arabic "al baida": "The white one".
#albanega:1) Net used for hair. 2) Rabbit trap. From Arabic "al baniqa".
#albañal: Sewer. From Andalusi Arabic "al ballá": "Swallower".
#albañil: Construction worker. From Andalusi Arabic "al banni". Originally from classical Arabic "banna".
#albaquía: The remainder. From Arabic "al-baqi" (الباقي) of the same meaning.
#albarán: Invoice. From Arabic "al-bara'ah".
#albarazo: Vitiligo. From Andalusi Arabic "Al-Barash".
#albarda: Pack-saddle. From Arabic "al-barda'ah".
#albardán: Clown or fool. From Andalusi Arabic "albardán": "insolent". Originally from Classical Arabic "bardan": "Idiot (Cold headed)".
#albardín: Plant endemic to the Spanish steppes, similar in nature and use to Esparto. From Arabic "al-bardi": "papyrus".
#albaricoque: Apricot. From Arabic "al-barqouq" (البرقوق) "plum" or "early-ripe."
#albarrada: 1) Same meaning as alcarraza (Clay vase). 2) Stone Wall. From Arabic al-barradah: "the cooler".
#albarrán: 1) Farm boy 2) Shepherd 3)Person with no fixed residence. From Andalusi Arabic "al-barrani": "Outsider".
#albatoza: Small, covered boat. From Arabic "al-gattosha": grebe (Due to the Arabic custom of giving names of birds to vessels.
#albayalde: Cerrusite. From Arabic "al-bayad".
#albéitar: Vet. From Arabic "al-baytar".
#albenda: Decorated white linen. From Arabic "al-band".
#alberca: Water deposit for irrigation. From Arabic "al-birka".
#albérchigo: Apricot tree. From Andalusi Arabic "albershiq".
#albihar: Mayweed. From Arabic "Al-Bahar".
#albitana: 1)Fence to protect plants in gardening. 2) Prolongation of the keel or stern post of a ship. From Arabic "al-bitana".
#alboaire:
#albogue: Single-reed clarinet used in Spain. From Arabic "al-bûq" (البوق): The horn or the trumpet.
#alboheza
#albohol
#albollón
#albóndiga: meatball; ball. From Arabic "al-bunduqa" (البندقة) "the ball."
#albórbola
#alborga
#albornía
#albornoz: Bath-robe. From "al-burnos" (البرنس); "bathrobe".
#alboronía
#alboroque
#alboroto: Riot, joy. Comes from arabism "alborozo" (joy), from andalusí-arab "al-burúz" derived from Classical Arabic "al-burūz", "military parade previous to a campaign".
#alborozo
#albotín
#albricias
#albudeca
#albufera
#albur
#alcabala: A tax.
#alcabor
#alcabtea
#alcacel
#alcachofa: Artichoke. From "al-ẖarshoof" of the same meaning.
#alcaduz: Water pipe. From Arabic "Qâdûs" (قادوس) meaning "water-wheel scoop"
#alcafar
#alcahaz: Birdcage. From Arabic "qafaṣ" (قفص) of the same meaning
#alcahuete: Accomplice, a person who helps another in a love affair, specially an illicit one; gossipy person. Alcahuete comes from hispanic arabic "alqawwad" (the messenger), and this from Classical Arabic "qawwad". This "messenger" carried messages to a married woman's lover. By extension it became commonly known as any person who sets up a love affair, generally illicit.
#alcaicería
#alcaide:
#alcalde: Mayor. From Arabic "al-qadi" (the judge). "Qadi" comes from the verb "qada" (to judge).
#álcali: alkali. From Arabic "qalawi" (قلوي) of the same meaning.
#alcaller
#alcamiz
#alcamonías
#alcana
#alcaná
#alcancía: Clay money box, penny or piggy bank. From Andalusi Arabic "alkanzíyya", derived from classical Arabic "kanz": treasure.
#alcándara
#alcandía
#alcandora
#alcanería
#alcanfor
#alcántara/alcantarilla: drain; sewer. From Arabic "al-qantarah" meaning bridge.
#alcaparra: caper. From Andalusian Arabic "al-kaparra". Via Latin and Greek.
#alcaraván
#alcaravea
#alcarceña
#alcarraza
#alcarria:
#alcatanes
#alcatara (or alquitara)
#alcatifa
#alcatraz
#alcaucil, artichoke. From Spanish Arabic: alqabsíl [a] , that comes from mozarab diminutive kapićéḻa, and this from Spanish Latin: capĭtia, head. (Standard latin, "Caput-itis")
#alcavela
#alcazaba
#alcázar: citadel; palace. From Arabic "al-qasr" (القصر) "the citadel."
#alcazuz (or orozuz)
#alcoba: alcove. From Arabic "al-qubba" "the vault" or "the arch."
#alcohela
#alcohol: from Arabic "al-kuhul" (الكحول) fine powder of antimony sulfide used as eye makeup.
#alcoholar
#alcolla
#alcor
#alcora
#alcorcí
#alcorque
#alcorza
#alcotán
#alcotana
#alcrebite
#alcuacil
#alcubilla
#alcuña
#alcuza
#alcuzcuz
#alchub
#aldaba
#aldea/aldeano: Village/Villager.
#aldiza
#alefriz
#aleja
#alejija
#alema
#alerce
#aletría
#aleve/alevoso/alevosía
#aleya
#alfaba
#alfábega
#alfadía
#alfaguara: Geyser. From Arabic "fawwâra" (فوارة): spout, fountain, jet d'eau
#alfahar/alfaharería
#alfaida
#alfajeme
#alfajor: Sweet almond shortbread. From Spanish Arabic "fašúr", and this from Persian "afšor" (juice).
#alfalfa: alfalfa. From Arabic "al-fafaa" literally "the best kind of fodder"
#alfaneque (two meanings, a type of bird, from Arabic "al-fanak" and a tent from Berber "afarag")
#alfanje
#alfaque
#alfaqueque
#alfaquí
#alfaquín
#alfaraz
#alfarda (two meanings from "al-farda" and from "al-fardda")
#alfarero: potter
#alfardón
#alfareme
#alfarje
#alfarrazar
#alfaya
#alfayate
#alfazaque
#alféizar: Window ledge. From Arabic "al-Hayzar" "the one which takes possession".
#alfeñique
#alferecía
#alferez
#alferraz
#alferza
#alficoz
#alfil: bishop, in chess. From Arabic "al-feel" (الفيل) "the elephant."
#alfilel/alfiler
#alfinge
#alfitete
#alfiz
#alfolí
#alfombra (two meanings from "al-jumra" and "al-humra")
#alfóndega
#alforfón
#alforja: saddlebag. From Arabic "al-khurj" ( الخرج ) "saddle-bag," portmanteau
#alforre
#alforrocho
#alforza
#alfóstigo
#alfoz: Neighborhood, district. From Arabic "hauz" (حوز) meaning "Precinct" or "City limits"
#algaba
#algadara
#algaida
#algalaba
#algalia
#algalife
#algar
#algara
#algarada
#algarabía: incomprehensible talk; gabble; gibberish. From Arabic "al-'arabiya": "Arabic".
#algarivo
#algarazo: Short rainstorm. From Arabic "al 'ard": "cloud".
#algarrada
#algarrobo: carob. From Arabic "al-kharouba" "the carob."
#algavaro
#algazafán
#algazara
#algazul
#álgebra: algebra. From the name of al-Khwarizmi' book "Hisab al-jabr w’al-muqabala" "The Calculus of Subtraction and Equality"."
#algecireño
#algodón, "cotton", from Arabic "al-qúţun (قطن)", meaning "the cotton"
#algorfa
#algoritmo, algorithm, that comes from the name of Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, محمد بن موسى الخوارزمي, famous mathematician.
#algorza:
#alguacil, "Sherrif", from Arabic "al-wazîr (الوزير)," meaning "Minister"
#alguaquida: fuel for a fire. From Arabic "waqîda" (وقيدة) meaning "Fuel"
#alguaza: Window or door hinge.From Arabic "wasl" "juncture".

