List of birds in Canada and the United States


List of birds in Canada and the United States

This list of birds in Canada and the United States is a comprehensive listing of all the bird species known from the North American continent north of Mexico as of July 2008.

North American birds most closely resemble those of Eurasia, which was connected to the continent as part of the supercontinent Laurasia until around 60 million years ago. [cite web |url=http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/historical.html |title=Historical perspective |publisher=U.S. Geological Survey |accessdate=2008-04-21] Many groups occur throughout the northern hemisphere and worldwide. However some groups unique to the New World have also arisen; those represented in this list are the hummingbirds, the New World vultures, the New World quail, the tyrant flycatchers, the vireos, the mimids, the New World warblers, the tanagers, the cardinals and the icterids.

Several common birds in North America, such as the House Sparrow, the Rock Dove, the European Starling, and the Mute Swan are introduced species, meaning that they are not native to this continent but were brought here by man from Europe or elsewhere. Introduced species are marked on this list as (I). There may be species that have individual escapees or small feral populations in North America that are not on this list. This is especially true of birds that are commonly held as pets, such as parrots and finches.

One species, the Cattle Egret, was historically an African bird. In the 20th century this bird colonized North America and is now found throughout the lower 48 states of the United States. [cite journal |last=Crosby |first=Gilbert T. |title=Spread of the Cattle Egret in the Western Hemisphere |journal=Journal of Field Ornithology |volume=43 |number=3 |date=July 1972 |pages=205–212 |url=http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/JFO/v043n03/p0205-p0212.pdf |accessdate=2008-04-20] The Cattle Egret is the only Old World bird to establish itself in North America in historical times without being introduced by man. As such, it is not marked as introduced on this list. Neither is the Glossy Ibis, which probably had a similar history. [citation |title=Handbook of Birds of the World, Volume 1: Ostrich to Ducks |publisher=Lynx Edicions |contribution=Family Threskiornithidae (Ibises and Spoonbills) |last=Matheu |first=Eloїsa |first2=Josep |last2=del Hoyo |editor=Josep del Hoyo, Andrew Elliott and Jordi Sargatal |year=1992 |location=Barcelona |pages=501–02]

The status of one bird on this list, the Ivory-billed Woodpecker, is controversial. Until 2005 this bird was widely considered to be extinct. In April of that year, it was reported that at least one adult male bird had been sighted in the Cache River National Wildlife Refuge in Arkansas. [cite web |url=http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4622633 |title=Ivory-billed woodpecker rediscovered in Arkansas |date=2005-04-28 |publisher=National Public Radio |accessdate=2008-04-21] This report however, has not been universally accepted, and the American Birding Association still lists the Ivory-billed Woodpecker as extinct.cite web |url=http://www.americanbirding.org/checklist/abachecklist.pdf |title=ABA checklist |publisher=American Birding Association |accessdate=2008-04-21] [cite web |url=http://www.americanbirding.org/checklist/codes.html |title=ABA checklist codes |publisher=American Birding Association |accessdate=2008-04-21]

The definition of the area covered by a list of "North American birds" is somewhat subjective. The original list published by the American Ornithologists' Union (AOU) in 1886 covered birds found in North America north of Mexico, and included Baja California, Bermuda and Greenland. In 1983, the area was expanded to include all of Mexico, Central America south through Panama, the West Indies and the Hawaiian Islands, while Greenland was dropped. This expansion more than doubled the number of birds on the AOU list. Other organizations, such as the American Birding Association (ABA), use a smaller area: the current ABA area includes the 49 continental states of the US, Canada, and the French islands of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, plus surrounding waters.cite web |url=http://www.americanbirding.org/checklist/area.html |title=ABA area |publisher=American Birding Association |accessdate=2008-04-20] It does not include Greenland, Bermuda, the Bahamas or the Hawaiian Islands.

This list is based on a checklist used by the ABA, the list used by most field guides for North American birds. However, this list includes the Common Myna and the Hill Myna, two introduced species that are not on the ABA checklist, but which are recognized by the AOU as having established populations. [cite web |url=http://www.aou.org/checklist/pdf/AOUchecklistSturn-Estril.pdf |title=AOU checklist: Families Sturnidae-Estrilididae |publisher=American Ornithologists' Union |accessdate=2008-04-21] Since the ABA follows the AOU on taxonomical matters, the AOU's list is used to settle questions of taxonomy.__NOTOC__

Condition of bird population

A study by the National Audubon Society has found that populations of some the most common birds in North America have plummeted since 1967, with some species showing a decline of 80 percent. The study also found that California species were particularly affected, with populations declines of 75 to 96 percent for several species, including the Northern Pintail, Horned Lark, and Loggerhead Shrike. The decline may be due to loss of habitat to urban sprawl, especially grasslands, forests and wetlands , energy development, and industrialized agriculture. Climate change could compound losses in the future. [ [http://news.mongabay.com/2007/0614-birds.html U.S. bird populations plummet] , by Rhett A. Butler, mongabay.com, June 14, 2007.] [ [http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0615/p02s03-usgn.html Common bird species in dramatic decline: A new Audubon study is one of the most comprehensive looks at bird-population trends in North America] , By Mark Clayton, The Christian Science Monitor, June 15, 2007. ] [ [http://www.audubon.org/News/Press_Releases/State_of_the_Birds_06_14_07.html DISAPPEARING COMMON BIRDS SEND ENVIRONMENTAL WAKE-UP CALL] , Audubon press release, June 14, 2007. ]

Taxonomy

The taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) used in the accompanying bird lists adhere to the conventions of the AOU's (1998) "Check-list of North American birds", the recognized scientific authority on the taxonomy and nomenclature of North America birds. The AOU's Committee on Classification and Nomenclature, the body responsible for maintaining and updating the "Check-list", "strongly and unanimously continues to endorse the biological species concept (BSC), in which species are considered to be genetically cohesive groups of populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups" (AOU 1998). See Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy for an alternative phylogenetic arrangement based on DNA-DNA hybridization.

Unless otherwise noted, all species listed below are considered to occur regularly in North America as permanent residents, summer or winter residents or visitors, or migrants. The following codes are used to denote certain categories of species:

*(A) = Accidental occurrence based on one or two (rarely more) records, and unlikely to occur regularly.

*(C) = Casual occurrence based on two or a few records, with subsequent records not improbable.

