- United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit
United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit
Location John Joseph Moakley United States Courthouse
Appeals from Established June 16, 1891 Chief judge Sandra Lynch Active judges 6 Senior judges 3 & Retired Associate Justice of the Supreme Court David Souter Official site
- District of Maine
- District of Massachusetts
- District of New Hampshire
- District of Puerto Rico
- District of Rhode Island
The court is based at the John Joseph Moakley Federal Courthouse in Boston, Massachusetts. Most sittings are held in Boston, but the court sits for two weeks each year in Old San Juan, Puerto Rico and occasionally at other locations within the circuit.
With six active and three senior judges, the First Circuit is the smallest of the thirteen United States courts of appeals. Since retiring as an active Justice of the United States Supreme Court, Associate Justice David Souter has sat on the First Circuit by designation in several cases.
Current composition of the court
# Judge Duty station Born Appointed Chief Appointed by 27 Sandra Lynch Boston, MA 1946 1995 2008– Clinton 21 Juan R. Torruella San Juan, PR 1933 1984 1994–2001 Reagan 25 Michael Boudin Boston, MA 1939 1992 2001–2008 G.H.W. Bush 28 Kermit Lipez Portland, ME 1941 1998 —— Clinton 29 Jeffrey R. Howard Concord, NH 1955 2002 —— G.W. Bush 30 O. Rogeriee Thompson Providence, RI 1951 2010 —— Obama
Judge Kermit Lipez has announced that he will assume senior status on Dec 31, 2011 or when his successor is confirmed.
# Judge Duty station Born Active service Chief Senior
Appointed by 18 Levin H. Campbell (inactive) 1927 1972–1992 1983–1990 1992 Nixon 22 Bruce M. Selya Providence, RI 1934 1986–2006 —— 2006 Reagan 23 Conrad K. Cyr (inactive) 1931 1989–1997 —— 1997 G.H.W. Bush 26 Norman H. Stahl Boston, MA 1931 1992-2001 —— 2001 G.H.W. Bush
List of former judges
Twenty-one judges have served on the 1st Circuit Court of Appeals, but no longer do:
# Judge State Born/Died Active Chief Senior Appointed by Reason for
1 LeBaron B. Colt RI 1846–1924 1891–1913 —— —— Arthur resignation 2 William LeBaron Putnam ME 1835–1918 1892–1917 —— —— B. Harrison retirement 3 Francis Cabot Lowell MA 1855–1911 1905–1911 —— —— T. Roosevelt death 4 William Schofield MA 1857–1912 1911–1912 —— —— Taft death 5 Frederic Dodge MA 1847–1927 1912–1918 —— —— Taft resignation 6 George Hutchins Bingham NH 1864–1949 1913–1939 —— 1939–1949 Wilson death 7 Charles Fletcher Johnson ME 1859–1930 1917–1929 —— 1929–1930 Wilson death 8 George Weston Anderson MA 1861–1938 1918–1931 —— 1931–1938 Wilson death 9 Scott Wilson ME 1870–1942 1929–1940 —— 1940–1942 Hoover death 10 James Madison Morton, Jr. MA 1869–1940 1932–1939 —— 1939–1940 Hoover death 11 Calvert Magruder MA 1893–1968 1939–1959 1948–1959 1959–1968 F. Roosevelt death 12 John Christopher Mahoney RI 1882–1952 1940–1950 —— 1950–1952 F. Roosevelt death 13 Peter Woodbury NH 1899–1970 1941–1964 1959–1964 1964–1970 F. Roosevelt death 14 John Patrick Hartigan RI 1887–1968 1950–1965 —— 1965–1968 Truman death 15 Bailey Aldrich MA 1907–2002 1959–1972 1965–1972 1972–2002 Eisenhower death 16 Edward Matthew McEntee RI 1906–1981 1965–1976 —— 1976–1981 L. Johnson death 17 Frank M. Coffin ME 1919–2009 1965–1989 1972–1983 1989–2009 L. Johnson death 19 Hugh Henry Bownes NH 1920–2003 1977–1990 —— 1990–2003 Carter death 20 Stephen Breyer MA 1938– 1980–1994 1990–1994 —— Carter elevation to Supreme Court 24 David Souter NH 1939– 1990 —— —— G.H.W. Bush elevation to Supreme Court
Chief Judges Magruder 1948–1959 Woodbury 1959–1964 Aldrich 1965–1972 Coffin 1972–1983 Campbell 1983–1990 Breyer 1990–1994 Torruella 1994–2001 Boudin 2001–2008 Lynch
Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their circuits, and preside over any panel on which they serve unless the circuit justice (i.e., the Supreme Court justice responsible for the circuit) is also on the panel. Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is specifically nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the circuit judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, and have not previously served as chief judge. A vacancy is filled by the judge highest in seniority among the group of qualified judges. The chief judge serves for a term of seven years or until age 70, whichever occurs first. The age restrictions are waived if no members of the court would otherwise be qualified for the position.