A (Alhadida to Azumbre)

#alhadida: Old Spanish term for Hadith.
#alhaite: jewel. From Arabic "al hayt" "string".
#alhaja: jewel. From Arabic "al-hagah" "the valuable thing."
#alhamar: Red matress or bed cover. From Arabic "hanbal": fur bedcover.
#alhamel: (Andalusian Spanish) Beast of burden or human porter. From Arabic "hammal".
#alhamí: Stone bench normally covered with azulejos. Refers to the Grenadine town of Alhama.
#alhandal: Colocynth. From Arabic "Alhanzal".
#alhanía: 1) Bedroom 2) cupboard 3) A type of small mattress. From Andalusi Arabic "al haniyya": Alcove.
#alhaquín: Weaver. From Arabic plural "Al Hayikeen". Weavers.
#alharaca: Violent reaction to a small issue. From Arabic "haraka".
#alhavara: Flour. From Arabic "huwara".
#alhelí: Aegean Wallflower. From Arabic "hiri".
#alheña: Spanish word for Henna and the plant from which it is derived.
#alholva:Fenugreek. From Arabic "hulbah"-
#alhorí: Same meaning and etymology as more commonly used term Alfolí.
#alhorre: 1) Feaces of newly born child. From Arabic "hur": feaces. 2)Skin rash common in babies. Commonly used in expression "yo te curaré el alhorre" when threatening to beat a child. From Arabic "Shakatu el hurr", skin infection.
#alhorría: (or ahorría): Expression used for when a slave is freed. From Arabic "al-hurriya": Freedom.
#alhucema: Lavender. From Arabic: "huzama".
#alhuceña
#alhurreca
#aliacán
#aliara
#alicante
#alicatar
#alicate
#alidada
#alifa
#alifafe (two meanings from "an-nafakh" and "al-lifah")
#alifara
#alijar
#alimara
#alioj
#alirón
#alizace
#alizar
#aljaba
#aljabibe
#aljama
#aljamía/aljamiado: Medieval Romance Spanish or Mozarabic written in Arabic script.
#aljaraz
#aljarfa
#aljébana
#aljerife
#aljez
#aljibe
#aljófar/aljofarar
#aljofifa
#aljor (or "aljez")
#aljuba
#aljuma
#añagaza
#almacabra
#almacén: deposit, dry goods store. From Arabic "al-majzan" of "makhzan" (المخزن) "the storage" or "the depot."
#almacería
#almáciga
#almadén
#almádena
#almadía
#almadraba: Tuna fishing in Andalusia and particularly in Cadiz province. From Andalusi Arabic "Al-madraba", "place where one beats something or fights", in reference to the fishing technique.
#almadraque
#almagazén
#almagra
#almahala
#almaizar
#almaja
#almajaneque
#almajar
#almajara
#almalafa
#almanaque: almanac. From Arabic "al-manakh" (المناخ) "the climate." Or possibly from Greek "almenichiakon" "calendar."
#almacebe
#almarada
#almarbate
#almarcha
#almarjo
#almarrá
#almarraja or almarraza
#almártaga (two meanings, from "al-marta'a" and "al martak")
#almástica
#almatroque
#almazara
#almazarrón
#almea (two meanings, from "almay'a" and "'alima")
#almejía
#almenara (two meanings, from "al-manara" and "al-minhara")
#almez
#almíbar
#almicantarat
#almijar
#almijara
#almijarra
#almimbar
#alminar
#almiraj/almiraje/almiral
#almirez
#almizate
#almizcle/almizque
#almocadén
#almocafre
#almocárabe
#almoceda
#almocrebe
#almocrí
#almodón
#almófar
#almofariz
#almofía
#almofrej/almofrez
#almogama
#almogávar
#almohada: Pillow, from Arabic "al-makhada" with the same meaning.
#almohade
#almoharrefa
#almohaza
#almojábana
#almojama (see mojama)
#almojarife
#almojaya
#almona