*(E) = Extinct; a recent member of the avifauna that no longer exists.

*(Ex) = Extirpated; no longer occurs in area of interest, but other populations still exist elsewhere.

*(I) = Introduced population established solely as result of direct or indirect human intervention; synonymous with non-native and non-indigenous.

This list follows the ABA for determination of rarity. The markings (A) and (C) correspond to the ABA birding codes 5 and 4 respectively.


=Ducks, geese, and swans=

Order: AnseriformesFamily: Anatidae

The family Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swan. These are birds that are modified for an aquatic existence with webbed feet, bills which are flattened to a greater or lesser extent, and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to special oils.
*Black-bellied Whistling-Duck, "Dendrocygna autumnalis"
*Fulvous Whistling-Duck, "Dendrocygna bicolor"
*Taiga Bean-Goose, "Anser fabalis"
*Tundra Bean-Goose, "Anser serrirostris"
*Pink-footed Goose, "Anser brachyrhynchus" (C)
*Greater White-fronted Goose, "Anser albifrons"
*Lesser White-fronted Goose, "Anser erythropus" (A)
*Emperor Goose, "Chen canagica"
*Snow Goose, "Chen caerulescens"
*Ross's Goose, "Chen rossii"
*Cackling Goose, "Branta hutchinsii"
*Canada Goose, "Branta canadensis"
*Brant, "Branta bernicla"
*Barnacle Goose, "Branta leucopsis" (A)

*Mute Swan, "Cygnus olor" (I)
*Trumpeter Swan, "Cygnus buccinator"
*Tundra Swan, "Cygnus columbianus"
*Whooper Swan, "Cygnus cygnus"
*Muscovy Duck, "Cairina moschata"
*Wood Duck, "Aix sponsa"
*Gadwall, "Anas strepera"
*Falcated Duck, "Anas falcata" (C)
*Eurasian Wigeon, "Anas penelope"
*American Wigeon, "Anas americana"
*American Black Duck, "Anas rubripes"
*Mallard, "Anas platyrhynchos"
*Mottled Duck, "Anas fulvigula"
*Eastern Spot-billed Duck, "Anas zonorhyncha" (A)
*Blue-winged Teal, "Anas discors"
*Cinnamon Teal, "Anas cyanoptera"
*Northern Shoveler, "Anas clypeata"
*White-cheeked Pintail, "Anas bahamensis" (C)
*Northern Pintail, "Anas acuta"
*Garganey, "Anas querquedula"
*Baikal Teal, "Anas formosa" (C)
*Green-winged Teal, "Anas crecca"
*Canvasback, "Aythya valisineria"
*Redhead, "Aythya americana"
*Common Pochard, "Aythya ferina"
*Ring-necked Duck, "Aythya collaris"
*Tufted Duck, "Aythya fuligula"
*Greater Scaup, "Aythya marila"
*Lesser Scaup, "Aythya affinis"
*Steller's Eider, "Polysticta stelleri"
*Spectacled Eider, "Somateria fischeri"
*King Eider, "Somateria spectabilis"
*Common Eider, "Somateria mollissima"
*Harlequin Duck, "Histrionicus histrionicus"
*Labrador Duck, "Camptorhynchus labradorius" (E)
*Surf Scoter, "Melanitta perspicillata"
*White-winged Scoter, "Melanitta fusca"
*Black Scoter, "Melanitta nigra"
*Long-tailed Duck, "Clangula hyemalis"
*Bufflehead, "Bucephala albeola"
*Common Goldeneye, "Bucephala clangula"
*Barrow's Goldeneye, "Bucephala islandica"
*Smew, "Mergellus albellus"
*Hooded Merganser, "Lophodytes cucullatus"
*Common Merganser, "Mergus merganser"
*Red-breasted Merganser, "Mergus serrator"
*Masked Duck, "Nomonyx dominicus"
*Ruddy Duck, "Oxyura jamaicensis"


=Curassows and guans=

Order: Galliformes Family: Cracidae

The chachalacas, guans and curassows are birds in the family Cracidae. These are large birds, similar in general appearance to turkeys. The guans and curassows live in trees, but the smaller chachalacas are found in more open scrubby habitats. They are generally dull-plumaged, but the curassows and some guans have colourful facial ornaments.

*Plain Chachalaca, "Ortalis vetula"


=Partridges, grouse, turkeys, and Old World quail=

Order: GalliformesFamily: Phasianidae

The Phasianidae is a family of birds which consists of the pheasants and their allies. These are terrestrial species, variable in size but generally plump, with broad relatively short wings. Many species are gamebirds, or have been domesticated as a food source for humans.

*Chukar, "Alectoris chukar" (I)
*Himalayan Snowcock, "Tetraogallus himalayensis" (I)
*Gray Partridge, "Perdix perdix" (I)
*Ring-necked Pheasant, "Phasianus colchicus" (I)
*Ruffed Grouse, "Bonasa umbellus"
*Greater Sage-Grouse, "Centrocercus urophasianus"
*Gunnison Sage-Grouse, "Centrocercus minimus"
*Willow Ptarmigan, "Lagopus lagopus"
*Rock Ptarmigan, "Lagopus mutus"
*White-tailed Ptarmigan, "Lagopus leucurus"
*Spruce Grouse, "Dendragapus canadensis"
*Dusky Grouse, "Dendragapus obscurus"
*Sooty Grouse, "Dendragapus fuliginosus"
*Sharp-tailed Grouse, "Tympanuchus phasianellus"
*Greater Prairie-Chicken, "Tympanuchus cupido"
*Lesser Prairie-Chicken, "Tympanuchus pallidicinctus"
*Wild Turkey, "Meleagris gallopavo"

New World quail

Order: GalliformesFamily: Odontophoridae

The New World quails are small, plump terrestrial birds only distantly related to the quails of the Old World, but named for their similar appearance and habits.

*Mountain Quail, "Oreortyx pictus"
*Scaled Quail, "Callipepla squamata"
*California Quail, "Callipepla californica"
*Gambel's Quail, "Callipepla gambelii"
*Northern Bobwhite, "Colinus virginianus"
*Montezuma Quail, "Cyrtonyx montezumae"

Loons

Order: GaviiformesFamily: Gaviidae

Loons are aquatic birds size of a large duck, to which they are unrelated. Their plumage is largely grey or black, they have spear-shaped bills. Loons swim well, and fly adequately, but, because their legs are placed towards the rear of the body, are almost helpless on land.

