Bovine herpesvirus 1


Bovine herpesvirus 1

Taxobox
virus_group = i
familia = "Herpesviridae"
genus = "Varicellovirus"
species = "Bovine herpesvirus 1" (BHV-1)

"Bovine herpesvirus 1" (BHV-1) is a virus of the family "Herpesviridae" that causes several diseases worldwide in cattle, including rhinotracheitis, vaginitis, balanoposthitis, abortion, conjunctivitis, and enteritis. BHV-1 is also a contributing factor in shipping fever. It is spread through sexual contact, artificial insemination, and aerosol transmission. Like other herpesviruses, BHV-1 causes a lifelong latent infection and shedding of the virus. The sciatic nerve and trigeminal nerve are the sites of latency. There is a vaccine available which reduces the severity and incidence of disease.

The respiratory disease caused by BHV-1 is commonly known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. Symptoms include fever, discharge from the nose, cough, difficulty breathing, and loss of appetite. Ulcers commonly occur in the mouth and nose. Mortality may reach 10 percent.cite book|author=Fenner, Frank J.; Gibbs, E. Paul J.; Murphy, Frederick A.; Rott, Rudolph; Studdert, Michael J.; White, David O.|title=Veterinary Virology (2nd ed.)|publisher=Academic Press, Inc|year=1993|id=ISBN 0-12-253056-X] The genital disease causes infectious pustular vulvovaginitis in cows and infectious balanoposthitis in bulls. Symptoms include fever, depression, loss of appetite, painful urination, a swollen vulva with pustules and discharge in cows, and pain on sexual contact in bulls. In both cases lesions usually resolve within two weeks. Abortion and stillbirths can occur one to three months postinfection.cite web|author=Carter, G.R.; Flores, E.F.; Wise, D.J.|year=2006|title=Herpesviridae|work=A Concise Review of Veterinary Virology| url=http://www.ivis.org/advances/Carter/Part2Chap11/chapter.asp?LA=1|accessdate=2006-06-04] BHV-1 also causes a generalized disease in newborn calves, characterized by enteritis and death.

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