#almoneda
#almoraduj/almoradux
#almorávide:
#almorí
#almoronía: See alboronía.
#almotacén
#almotalafe
#almotazaf/almotazán
#almozala/almozalla
#almud
#almuédano
#almunia
#alpargata
#alpechín
#alquería: farmhouse. From Arabic "al-qaria" "the village."
#aloque
#aloquín
#alpargata
#alquequenje
#alquería
#alquermes
#alquerque (Two meanings from "al-qirq" and "al-qariq")
#alquez
#alquezar
#alquibla
#alquicel
#alquiler: Rent.
#alquimia
#alquinal
#alquitira
#alquitrán
#alrota
#altabaca
#altamía
#altramuz
#alubia: pea bean
#aludel
#aluquete/luquete
#alloza
#amán
#ámbar
#ámel
#amín
#amirí
#anacalo
#anacora
#anafaga
#anafalla/anafaya
#anafe
#anaquel
#andorra
#andrajo
#anea
#anejir
#anfión
#anorza
#anúteba
#añacal
#añacea/añacear
#añafea
#añafil
#añagaza
#añascar
#añazme
#añicos
#añil (ultimately from Sanskrit "nilah" "dark blue")
#arabí
#arancel
#arbellón/arbollón
#archí
#argadillo
#argamandel
#argamula
#argán
#argel
#argolla
#arguello/arguellarse
#arije
#arimez
#arjorán
#arnadí
#arrabá
#arrabal
#arracada
#arráez
#arrayán
#arrecife
#arrejaque/arrejacar
#arrelde
#arrequife
#arrequive
#arriate
#arricés
#arroba
#arrobda
#arrocabe
#arrope
#arroz: Rice.
#áscar/áscari
#asequi
#asesino: assassin. From Arabic "hashshshin" "someone who is addicted to hashish (marijuana)." Was originally use to refer to the followers of the Persian Hassan-i-Sabah (حسن صباح), the Hashshashin.
#atabaca
#atabal
#atabe
#atacar : to tie, to button up. From Andalusi Arabic "tákka", originally from classical Arabic "tikkah", ribbon used to fasten clothes. Not to be confused with "atacar" with the meaning of "to attack", of Italian origin.
#atacir
#atafarra/ataharre
#atafea
#atahona
#atahorma
#ataifor
#ataire
#atalaya
#atalvina
#atambor
#atanor
#atanquía
#ataracea
#atarazana
#atarfe
#atarjea
#atarraga
#atarraya
#ataúd: Coffin.
#ataujía
#ataurique
#atifle
#atijara
#atíncar
#atoba
#atocha
#atracae
#atoque
#atríaca/atriaca
#atún: Tuna.
#atutía
#auge: Surge/rise.
#aulaga
#avería
#ayatolá
#azabache
#azabara
#azacán
#azacaya
#azache
#azafate/azafata
#azafrán: saffron. From Arabic "za'firan" of the same meaning. Perhaps from "safra" "yellow."
#azahar: White flower, especially from the orange tree. From Spanish Arabic "azzahár", and this from Classic Arabic "zahr", flowers
#azalá
#azamboa
#azándar
#azaque
#azaquefa: Covered portico or patio. From Andalusi Arabic "assaqifa", portico.
#azar: hazard; luck; chance; random. From Arabic "al-zahr" "the dice."
#azarbe
#azarcón
#azarja
#azarnefe
#azarote
#azófar
#azofra/azofrar
#azogue (two meanings: from "az-za'uq" and from "as-suq")
#azolvar
#azor
#azorafa
#azote: Smacking, beating, scourge. From Arabic "Sawt".
#azotea: Flat roof or terrace. From Andalusi Arabic "assutáyha", diminutive of "sath", terrace in classical Arabic.
#azoya
#azúcar: sugar. From Arabic (سكر) "sukkar" of the same meaning.
#azucarí
#azucena
#azuche
#azud
#azufaifa/azufaifo
#azul: Blue. Derived from Arabic "Lazaward".
#azulaque (or zulaque)
#azulejo
#azúmbar
#azumbre: Measurement for liquids equivalent to around two litres. From Del Andalusi Arabic "aTTúmn", and this from classical Arabic: "Tum [u] n", "an eighth".