*Red-throated Loon, "Gavia stellata"
*Arctic Loon, "Gavia arctica"
*Pacific Loon, "Gavia pacifica"
*Common Loon, "Gavia immer"
*Yellow-billed Loon, "Gavia adamsii"

Grebes

*Least Grebe, "Tachybaptus dominicus"
*Pied-billed Grebe, "Podilymbus podiceps"
*Horned Grebe, "Podiceps auritus"
*Red-necked Grebe, "Podiceps grisegena"
*Eared Grebe, "Podiceps nigricollis"
*Western Grebe, "Aechmorphorus occidentalis"
*Clark's Grebe, "Aechmorphorus clarkii"

Flamingos

Order: PhoenicopteriformesFamily: Phoenicopteridae

Flamingos (genus Phoenicopterus monotypic in family Phoenicopteridae) are gregarious wading birds, usually 3–5 feet in height, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. They are more numerous in the latter. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly-shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume, and are uniquely used upside-down.

*American Flamingo, "Phoenicopterus ruber"

Albatrosses

Order: ProcellariiformesFamily: Diomedeidae

The albatrosses are amongst the largest of flying birds, and the great albatrosses from the genus Diomedea have the largest wingspans of any extant birds.

*Yellow-nosed Albatross, "Thalassarche chlororhynchos" (C)
*Shy Albatross, "Thalassarche cauta" (C)
*Black-browed Albatross, "Thalassarche melanophris" (A)
*Light-mantled Albatross, "Phoebetria palpebrata" (A)
*Wandering Albatross, "Diomedea exulans" (A)
*Laysan Albatross, "Phoebastria immutabilis"
*Black-footed Albatross, "Phoebastria nigripes"
*Short-tailed Albatross, "Phoebastria albatrus"

Shearwaters and petrels

Order: ProcellariiformesFamily: Procellariidae

The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized 'true petrels', characterised by united nostrils with medium septum, and a long outer functional primary.

*Northern Fulmar, "Fulmarus glacialis"
*Great-winged Petrel, "Pterodroma macroptera" (A)
*Herald Petrel, "Pterodroma arminjoniana"
*Murphy's Petrel, "Pterodroma ultima"
*Mottled Petrel, "Pterodroma inexpectata"
*Bermuda Petrel, "Pterodroma cahow" (C)
*Black-capped Petrel, "Pterodroma hasitata"
*"Dark-rumped" Petrel "Pterodroma phaeopygia/sandwichensis" complex (A)
*Fea's/Zino's Petrel "Pterodroma feae/madeira" complex
*Cook's Petrel, "Pterodroma cookii"
*Stejneger's Petrel, "Pterodroma longirostris" (C)
*Bulwer's Petrel, "Bulweria bulwerii" (A)
*Parkinson's Petrel, "Procellaria parkinsoni" (A)
*Streaked Shearwater, "Calonectris leucomelas" (C)
*Cory's Shearwater, "Calonectris diomedea"
*Cape Verde Shearwater, "Calonectris edwardsii" (A)
*Pink-footed Shearwater, "Puffinus creatopus"
*Flesh-footed Shearwater, "Puffinus carneipes"
*Greater Shearwater, "Puffinus gravis"
*Wedge-tailed Shearwater, "Puffinus pacificus" (C)
*Buller's Shearwater, "Puffinus bulleri"
*Sooty Shearwater, "Puffinus griseus"
*Short-tailed Shearwater, "Puffinus tenuirostris"
*Manx Shearwater, "Puffinus puffinus"
*Black-vented Shearwater, "Puffinus opisthomelas"
*Audubon's Shearwater, "Puffinus lherminieri"
*Little Shearwater, "Puffinus assimilis" (A)

Storm-petrels

Order: ProcellariiformesFamily: Hydrobatidae

The storm-petrels are the smallest of seabirds, relatives of the petrels, feeding on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like.

*Wilson's Storm-Petrel, "Oceanites oceanicus"
*White-faced Storm-Petrel, "Pelagodroma marina" (C)
*Black-bellied Storm-Petrel, "Fregetta tropica"(A)
*European Storm-Petrel, "Hydrobates pelagicus" (A)
*Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel, "Oceanodroma furcata"
*Ringed Storm-petrel, "Oceanodroma hornbyi" (A)
*Leach's Storm-Petrel, "Oceanodroma leucorhoa"
*Ashy Storm-Petrel, "Oceanodroma homochroa"
*Band-rumped Storm-Petrel, "Oceanodroma castro"
*Wedge-rumped Storm-Petrel, "Oceanodroma tethys" (A)
*Black Storm-Petrel, "Oceanodroma melania"
*Least Storm-Petrel, "Oceanodroma microsoma"

Tropicbirds

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Phaethontidae

Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their long wings have black markings, as does the head.

*White-tailed Tropicbird, "Phaethon lepturus"
*Red-billed Tropicbird, "Phaethon aethereus"
*Red-tailed Tropicbird, "Phaethon rubricauda" (C)


=Boobies and gannets=

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Sulidae

The sulids comprise the gannets and boobies. Both groups are medium-large coastal seabirds that plunge-dive for fish.

*Masked Booby, "Sula dactylatra"
*Blue-footed Booby, "Sula nebouxii" (C)
*Brown Booby, "Sula leucogaster"
*Red-footed Booby, "Sula sula" (C)
*Northern Gannet, "Morus bassanus"

Pelicans

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Pelecanidae

Pelicans are very large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak. Like other birds in the order Pelecaniformes, they have four webbed toes.

*American White Pelican, "Pelecanus erythrorhynchos"
*Brown Pelican, "Pelecanus occidentalis"

Cormorants

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Phalacrocoracidae

Cormorants are medium-to-large aquatic birds, usually with mainly dark plumage and areas of coloured skin on the face. The bill is long, thin, and sharply hooked. Their feet are four-toed and webbed, a distinguishing feature among the Pelecaniformes order

*Brandt's Cormorant, "Phalacrocorax penicillatus"
*Neotropic Cormorant, "Phalacrocorax brasilianus"
*Double-crested Cormorant, "Phalacrocorax auritus"
*Great Cormorant, "Phalacrocorax carbo"
*Red-faced Cormorant, "Phalacrocorax urile"
*Pelagic Cormorant, "Phalacrocorax pelagicus"

Darters

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Anhingidae

Darters are cormorant-like water birds with very long necks and long, straight beaks. They often swim with only the neck above water, and are fish-eaters.