When the office was created in 1948, the chief judge was the longest-serving judge who had not elected to retire on what has since 1958 been known as senior status or declined to serve as chief judge. After August 6, 1959, judges could not become chief after turning 70 years old. The current rules have been in operation since October 1, 1982.
Succession of seats
The court has six seats for active judges, numbered in the order in which they were filled. Judges who retire into senior status remain on the bench but leave their seat vacant. That seat is filled by the next circuit judge appointed by the president.
Seat 1 Established on December 10, 1869 by the Judiciary Act of 1869 as a circuit judgeship for the First Circuit Reassigned on June 16, 1891 to the United States Circuit Court of Appeals for the First Circuit by the Judiciary Act of 1891 Colt RI 1891–1913 Bingham NH 1913–1939 Magruder MA 1939–1959 Aldrich MA 1959–1972 Campbell MA 1972–1992 Boudin MA 1992–present Seat 2 Established on June 16, 1891 by the Judiciary Act of 1891 Putnam ME 1892–1917 Johnson ME 1917–1929 Wilson ME 1929–1940 Woodbury NH 1941–1964 McEntee RI 1965–1976 Bownes NH 1977–1990 Souter NH 1990–1990 Stahl NH 1992–2001 Howard NH 2002–present Seat 3 Established on January 21, 1905 by 33 Stat. 611 Lowell MA 1905–1911 Schofield MA 1911–1912 Dodge MA 1912–1918 Anderson MA 1918–1931 Morton MA 1932–1939 Mahoney RI 1940–1950 Hartigan RI 1950–1965 Coffin ME 1965–1989 Cyr ME 1989–1997 Lipez ME 1998–present Seat 4 Established on October 20, 1978 by 92 Stat. 1629 Breyer MA 1980–1994 Lynch MA 1995–present Seat 5 Established on July 10, 1984 by 98 Stat. 333 Torruella PR 1984–present Seat 6 Established on July 10, 1984 by 98 Stat. 333 Selya RI 1986–2006 Thompson RI 2010–present
- West v. Randall (1820), one of the first decisions setting precedent for class action suits
- Federal judicial appointment history#First Circuit
- Courts of the United States
- List of United States federal courthouses in the First Circuit
- ^ a b c "U. S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit". Official website of the Federal Judicial Center. Archived from the original on December 31, 2004. http://web.archive.org/web/20041231131050/http://www.fjc.gov/history/home.nsf/usca_01_frm?OpenFrameSet. Retrieved May 29, 2005.
- ^ a b "Judges". Official website of the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit. http://www.ca1.uscourts.gov/judges.htm. Retrieved July 1, 2004.
- ^ http://www.ca1.uscourts.gov/files/calendar/calendar.pdf
- ^ Colt was appointed as a circuit judge for the First Circuit in 1884 by Chester A. Arthur. The Judiciary Act of 1891 reassigned his seat to what is now the U.S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit.
- Dargo, George (1993). A History of the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit: Volume I, 1891–1960.
United States courts of appeals
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