B

#babismo: Babism. From Arabic "باب" "door."
#babucha: Slippers. From Arabic "Baboush".
#badal: Cut of meat from the back and ribs of cattle, close to the neck. From Andalusi Arabic "bad'a" "Calf muscle" derived from classical Arabic "bad'ah" "peice".
#badán: Trunk of an animal. From Arabic "badan".
#badana: 1) Sheepskin, 2) hat lining 3) Lazy person. From Arabic "bitana", "lining".
#badea: 1) Watermelon or Melon of bad quality. 2) Insipid cucumber 3) Weak person 4) Unimportant thing. From Arabic "battiha": "bad melon".
#badén: Dip in land, road, sidewalk or ford. From Arabic "batin": Sunken (land).
#bagarino: Free or hired sailor, as opposed to a press-ganged or enslaven one. Same origin as baharí.
#bagre: a freshwater fish that has no scales and has a chin. From Arabic "baghir" or "baghar".
#baharí: Bird of prey. From Arabic "bahri": "from the sea".
#baja: pasha, Turkish officer or governor of high rank. From Arabic "basha" ultimately from Turkish "pasha" of the same meaning.
#baladí: 1) Unimportant thing or matter. 2) Something of the land our country. From Arabic "baladiy" "From the country".
#balaj/balaje: Purple ruby. From Arabic "Balahshi": From Balahshan (region in central Asia where these stones are found).
#balate
#balda (and baldío)
#baldar
#balde: 1)Free. 2) without cause or 3) in vain. from Arabic "batil" "false" or "useless."
#bancal
#baño
#baraka
#barbacana
#barcino
#bardaje
#bardoma/bardomera
#barragán
#barrio-area or district
#bata (either from Arabic "batt" of French ouate)
#batán
#batea
#baurac
#bayal
#baza (either Arabic or Italian origin)
#bazar-bazaar
#belez
#bellota: acorn, the fruit or seed of the oak tree. From Arabic "balluta" of the same meaning.
#ben
#benimerín
#benjui
#berberí
#berberís
#bereber
#berenjena/berenjenal
#bezaar/bezoar
#biznaga
#bocací
#bodoque/bodocal
#bófeta
#bórax
#borní
#boronía
#botor
#bujía
#bulbul
#burche
#buz
#buzaque

C

#cabila: tribe of Berbers or Bedouins. From Arabic "qabila" "tribe."
#cachera
#cadí
#cadira
#café: coffee. From "qahwa" of the same meaning.
#cáfila
#cafiz (or cahiz)
#cafre
#caftán
#cáid (same origin as alcaide)
#caimacán
#cala
#calabaza: Pumpkin or squash. From Arabic "qerabat", plural of "qerbah", meaning wineskin.
#calafate/calafatear
#calahorra
#calí (same root as álcali)
#cálibo/calibre
#cambuj
#camocán
#canana-cartridge belt
#cáncana/cancanilla
#cáncano
#cande (in azúcar cande)
#canfor
#caraba
#cárabe
#cárabo: owl; dog. Taken from "qaraab" and "kalb" "dog," respectively.
#caracoa
#caramida
#caramuzal
#caravana
#caravasar
#carcajada/carcajear
#carcax
#carmen/carme: From Spanish Arabic "kárm", and this from Classic Arabic "karm", vine.
#carmesí: crimson. From "quirmizi"
#carmín
#carraca
#carrafa
#cártama/cártamo
#catán
#catifa
#cazurro
#cebiche
#cebtí
#ceca
#cedoaria
#cegatero
#cegrí
#ceje
#celemí/celemín/celeminero
#cenacho
#cendolilla
#cenefa
#ceneque
#cení
#cenia
#cenit
#cequí
#cerbatana
#cero: zero. From "sifr" of the same meaning.
#cetís
#ceutí
#chafariz
#chafarote
#chaleco
#charrán
#chifla
#chiísmo
#chilaba (from Moroccan Arabic)
#chiquero
#chirivía
#chisme
#chivo
#choz
#chupa
#chuzo
#cianí
#cibica
#cica
#cicalar
#cicatear
#cicatero (cicatero has a different root to cicatear)
#ciclán
#ciclar
#ciclatón
#cid
#cifaque
#cifra/cifrar
#címbara
#cimboga
#cimitarra
#circón
#citara
#civeta/civeto
#coba/cobista
#cofa
#coima
#coime
#colcótar
#cora
#Corán
#corbacho
#corma
#cotonía
#cubeba
#cúrcuma
#curdo
#cuscuta

D,E

#dado: die (cube or stamp). From Classical Arabic "a'dad" "numbers."
#daga - dagger
#dahír
#daifa
#dante
#darga (or adarga)-shield
#dársena-dock/basin
#daza
#derviche
#descafilar
#destartalado
#dey
#dínar
#dirham
#diván-divan/couch
#droga-drug
#druso
#dula/dular
#edrisí
#ejarbe
#elche
#elemí
#embelecar/embeleco
#emir (or amir)
#encaramar
#enchufar/enchufe: To plug in/plug; To connect, to offer a job or a post through personal connections. From Andalusi Arabic "Juf" derived from Classical Arabic "Jawf": stomach; internal cavity.
#engarzar-to set/thread
#enjalma
#enjarje
#enjeco
#escabeche: Pickle or marinade. From Arabic "as-sukbaj". Originally from Persian "Sekba".
#escafilar (see descafilar)
#escaque/escaquear
#espinaca-spinach
#exarico

F,G

#faca
#falagar
#falca
#falleba
#faltriquera-pocket
#falúa/faluca
#fanega/hanega
#fanfarrón
#faranga (or haragán)
#farda
#fardacho
#farfán
#fárfara
#farnaca
#farota
#farruco
#felús
#fetua
#fez
#fideo
#filelí
#foceifiza
#fondolí
#fondac/fonda
#foz
#fulano : To refer to "any one" without naming, X of people. Arabic: Fulan.
#fustal
#fustete
#gabán
#gabela
#gacel/gacela
#gafetí
#galacho
#galanga
#galbana
#gálibo
#galima
#gandula/gandula
#garama
#garbino
#gardacho
#gárgol
#garrafa
#garrama
#garroba
#gazpacho
#gilí
#gomer
#granadí
#grisgrís
#guadamací
#guájara
#guájete
#guala
#guarismo
#guifa
#guilla
#gumía
#gurapas