*Anhinga, "Anhinga anhinga"

Frigatebirds

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Fregatidae

Frigatebirds are large seabirds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black or black and white, with long wings and deeply-forked tails. The males have inflatable coloured throat pouches. They do not swim or walk, and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan to body weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week.

*Magnificent Frigatebird, "Fregata magnificens"
*Great Frigatebird, "Fregata minor" (C)
*Lesser Frigatebird, "Fregata ariel" (A)

Bitterns, herons, and egrets

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Ardeidae

The family Ardeidae contains the herons, egrets, and bitterns. Herons and Egrets are medium to large sized wadng birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more secrative. Unlike other long necked birds suck as storks, ibises and spoonbills, members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted.

*American Bittern, "Botaurus lentiginosus"
*Yellow Bittern, "Ixobrychus sinensis" (A)
*Least Bittern, "Ixobrychus exilis"
*Great Blue Heron, "Ardea herodias"
*Gray Heron, "Ardea cinerea" (A)
*Great Egret, "Ardea alba"
*Intermediate Egret, "Mesophoyx intermedia" (A)
*Chinese Egret, "Egretta eulophotes" (A)
*Little Egret, "Egretta garzetta" (C)
*Western Reef-Heron, "Egretta gularis" (A)
*Snowy Egret, "Egretta thula"
*Little Blue Heron, "Egretta caerulea"
*Tricolored Heron, "Egretta tricolor"
*Reddish Egret, "Egretta rufescens"
*Cattle Egret, "Bubulcus ibis"
*Chinese Pond-Heron, "Ardeola bacchus" (A)
*Green Heron, "Butorides virescens"
*Black-crowned Night-Heron, "Nycticorax nycticorax"
*Yellow-crowned Night-Heron, "Nyctanassa violacea"

Ibises and spoonbills

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Threskiornithidae

Members of the family have long, broad wings, are strong fliers and, rather surprisingly, given their size and weight, very capable soarers. The body tends to be elongated, the neck more so, with rather long legs. The bill is also long, decurved in the case of the ibises, straight and distinctively flattened in the spoonbills.

*American White Ibis, "Eudocimus albus"
*Scarlet Ibis, "Eudocimus ruber" (A)
*Glossy Ibis, "Plegadis falcinellus"
*White-faced Ibis, "Plegadis chihi"
*Roseate Spoonbill, "Ajaia ajaja"

Storks

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Ciconiidae

Storks are large, heavy, long-legged, long-necked wading birds with long stout bills and wide wingspans. They lack the powder down that other wading birds such as herons, spoonbills and ibises use to clean off fish slime. Storks lack a pharynx and are mute.

*Jabiru, "Jabiru mycteria" (A)
*Wood Stork, "Mycteria americana"

New World vultures

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Cathartidae

The New World vultures are not closely related to Old World vultures, but superficially resemble them because of convergent evolution. Like the Old World vultures, they are scavengers. However, unlike Old World vultures, which find carcasses by sight, New World vultures have a good sense of smell with which they locate carcasses.

*Black Vulture, "Coragyps atratus"
*Turkey Vulture, "Cathartes aura"
*California Condor, "Gymnogyps californianus" (Ex)


=Eagles, kites, and allies=

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Accipitridae

The family Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey and include hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have very large powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight.

*Osprey, "Pandion haliaetus"
*Hook-billed Kite, "Chondrohierax uncinatus"
*Swallow-tailed Kite, "Elanoides forficatus"
*White-tailed Kite, "Elanus leucurus"
*Snail Kite, "Rostrhamus sociabilis"
*Mississippi Kite, "Ictinia mississippiensis"
*Bald Eagle, "Haliaeetus leucocephalus"
*White-tailed Eagle, "Haliaeetus albicilla" (C)
*Steller's Sea-Eagle, "Haliaeetus pelagicus" (C)
*Northern Harrier, "Circus cyaneus"
*Sharp-shinned Hawk, "Accipiter striatus"
*Cooper's Hawk, "Accipiter cooperii"
*Northern Goshawk, "Accipiter gentilis"
*Crane Hawk, "Geranospiza caerulescens" (A)
*Common Black-Hawk, "Buteogallus anthracinus"
*Harris's Hawk, "Parabuteo unicinctus"
*Gray Hawk, "Buteo nitidus"
*Roadside Hawk, "Buteo magnirostris" (A)
*Red-shouldered Hawk, "Buteo lineatus"
*Broad-winged Hawk, "Buteo platypterus"
*Short-tailed Hawk, "Buteo brachyurus"
*Swainson's Hawk, "Buteo swainsoni"
*White-tailed Hawk, "Buteo albicaudatus"
*Zone-tailed Hawk, "Buteo albonotatus"
*Red-tailed Hawk, "Buteo jamaicensis"
*Ferruginous Hawk, "Buteo regalis"
*Rough-legged Hawk, "Buteo lagopus"
*Golden Eagle, "Aquila chrysaetos"

Caracaras and falcons

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Falconidae

Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey, notably the falcons and caracaras. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their feet.

*Collared Forest-Falcon, "Micrastur semitorquatus" (A)
*Crested Caracara, "Caracara cheriway"
*Eurasian Kestrel, "Falco tinnunculus" (C)
*American Kestrel, "Falco sparverius"
*Merlin, "Falco columbarius"
*Eurasian Hobby, "Falco subbuteo" (C)
*Red-footed Falcon, "Falco vespertinus" (A)
*Aplomado Falcon, "Falco femoralis" (C)
*Gyrfalcon, "Falco rusticolus"
*Peregrine Falcon, "Falco peregrinus"
*Prairie Falcon, "Falco mexicanus"

Rails, gallinules, and coots

Order: GruiformesFamily: Rallidae

Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. The most typical family members occupy dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs, and have long toes which are well adapted to soft, uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and be weak fliers.