H, I

#habiz
#habús
#hachís
#hacino
#hadruba
#hafiz
#hálara
#hálara
#hamudí
#haragán
#harambel
#harbar
#harén
#harma
#harón
#Hasaní
#hasta: Until. From Arabic "hatta" (same meaning). Influenced by Latin phrase 'ad ista'The [http://buscon.rae.es/draeI/SrvltConsulta?TIPO_BUS=3&LEMA=hasta Diccionario de la Lengua Española] of the Real Academia Española]
#hataca
#hazaña
#he: Adverb used in following manner: "he aquí/ahí/allí": Here it is/there it is. From Arabic "haa".
#hégira
#hobacho/hobacha
#holgazán: Lazy person. From Arabic "Kaslan". Influenced by "Holgar".
#holgar
#hoque/oque
#horro/horra
#imam
#imela
#islam

J, K

#jabalí : Wild Boar. From Arabic "jebeli": From the mountains. Perhaps originally from "Khanzeer Jebelí": Mountain Pig.
#jabalón
#jabeca
#jabeque
#jabí : A type of apple and type of grape. From Andalusi Arabic "sha‘bí", a type of apple.
#jácara
#jácena
#jacerino
#jadraque
#jaez
#jaguarzo
#jaharí
#jaharral
#jaharrar
#jaima
#jaique
#jalear
#jalma (or enjalma)
#jaloque
#jametería
#jámila
#japuta
#jaque
#jaqueca: Migraine. From Arabic "Shaqiqa", with same meaning.
#jáquima
#jara
#jarabe
#jaraíz
#jarcha
#jareta
#jaricar
#jarifo/jarifa
#jarquía
#jarra: Pitcher or other pot with handle(s). From "ǧarrah", same as english "jar".
#jatib
#jazarino/jazarina
#jazmín
#jebe
#jeliz
#jemesía
#jeque
#jerife: sheriff. From "shereef" of the same meaning.
#jeta: Snout, face, cheek (in both literal and figurative sense). From Arabic "khatm": "snout".
#jifa
#jinete
#jirafa: giraffe. From "ziraffa" of the same meaning.
#jirel
#jofaina: a wide and shallow basin for domestic use. From "ǧufaynah".
#jofor
#jorfe
#joroba
#jorro
#juba/aljuba/jubón
#jurdía
#kermes

L,M

#laca: resinous substance tapped from the Lacquer Tree. From Arabic "lak", taken from Persian "lak", ultimately from Sanskrit "laksha" literally meaning "one hundred thousand" referring to the large number of insects that gather and sap out all the resin from the trees.
#lacre
#lapislázuli: lapis lazuli, a deep blue mineral. From Arabic lazaward (لازورد) from Persian lagvard or lazward, ultimately from Sanskrit "rajavarta" literally meaning "ringlet of the king."
#latón: brass. From Arabic "latun" from Turkish "altin" "gold."
#laúd: lute. From Arabic "al 'ud" (العود) "the lute."
#lebeche: Southeasterly wind on the Mediterranean coast of Spain. From Andalusi Arabic "Labash".
#lebení: a Moorish beverage prepared from soured milk. From Arabic "labani" (لباني) "dairy."
#leila: from Arabic "layla" (ليلة) "night."
#lelilí: Shouts and noise made by moors when going into combat or when celebrating parties. From "la illaha ila allah"( لا إله إلا الله): There is no god but Allah; "Ya leilí" (ياليلي) : Night of mine; "ya 'ayouni" (يا عيوني) : My eyes.
#lima: lime. From Arabic "limah" of the same meaning.
#limón: lemon. From "laymoon" (ليمون) , derived from the Chinese word "limung".
#loco: crazy. From Arabic "lawqa" "fool."
#macabro
#macsura
#madraza
#magacén
#magarza/magarzuela
#maglaca
#maharon/maharona
#maharrana/marrana/marrano
#mahozmedín
#maimón
#majareta
#majzén
#mamarracho
#mameluco
#mamola
#mandeísmo
#mandil
#maquila
#marabú
#maravedí
#marcasita
#marchamo
#márfega
#marfil
#marfuz/a
#margomar
#marjal
#marlota
#marojo
#maroma
#marrano pig; cf. Arabic "muharram" "forbidden".
#marras
#márraga
#masamuda: (adj) Individual from the Berber "Masmuda" tribe, from which originate the Almohades, a movement which ruled Spain and North Africa in the XII century. From Arabic: "Masamuda".
#matafalúa
#mártaga
#máscara
#matarife
#mate
#matraca
#matula
#mauraca
#mazapán
#mazarí
#mazarrón
#mazmodina
#mazmorra: Dungeon. From Arabic "matmura" "silo".
#mazorca: corn cob; roll of wool or cotton. From Andalusi Arabic: "Masurqa", derived from classical Arabic "Masura" (ماسورة) : a tube used as a bobbin (sewing) .
#meca: Place which is attractive because of a particular activity. From Arabic "Mekkah"(مكة).
#mechinal
#mejala
#mejunje
#mendrugo
#mengano/mengana: Expression of similar meaning as fulano or zutano, used always after the former but after the latter, meaning "whoever". From Arabic "man kan" meaning "whoever".
#mequetrefe: Nosy or useless person. From Andalusi Arabi "qatras" meaning person of boastful demeanor.
#mercal
#metical
#mezquino
#mía: A military term, formerly designating a regular native unit composed of 100 men in the Spanish protectorate of northern Morocco; by analogy, any colonial army. From Arabic "Mi'ah": one hundred(مئة).
#mihrab:
#miramamolín
#moaxaja
#mogataz
#mogate
#moharra
#moharracho
#mohatra
#mohedal
#mohino
#mojama (originally almojama): Delicacy of phoenician origin from the region of Cadiz. It consists of filleted salt-cured tuna. From the Arabic "al mushama": "momified or waxed".
#mojí
#momia
#mona
#monfí
#morabito
#moraga
#morapio
#mozárabe
#mudéjar
#muftí
#mujalata
#mulato: Likely from Muwallad, as with the Muladi. Walad (ولد ) means, "descendant, offspring, scion; child; son; boy; young animal, young one". According to DRAE, from "mulo" (mule), in the sense of "hybrid".
#mulquía
#muslim/muslime: (Adjective) Muslim. From Arabic "Muslim" (مسلم). Fact|looks a lot like a mistake|date=August 2008