*Yellow Rail, "Coturnicops noveboracensis"
*Black Rail, "Laterallus jamaicensis"
*Corn Crake, "Crex crex" (A)
*Clapper Rail, "Rallus longirostris"
*King Rail, "Rallus elegans"
*Virginia Rail, "Rallus limicola"
*Sora, "Porzana carolina"
*Paint-billed Crake, "Neocrex erythrops" (A)
*Spotted Rail, "Pardirallus maculatus" (A)
*Purple Gallinule, "Porphyrio martinica"
*Common Moorhen, "Gallinula chloropus"
*Eurasian Coot, "Fulica atra" (A)
*American Coot, "Fulica americana"

Limpkins

Family: Aramidae

The Limpkin is an odd bird that looks like a large rail, but is skeletally closer to the cranes. It is found in marshes with some trees or scrub in the Caribbean, South America and southern Florida.

*Limpkin, "Aramus guarauna"


=Cranes=

Order: GruiformesFamily: Gruidae

Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances".

*Sandhill Crane, "Grus canadensis"
*Common Crane, "Grus grus" (C)
*Whooping Crane, "Grus americana"


=Thick-knees=

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Burhinidae

The thick-knees are a group of largely tropical waders in the family Burhinidae. They are found worldwide within the tropical zone, with some species also breeding in temperate Europe and Australia. They are medium to large waders with strong black or yellow black bills, large yellow eyes and cryptic plumage. Despite being classed as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats.

*Double-striped Thick-knee, "Burhinus bistriatus" (A)

Lapwings and plovers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Charadriidae

The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water, although there are some exceptions.

*Northern Lapwing, "Vanellus vanellus" (C)
*Black-bellied Plover, "Pluvialis squatarola"
*European Golden-Plover, "Pluvialis apricaria" (C)
*American Golden-Plover, "Pluvialis dominica"
*Pacific Golden-Plover, "Pluvialis fulva"
*Lesser Sand-Plover, "Charadrius mongolus"
*Greater Sand-Plover, "Charadrius leschenaultii" (A)
*Collared Plover, "Charadrius collaris" (A)
*Snowy Plover, "Charadrius alexandrinus"
*Wilson's Plover, "Charadrius wilsonia"
*Common Ringed Plover, "Charadrius hiaticula"
*Semipalmated Plover, "Charadrius semipalmatus"
*Piping Plover, "Charadrius melodus"
*Little Ringed Plover, "Charadrius dubius" (A)
*Killdeer, "Charadrius vociferus"
*Mountain Plover, "Charadrius montanus"
*Eurasian Dotterel, "Charadrius morinellus" (C)

Oystercatchers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Haematopodidae

The oystercatchers are large, obvious and noisy plover-like birds, with strong bills used for smashing or prising open molluscs.

*Eurasian Oystercatcher, "Haematopus ostralegus" (A)
*American Oystercatcher, "Haematopus palliatus"
*American Black Oystercatcher, "Haematopus bachmani"

Stilts and avocets

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Recurvirostridae

Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and the stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills.

*Black-winged Stilt, "Himantopus himantopus" (A)
*Black-necked Stilt, "Himantopus mexicanus"
*American Avocet, "Recurvirostra americana"

Jacanas

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Jacanidae

The Jacanas are a group of tropical waders in the family Jacanidae. They are found worldwide within the tropical zone. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat.

*Northern Jacana, "Jacana spinosa" (C)

Sandpipers and allies

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Scolopacidae

The Scolopacidae are a large diverse family of small to medium sized shorebirds including the Sandpipers, Curlews, Godwits, Shanks, Tattlers, Woodcocks, Snipes, Dowitchers and Phalaropes. The majority of species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Different lengths of legs and bills enable different species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food.

*Common Greenshank, "Tringa nebularia"
*Greater Yellowlegs, "Tringa melanoleuca"
*Lesser Yellowlegs, "Tringa flavipes"
*Marsh Sandpiper, "Tringa stagnatilis" (A)
*Common Redshank, "Tringa totanus" (A)
*Spotted Redshank, "Tringa erythropus" (C)
*Wood Sandpiper, "Tringa glareola"
*Green Sandpiper, "Tringa ochropus" (C)
*Solitary Sandpiper, "Tringa solitaria"
*Willet, "Catoptrophorus semipalmatus"
*Wandering Tattler, "Heteroscelus incanus"
*Gray-tailed Tattler, "Heteroscelus brevipes"
*Common Sandpiper, "Actitis hypoleucos"
*Spotted Sandpiper, "Actitis macularia"
*Terek Sandpiper, "Xenus cinereus"
*Upland Sandpiper, "Bartramia longicauda"
*Little Curlew, "Numenius minutus" (C)
*Eskimo Curlew, "Numenius borealis" (E?)
*Whimbrel, "Numenius phaeopus"
*Bristle-thighed Curlew, "Numenius tahitiensis"
*Far Eastern Curlew, "Numenius madagascariensis" (C)
*Slender-billed Curlew, "Numenius tenuirostris" (E?)
*Eurasian Curlew, "Numenius arquata" (C)
*Long-billed Curlew, "Numenius americanus"
*Black-tailed Godwit, "Limosa limosa"
*Hudsonian Godwit, "Limosa haemastica"
*Bar-tailed Godwit, "Limosa lapponica"
*Marbled Godwit, "Limosa fedoa"
*Ruddy Turnstone, "Arenaria interpres"
*Black Turnstone, "Arenaria melanocephala"
*Surfbird, "Aphriza virgata"
*Great Knot, "Calidris tenuirostris" (C)
*Red Knot, "Calidris canutus"
*Sanderling, "Calidris alba"
*Semipalmated Sandpiper, "Calidris pusilla"
*Western Sandpiper, "Calidris mauri"
*Red-necked Stint, "Calidris ruficollis"
*Little Stint, "Calidris minuta" (A)
*Temminck's Stint, "Calidris temminckii"
*Long-toed Stint, "Calidris subminuta"
*Least Sandpiper, "Calidris minutilla"
*White-rumped Sandpiper, "Calidris fuscicollis"
*Baird's Sandpiper, "Calidris bairdii"
*Pectoral Sandpiper, "Calidris melanotos"
*Sharp-tailed Sandpiper, "Calidris acuminata"
*Purple Sandpiper, "Calidris maritima"
*Rock Sandpiper, "Calidris ptilocnemis"
*Dunlin, "Calidris alpina"
*Curlew Sandpiper, "Calidris ferruginea"
*Stilt Sandpiper, "Calidris himantopus"
*Spoon-billed Sandpiper, "Eurynorhynchus pygmeus" (C)
*Broad-billed Sandpiper, "Limicola falcinellus" (C)
*Buff-breasted Sandpiper, "Tryngites subruficollis"
*Ruff, "Philomachus pugnax"
*Short-billed Dowitcher, "Limnodromus griseus"
*Long-billed Dowitcher, "Limnodromus scolopaceus"
*Jack Snipe, "Lymnocryptes minimus" (A)
*Wilson's Snipe, "Gallinago delicata"
*Common Snipe, "Gallinago gallinago"
*Pin-tailed Snipe, "Gallinago stenura" (A)
*Eurasian Woodcock, "Scolopax rusticola" (A)
*American Woodcock, "Scolopax minor"
*Wilson's Phalarope, "Phalaropus tricolor"
*Red-necked Phalarope, "Phalaropus lobatus"
*Red Phalarope, "Phalaropus fulicarius"