N, O,P, Q

#nabí: Prophet among arabs. From Arabic "nabiy".
#nacar: Innermost of the three layers of a seashell. From Catalan "nacre", derived from Andalusi Arabic "naqra", small drum.
#nácara: Type of small metallic drum used historically by the Spanish cavalry. Same etymology as nacar.
#nadir: The point on the celestial sphere, opposite the zenith directly below the observer. From "nadheer".
#nádir: In Morocco, administrator of a religious foundation.
#nagüela: Small hut for human habitation. From Andalusi Arabic "nawalla": hut.
#naife: High quality diamond. From Andalusi Arabic "nayif". Originally from classical Arabic "na'if": excellent.
#naipe: Playing card. From Catalan "naíp". Originally from Arabic "ma'ib".
#naranja: from Arabic "nāranja", fr Persian "nārang", fr Sanskrit "nāranga", fr a Dravidian language akin to Tamil "naŗu" "fragrant".
#narguile
#natrón
#nazarí: Related to the Nasrid kingdom or dynasty of Granada.
#nenúfar: Water-lily. From Arabic "naylufar".
#nesga
#noria: Watermill, Ferris wheel. From Arabic "na'urah".
#nuca
#ojalá: "I hope"; "I wish that...". From "law šaʾ allāh" "God willing."
#¡olé! (or ole): The most famous expression of approval, support or encouragement, comes from "wa-Allah" و الله , by Allah!
#omeya: adj. Related to the Ummayyad.
#orozuz
#ox
#papagayo
#quermes
#quilate/quirate
#quilma
#quina
#quintal

R,S,T

#rabadán
#rabal
#rabazuz
#rabel
#rábida
#rafal
#rafe
#ragua
#rahez
#ramadán
#rambla
#rauda
#rauta
#real: Military encampment; plot where a fair is organized; (in Murcia region) small plot or garden. From Arabic "rahl": camping.
#rebato
#rebite
#recamar
#recua
#redoma
#rehala
#rehalí
#rehén: Hostage or captive. From Arabic "رهينة", captive, ransom.
#rejalgar: realgar. From Andalusi Arabic "reheg al-ghar": "powder of the cave"
#requive
#resma
#retama
#rincón: Corner. From Andalusi Arabic "rukan", derived from classicar Arabic "Rukn".
#robda
#robo (or arroba)
#roda
#romí/rumí
#ronzal
#roque
#sajelar
#salema
#sandía: Watermelon. From Arabic "Sindiya" "from Sindh (province in India)".
#sarasa: Homosexual or effeminate man. From "Zaraza".
#sarraceno
#sebestén
#secácul
#serafín
#siroco
#sofí
#sófora
#soldán
#soltaní
#sufí
#sura
#tabal (or atabal)
#tabaque
#tabefe
#tabica
#tabique
#taca
#tafurea
#tagarino/tagarina
#tagarnina
#taha
#tahalí
#tahona
#taifa: Refers to an independent Muslim-ruled principality, an emirate or petty kingdom, of which a number formed in the Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031. Used in numerous expressions. Can also mean 1) a faction 2) a group of people of ill judgement. 3) "un reino de Taifas" (a kingdom of Taifas) can also refer to a chaotic or disorderly state of affairs. From classical Arabic "Ta'ifah": faction.
#tajea
#talco
#talega
#talvina
#támara
#tamarindo
#tambor
#tara
#taracea
#taraje
#tarasí
#tarbea
#tarea
#tareco
#tarida
#tarifa
#tarima
#tarquín
#tarraya
#taza: cup. From "Tasa".
#tértil
#tíbar
#tochibí
#tomín
#toronja
#toronjil
#trafalmejas
#truchimán/na
#trujamán/na
#tuera
#tumbaga
#Tunecí
#turbit
#turquí (in Azul Turquí)
#tutía (or atutía)