Pratincoles

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Glareolidae

Pratincoles have short legs, very long pointed wings and long forked tails. Their most unusual feature for birds classed as waders is that they typically hunt their insect prey on the wing like swallows, although they can also feed on the ground. Their short bills are an adaptation to aerial feeding.

*Oriental Pratincole, "Glareola maldivarum" (A)

Gulls, terns, and skimmers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Laridae

Laridae is a family of medium to large birds seabirds and includes gulls, terns, kittiwakes and skimmers. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet.

*Swallow-tailed Gull, "Creagrus furcatus" (A)
*Black-legged Kittiwake, "Rissa tridactyla"
*Red-legged Kittiwake, "Rissa brevirostris"
*Ivory Gull, "Pagophila eburnea"
*Sabine's Gull, "Xema sabini"
*Bonaparte's Gull, "Chroicocephalus philadelphia"
*Gray-hooded Gull, "Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus" (A)
*Black-headed Gull, "Chroicocephalus ridibundus"
*Little Gull, "Hydrocoleus minutus"
*Ross's Gull, "Rhodostethia rosea"
*Laughing Gull, "Leucophaeus atricilla"
*Franklin's Gull, "Leucophaeus pipixcan"
*Belcher's Gull, "Larus belcheri" (A)
*Black-tailed Gull, "Larus crassirostris" (C)
*Heermann's Gull, "Larus heermanni"
*Mew Gull, "Larus canus"
*Ring-billed Gull, "Larus delawarensis"
*Western Gull, "Larus occidentalis"
*Yellow-footed Gull, "Larus livens"
*California Gull, "Larus californicus"
*Herring Gull, "Larus argentatus"
*Yellow-legged Gull, "Larus cachinnans" (C)
*Thayer's Gull, "Larus thayeri"
*Iceland Gull, "Larus glaucoides"
*Lesser Black-backed Gull, "Larus fuscus"
*Slaty-backed Gull, "Larus schistisagus"
*Glaucous-winged Gull, "Larus glaucescens"
*Glaucous Gull, "Larus hyperboreus"
*Great Black-backed Gull, "Larus marinus"
*Kelp Gull, "Larus dominicanus" (C)
*Gull-billed Tern, "Gelochelidon nilotica"
*Caspian Tern, "Hydroprogne caspia"
*Royal Tern, "Sterna maxima"
*Elegant Tern, "Sterna elegans"
*Sandwich Tern, "Sterna sandvicensis"
*Roseate Tern, "Sterna dougallii"
*Common Tern, "Sterna hirundo"
*Arctic Tern, "Sterna paradisaea"
*Forster's Tern, "Sterna forsteri"
*Least Tern, "Sternula antillarum"
*Aleutian Tern, "Onychoprion aleutica"
*Bridled Tern, "Onychoprion anaethetus"
*Sooty Tern, "Onychoprion fuscata"
*Large-billed Tern, "Phaetusa simplex" (A)
*White-winged Tern, "Chlidonias leucopterus" (C)
*Whiskered Tern, "Chlidonias hybridus" (A)
*Black Tern, "Chlidonias niger"
*Brown Noddy, "Anous stolidus"
*Black Noddy, "Anous minutus"
*Black Skimmer, "Rynchops niger"

Skuas

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Stercorariidae

Skuas are in general medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. They have longish bills with a hooked tip, and webbed feet with sharp claws. They look like large dark gulls, but have a fleshy cere above the upper mandible. They are strong, acrobatic fliers.

*Great Skua, "Stercorarius skua"
*South Polar Skua, "Stercorarius maccormicki"
*Pomarine Jaeger, "Stercorarius pomarinus"
*Parasitic Jaeger, "Stercorarius parasiticus"
*Long-tailed Jaeger, "Stercorarius longicaudus"


=Auks, murres, and puffins=

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Alcidae

Alcids are superficially similar to penguins due to their black-and-white colours, their upright posture and some of their habits, however they are not related to the penguins at all, being able to fly. Auks live on the open sea, only deliberately coming ashore to nest.

*Dovekie, "Alle alle"
*Common Murre, "Uria aalge"
*Thick-billed Murre, "Uria lomvia"
*Razorbill, "Alca torda"
*Great Auk, "Pinguinus impennis" (E)
*Black Guillemot, "Cepphus grylle"
*Pigeon Guillemot, "Cepphus columba"
*Long-billed Murrelet, "Brachyramphus perdix" (C)
*Marbled Murrelet, "Brachyramphus marmoratus"
*Kittlitz's Murrelet, "Brachyramphus brevirostris"
*Xantus's Murrelet, "Synthliboramphus hypoleucus"
*Craveri's Murrelet, "Synthliboramphus craveri"
*Ancient Murrelet, "Synthliboramphus antiquus"
*Cassin's Auklet, "Ptychoramphus aleuticus"
*Parakeet Auklet, "Aethia psittacula"
*Least Auklet, "Aethia pusilla"
*Whiskered Auklet, "Aethia pygmaea"
*Crested Auklet, "Aethia cristatella"
*Rhinoceros Auklet, "Cerorhinca monocerata"
*Atlantic Puffin, "Fratercula arctica"
*Horned Puffin, "Fratercula corniculata"
*Tufted Puffin, "Fratercula cirrhata"


=Pigeons and doves=

Order: ColumbiformesFamily: Columbidae

Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere.

*Rock Pigeon, "Columba livia" (I)
*Scaly-naped Pigeon, "Patagioenas squamosa" (A)
*White-crowned Pigeon, "Patagioenas leucocephala"
*Red-billed Pigeon, "Patagioenas flavirostris"
*Band-tailed Pigeon, "Patagioenas fasciata"
*Oriental Turtle-Dove, "Streptopelia orientalis" (C)
*European Turtle-Dove, "Streptopelia turtur" (A)
*Eurasian Collared-Dove, "Streptopelia decaocto" (I)
*Spotted Dove, "Streptopelia chinensis" (I)
*White-winged Dove, "Zenaida asiatica"
*Zenaida Dove, "Zenaida aurita" (A)
*Mourning Dove, "Zenaida macroura"
*Passenger Pigeon, "Ectopistes migratorius" (E)
*Inca Dove, "Columbina inca"
*Common Ground-Dove, "Columbina passerina"
*Ruddy Ground-Dove, "Columbina talpacoti"
*White-tipped Dove, "Leptotila verreauxi"
*Key West Quail-Dove, "Geotrygon chrysia" (C)
*Ruddy Quail-Dove, "Geotrygon montana" (A)

Lories and lorikeets, parakeets, macaws, and parrots

Order: PsittaciformesFamily: Psittacidae

Parrots are small to large birds with a characteristic curved beak shape. Their upper mandibles have slight mobility in the joint with the skull and the have a generally erect stance. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two back.

*Budgerigar, "Melopsittacus undulatus" (I)
*Monk Parakeet, "Myiopsitta monachus" (I)
*Carolina Parakeet, "Conuropsis carolinensis" (E)
*Green Parakeet, "Aratinga holochlora"
*Thick-billed Parrot, "Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha" (Ex)
*White-winged Parakeet, "Brotogeris versicolurus" (I)
*Red-crowned Parrot, "Amazona viridigenalis"
*Black-hooded Parakeet "Nandayus nenday" (I)


=Cuckoos, roadrunners, and anis=

Order: CuculiformesFamily: Cuculidae

The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. Unlike the cuckoo species of the Old World, North American cuckoos are not brood parasites.

*Common Cuckoo, "Cuculus canorus"
*Oriental Cuckoo, "Cuculus saturatus" (C)
*Black-billed Cuckoo, "Coccyzus erythropthalmus"
*Yellow-billed Cuckoo, "Coccyzus americanus"
*Mangrove Cuckoo, "Coccyzus minor"
*Greater Roadrunner, "Geococcyx californianus"
*Smooth-billed Ani, "Crotophaga ani"
*Groove-billed Ani, "Crotophaga sulcirostris"

Barn owls

Order: StrigiformesFamily: Tytonidae

Barn owls are medium to large sized owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons.

*Barn Owl, "Tyto alba"

Typical owls

Order: StrigiformesFamily: Strigidae

Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk.

*Flammulated Owl, "Otus flammeolus"
*Oriental Scops-Owl, "Otus sunia" (A)
*Western Screech-Owl, "Megascops kennicottii"
*Eastern Screech-Owl, "Megascops asio"
*Whiskered Screech-Owl, "Megascops trichopsis"
*Great Horned Owl, "Bubo virginianus"
*Snowy Owl, "Bubo scandiacus"
*Northern Hawk Owl, "Surnia ulula"
*Northern Pygmy Owl, "Glaucidium gnoma"
*Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl, "Glaucidium brasilianum"
*Elf Owl, "Micrathene whitneyi"
*Burrowing Owl, "Athene cunicularia"
*Mottled Owl, "Ciccaba virgata" (A)
*Spotted Owl, "Strix occidentalis"
*Barred Owl, "Strix varia"
*Great Gray Owl, "Strix nebulosa"
*Long-eared Owl, "Asio otus"
*Stygian Owl, "Asio stygius" (A)
*Short-eared Owl, "Asio flammeus"
*Boreal Owl, "Aegolius funereus"
*Northern Saw-whet Owl, "Aegolius acadicus"

Nightjars

Order: CaprimulgiformesFamily: Caprimulgidae

Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds with long wings, short legs and very short bills that usually nest on the ground. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is crypically coloured to resemble bark or leaves.

*Lesser Nighthawk, " Chordeiles acutipennis"
*Common Nighthawk, " Chordeiles minor"
*Antillean Nighthawk, " Chordeiles gundlachii"
*Common Pauraque, " Nyctidromus albicollis"
*Common Poorwill, " Phalaenoptilus nuttallii"
*Chuck-will's-widow, " Caprimulgus carolinensis"
*Buff-collared Nightjar, " Caprimulgus ridgwayi" (C)
*Whip-poor-will, " Caprimulgus vociferus"
*Gray Nightjar, " Caprimulgus indicus" (A)

Swifts

Order: ApodiformesFamily: Apodidae

The swifts are small aerial birds, spending the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings that resemble a crescent or a boomerang.

*Black Swift, "Cypseloides niger"
*White-collared Swift, "Streptoprocne zonaris" (A)
*Chimney Swift, "Chaetura pelagica"
*Vaux's Swift, "Chaetura vauxi"
*White-throated Needletail "Hirundapus caudacutus" (A)
*Common Swift, "Apus apus" (A)
*Fork-tailed Swift, "Apus pacificus" (C)
*White-throated Swift, "Aeronautes saxatalis"
*Antillean Palm-Swift, "Tachornis phoenicobia" (A)

Hummingbirds

Order: ApodiformesFamily: Trochilidae

Hummingbirds are small birds capable of hovering in mid-air due to the rapid flapping of their wings. They are the only birds that can fly backwards.