V,X,Y,Z

#vacarí: from Arabic "baqari"(بقري) "bovine."
#velmez: from Arabic "malbas"(ملبس) "clothing."
#visir: vizier. From Arabic "wazir" (وزير) "minister."
#yébel: from Arabic "jabal"; "mountain"
#zabalmedina: in the Middle Ages, judge with civil and criminal jurisdiction in a city. From Arabic "Sahib al Medina" "Chief of the City."
#zabarcera: women who sells fruits and other food. Same origin as abacero
#zabazala: imam who leads Islamic prayer. From Arabic " SaHb aS-Salah" "Leader of prayer."
#zabazoque: same meaning as almotacén. From Arabic "SáHb as súq" "Leader of the Market."
#zábila: aloe vera (used mainly in Latin America) From Andalusi Arabic "sabíra", originally from classical Arabic "Sibar".
#zabra: type of vessel used in the Bay of Biscay in the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Modern Age. From Arabic "zauraq".
#zacatín: in some villages, a square where clothes are sold. From "saqqatin", plural of "saqqat": seller of clothes.
#zafar: a number of meanings in Spain and Latin American countries: To free, to untie, to ignore, to unknit among others. From Arabic "azaHa": to take away.
#zafarí: "Granada zafarí": a type of pomegranate. "Higo zafarí": a type of fig. From Arabic "Safr".
#zafariche: Structure used for placing clay urns. Same etymology as jaraíz (see above).
#zafio: Uncouth. From Andalusi Arabic "Fellah safi": "Mere peasant".
#zafrán: See Azafran.
#zaga: Backside of something. Cargo on the back of a truck. From Arabic "Saqah": Rear, rearguard.
#zagal: boy. From Andalusian Arabic "zaḡál", traditional Arabic "zuḡlūl". Same meaning.
#zagaya (or azagaya)
#zagua
#zaguán: hall. From Andalusian Arabic "istawán", traditional Arabic "usṭuwān"("ah").
#zagüía
#zaharrón
#zahén
#zahón
#zahora
#zahorí
#zaida
#zaino
#zala
#zalamelé
#zalea/zalear
#zalema/zalama
#zalmedina: Same meaning and origin as zabalmedina.
#zalona
#zamacuco
#zambra: Traditional festivity of the Moriscos in Spain which is maintained by the Gypsy community of Sacromonte, Granada. From Andalusi Arabic "Zamra", originally from classical Arabic "Zamr".
#zanahoria: carrot, presumably from Andalusi Arabic. The only Arabic dialect with a cognate form is Tunisian with "sfinaria".
#zaque: Leather recipient for wine or extracting water from a well. Drunken person. From Andalusi Arabic zaqq. Originally from classical Arabic ziqq.
#zaquizamí
#zaragüelles
#zaranda/zarandillo/zarandaja
#Zaratán: Breast Cancer. From the Arabic "Saratan": crab.
#zarazán:
#zarco
#zarracatín
#zarzahán
#zatara
#zéjel
#zoco (or azogue): market. From Arabic "souk" of the same meaning.
#zofra
#zorzal: Thrush, intelligent person. From Andalusi Arabic "Zurzal", originally from classical Arabic "zurzur".
#zubia: Place where a large amount of water flows. From Arabic "Zubya".
#zulaque
#zulla
#zumaque: sumac. From Arabic "simaq" of the same meaning.
#zumo: fruit juice. From Arabic "zum".
#zuna
#zurriaga

Other Influences

#The suffix í. Arabic has a very common type of adjective, known as the nisbi or relationship adjective, which is formed by adding the suffix -ī (masc.) o ية -iyya (fem.) to a noun. This has given Spanish the suffix -í (both masc. and fem.), creating adjectives from nouns which indicate relationship or belonging. Examples are Marbellí, Ceutí, Maghrebí, Zaragocí, Andalusí or Alfonsí.
#Expressions. A number of expressions such as "¡"Ole"!" (sometimes spelled "olé" ), from "wa'llah", or "ojalá", from "inch'allah", have been borrowed directly from Arabic. Furthermore, many expressions in Spanish might have been translated or adapted from their Arabic equivalent. Examples would be "si Dios quiere", "que Dios guarde" or "bendito sea Dios". The generally accepted etymology of "hidalgo" 'nobleman' — Old Spanish "fijo d'algo" — is composed of Latin roots (cf. Modern Spanish "hijo" 'son' + "algo" 'something'), but it might be a calque of an Arabic phrase using "ibn" 'son' to mean simply 'person characterized by (the idea expressed by the following noun)'. In Old Spanish, "algo" could mean 'wealth, property'. The formal pronoun "usted" may also have Arabic influence; while it is derived from "Vuestra merced", it happens to be pronounced the same way as the Arabic word "ustādh" 'professor'/'doctor'.
#Phonetics: Although the phonetic influence of Arabic on standard peninsular Spanish is considered to be negligible, Arabic influence is thought to have influenced the phonetics of the Andalusian dialect of Spanish (and indirectly certain Latin American dialects). For example, the use of the fricative H, or the substitution of the sh for the ch sound is considered to be a result of contact with Arabic.

Toponyms (place names) in Iberia of Arabic origin

There are hundreds if not thousands of place names derived from Arabic in the Iberian peninsula including provinces and regions, cities, towns, villages and even neighborhoods and streets. They also include geographical features such as mountains, mountain ranges, valleys and rivers. Toponyms derived from Arabic are common in all of Spain (including much of the North of the country) except for those regions which never came under Muslim rule or where it was particularly short-lived. These regions include Galicia and the Northern coast (Asturias, Cantabria and the Basque country) as well as most of Catalonia. Regions where place names of Arabic origin are particularly common are the Eastern Coast (Valencia and Murcia) and the region of Andalusia. In Portugal, the frequency of Arabic toponyms increases as one travels south in the country.

Those toponyms which maintained their pre-Islamic name during the Muslim period were generally Arabized, and the mark of either the old Arabic pronunciation or the popular pronunciation from which it derived is noticeable in their modern names: e.g. Hispalis - Ishbiliya - Sevilla.

Major towns, cities and regions

*Albarracín City of Aragón. Derived from "Al Banū Razin", name of the Berber governor of the town.
*Axarquía Eastern region of Málaga province, From Arabic "Ash-sharquía"(الشرقية): The eastern/oriental (region).
*Andalucía Most populated and 2nd largest autonomous community in Spain. Derived from الأندلس, Al Andalus, the Arabic name for Muslim Iberia.
*Albacete city and province of Castilla-La Mancha. Derived from Arabic Al Basit (البسيط) "(the plain)".
*Algarve Region of southern Portugal. From Arabic al gharb(الغرب), "the west".
*Algeciras City and port in Cadiz province. Derived from "Al Jazeera Al Khadra"(الجزيرة الخضراء) meaning the "green island".
*Almería City and province of Andalucía. From Al Meraya, the watchtower.
*Alpujarras (originally Alpuxarras) Region extending South of Granada into Almería. From Arabic "Al-Busherat": The grasslands.
*Badajoz City and province of Extremadura. Badajoz was called Pax Augusta by the romans and most likely the current name is derived from an Arabic corruption of the original Latin name.
*Calatayud City of Aragón. Derived from "Qal'at Ayyūb" (Arabic قلعة أيوب) meaning "(Ayyūb)Job´s Fortress".
*Guadalajara City and province of Castilla la Mancha. From "Wādī al-IPA|Ḥijārah" (Arabic وادي الحجارة), "River or canyon of Stones".
*Jaén City and province of Andalucía From Arabic "Jayyan", crossroads of caravans.
*Lisboa (Lisbon). Capital of Portugal. Derived from Arabic name: al-'Ishbūnah in Arabic الأشبونة (from Latin "Olisippo", ultimately Celtic)
*Madrid Capital of Spain. Derived from original Arabic name: "al-MagrīT", المجريط: "Source of water", which pertains to Rio Manzanares that flows through it.
*La Mancha Wide arid steppes covering much of Toledo, Ciudad Real, Cuenca and Albacete provinces. Derived from original Arabic name: "la'a Ma-anxa" : "No water".
*Medina Sidonia: Town and municipality in Cadiz province, from "madina", city.
*Tarifa town in southern Spain. Originally "Jazeera Tarif"(جزيرة طريف): the island of Tarif. Derived form the first name of the Berber conqueror Tarif ibn Malik.
*La Sagra, an arid region between Toledo and Madrid. Name derived from arabic Sahra صحراء "desert".

Geographical features

*Guadiana river. Meaning "Anna river".
*Guadalquivir river. Derived from Arabic: al-wādĩ al-kabir الوادي الكبير, "the big river".
*Javalambre. Mountain in southern Aragon, "Jabal 'Amr", meaning "Mountain of 'Amr".
*Mulhacén. Highest mountain in peninsular Spain. Named after 15th century Arabian Sultan of Granada Ali Muley Hacén Abu al-Hasan.
*Pico Almanzor. Mountain in the Gredos Mountains of Central Spain. Named after "Almanzor" Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir, defacto ruler of Al Andalus in late 10th - early 11th centuries.
*Cape Trafalgar. From Andalusi Arabic "Taraf-al-ghar".

References

uggestions for further research

In the English language, search the online catalogs of United States university libraries using the Library of Congress (LC) subject heading, "Spanish language foreign elements".

When searching Spanish language Web sites, use the subject term, "arabismos".

elected reference works and other academic literature

These works have not necessarily been consulted in the preparation of this article.

*Abu-Haidar, J. A. 1985. Review of Felipe Maíllo Salgado, Los arabismos del castellano en la baja edad media (consideraciones históricas y filológicas). "Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies", 48(2): 353-354. University of London. Stable URL: [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0041-977X%281985%2948%3A2%3C353%3ALADCEL%3E2.0.CO%3B2-X http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0041-977X%281985%2948%3A2%3C353%3ALADCEL%3E2.0.CO%3B2-X]

*Cabo Pan, José Luis. [http://www.sgci.mec.es/be/media/pdfs/articulos/Mosaico083.pdf El legado del arabe] . "Mosaico" 8:7-10. Revista para la Promoción y Apoyo a la Enseñanza del Español. Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia del Reino de España, Consejería de Educación y Ciencia en Bélgica, Países Bajos y Luxemburgo. [Article with convenient, short word lists, grouped by theme. In PDF. Refer to [http://www.sgci.mec.es/be/publicaciones/mosaico/articulos.htm "Mosaico"'s portal page.] ]

*Corriente, Federico. 2003. Diccionario de arabismos y voces afines en iberorromance. (2nd expanded ed.; 1st ed. 1999) Madrid: Gredos. 607 p.

*Real Academia Española (Royal Spanish Academy). [http://www.rae.es Diccionario de la lengua española (DRAE)] , online.

*Maíllo Salgado, Felipe. 1991/1998. Los arabismos del castellano en la Baja Edad Media : consideraciones históricas y filológicas. Salamanca: Universidad de Salamanca. 554 p. [2nd ed., corrected and enlarged; 1st ed. 1983]

*Ibid. 1996. Vocabulario de historia árabe e islámica. Madrid: Akal. 330 p.

*Pezzi, Elena. 1995. Arabismos: estudios etimológicos. Almería: Universidad de Almería. 160 p.

*Sola-Solé, Josep María. 1983. Sobre árabes, judíos y marranos y su impacto en la lengua y literatura españolas. Barcelona: Puvill. 279 p.

*Toro Lillo, Elena. La invasión árabe. Los árabes y el elemento árabe en español. In the [http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/servlet/SirveObras/scclng/01350531966682286190680/p0000001.htm Cervantes Virtual Library] . Includes a brief list of historical sound changes. Useful bibliography.

elected resource pages of universities and research institutes

* [http://www.ieiop.com/publicaciones/buscador.php Instituto de Estudios Islámicos y del Oriente Próximo. Search results consisting of Institute publications whose entries contain the word "arabismos"]
* [http://adrastea.ugr.es/search*spi/dArabismos/darabismos/-3%2C-1%2C0%2CB/exact&FF=darabismos&1%2C14%2C Universidad de Granada. Holdings under the subject "arabismos"]

ee also

* Influence of Arabic on other languages
* List of Arabic loanwords in English
* List of French words of Arabic origin
* List of Portuguese words of Arabic origin

External links

* [http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/servlet/SirveObras/scclng/01350531966682286190680/p0000001.htm La invasión árabe. Los árabes y el elemento árabe en español] , by Elena Toro Lillo; Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes
* [http://www2.ignatius.edu/faculty/turner/arabicspanish.htm Arabic Influences in Various Languages]


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