*Green Violetear, "Colibri thalassinus" (C)
*Green-breasted Mango, "Anthracothorax prevostii" (C)
*Broad-billed Hummingbird, "Cynanthus latirostris"
*White-eared Hummingbird, "Hylocharis leucotis"
*Xantus's Hummingbird, "Hylocharis xantusii" (A)
*Berylline Hummingbird, "Amazilia beryllina"
*Buff-bellied Hummingbird, "Amazilia yucatanensis"
*Cinnamon Hummingbird, "Amazilia rutila" (A)
*Violet-crowned Hummingbird, "Amazilia violiceps"
*Blue-throated Hummingbird, "Lampornis clemenciae"
*Magnificent Hummingbird, "Eugenes fulgens"
*Plain-capped Starthroat, "Heliomaster constantii" (C)
*Bahama Woodstar, "Calliphlox evelynae" (A)
*Lucifer Hummingbird, "Calothorax lucifer"
*Ruby-throated Hummingbird, "Archilochus colubris"
*Black-chinned Hummingbird, "Archilochus alexandri"
*Anna's Hummingbird, "Calypte anna"
*Costa's Hummingbird, "Calypte costae"
*Calliope Hummingbird, "Stellula calliope"
*Bumblebee Hummingbird, "Atthis heloisa" (A)
*Broad-tailed Hummingbird, "Selasphorus platycercus"
*Rufous Hummingbird, "Selasphorus rufus"
*Allen's Hummingbird, "Selasphorus sasin"

Trogons

Order: TrogoniformesFamily: Trogonidae

Trogons are residents of tropical forests worldwide, and have soft, often colourful, feathers with distinctive male and female plumage. They have compact bodies with long tails, and short necks.

*Elegant Trogon, "Trogon elegans"
*Eared Quetzal, "Euptilotis neoxenus" (C)

Hoopoes

Order: UpupiformesFamily: Upupidae

This black, white and pink bird is quite unmistakable, especially in its erratic flight, which is like that of a giant butterfly. It is the only member of its family. The song is a trisyllabic "oop-oop-oop", which gives rise to its English and scientific names.

*Eurasian Hoopoe, "Upupa epops" (A)

Kingfishers

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Cerylidae

Kingfishers are medium sized birds with large heads, long pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails.

*Ringed Kingfisher, "Megaceryle torquata"
*Belted Kingfisher, "Megaceryle alcyon"
*Green Kingfisher, "Chloroceryle americana"

Woodpeckers, sapsuckers, and flickers

Order: PiciformesFamily: Picidae

Woodpeckers are small to medium sized birds with chisel like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward, and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks.

*Eurasian Wryneck, "Jynx torquilla" (A)
*Lewis's Woodpecker, "Melanerpes lewis"
*Red-headed Woodpecker, "Melanerpes erythrocephalus"
*Acorn Woodpecker, "Melanerpes formicivorus"
*Gila Woodpecker, "Melanerpes uropygialis"
*Golden-fronted Woodpecker, "Melanerpes aurifrons"
*Red-bellied Woodpecker, "Melanerpes carolinus"
*Williamson's Sapsucker, "Sphyrapicus thyroideus"
*Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, "Sphyrapicus varius"
*Red-naped Sapsucker, "Sphyrapicus nuchalis"
*Red-breasted Sapsucker, "Sphyrapicus ruber"
*Great Spotted Woodpecker, "Dendrocopos major" (C)
*Ladder-backed Woodpecker, "Picoides scalaris"
*Nuttall's Woodpecker, "Picoides nuttallii"
*Downy Woodpecker, "Picoides pubescens"
*Hairy Woodpecker, "Picoides villosus"
*Arizona Woodpecker, "Picoides arizonae"
*Red-cockaded Woodpecker, "Picoides borealis"
*White-headed Woodpecker, "Picoides albolarvatus"
*American Three-toed Woodpecker, "Picoides dorsalis"
*Black-backed Woodpecker, "Picoides arcticus"
*Northern Flicker, "Colaptes auratus"
*Gilded Flicker, "Colaptes chrysoides"
*Pileated Woodpecker, "Dryocopus pileatus"
*Ivory-billed Woodpecker, "Campephilus principalis" (E?)

Tyrant flycatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Tyrannidae

Tyrant flycatchers are Passerine birds which occur throughout North and South America. They superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers, but are more robust with stronger bills. They do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of the songbirds. Most, but not all, are rather plain. As the name implies, most are insectivorous.

*Northern Beardless-Tyrannulet, "Camptostoma imberbe"
*Greenish Elaenia, "Myiopagis viridicata" (A)
*Caribbean Elaenia, "Elaenia martinica" (A)
*Tufted Flycatcher, "Mitrephanes phaeocercus" (A)
*Olive-sided Flycatcher, "Contopus cooperi"
*Greater Pewee, "Contopus pertinax"
*Western Wood-Pewee, "Contopus sordidulus"
*Eastern Wood-Pewee, "Contopus virens"
*Cuban Pewee, "Contopus caribaeus" (A)
*Yellow-bellied Flycatcher, "Empidonax flaviventris"
*Acadian Flycatcher, "Empidonax virescens"
*Alder Flycatcher, "Empidonax alnorum"
*Willow Flycatcher, "Empidonax traillii"
*Least Flycatcher, "Empidonax minimus"
*Hammond's Flycatcher, "Empidonax hammondii"
*Gray Flycatcher, "Empidonax wrightii"
*Dusky Flycatcher, "Empidonax oberholseri"
*Pacific-slope Flycatcher, "Empidonax difficilis"
*Cordilleran Flycatcher, "Empidonax occidentalis"
*Buff-breasted Flycatcher, "Empidonax fulvifrons"
*Black Phoebe, "Sayornis nigricans"
*Eastern Phoebe, "Sayornis phoebe"
*Say's Phoebe, "Sayornis saya"
*Vermilion Flycatcher, "Pyrocephalus rubinus"
*Dusky-capped Flycatcher, "Myiarchus tuberculifer"
*Ash-throated Flycatcher, "Myiarchus cinerascens"
*Nutting's Flycatcher, "Myiarchus nuttingi" (A)
*Great Crested Flycatcher, "Myiarchus crinitus"
*Brown-crested Flycatcher, "Myiarchus tyrannulus"
*La Sagra' s Flycatcher, "Myiarchus sagrae" (C)
*Great Kiskadee, "Pitangus sulphuratus"
*Social Flycatcher, "Myiozetetes similis" (A)
*Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher, "Myiodynastes luteiventris"
*Piratic Flycatcher, "Legatus leucophaius" (A)
*Variegated Flycatcher, "Empidonomus varius" (A)
*Tropical Kingbird, "Tyrannus melancholicus"
*Couch's Kingbird, "Tyrannus couchii"
*Cassin's Kingbird, "Tyrannus vociferans"
*Thick-billed Kingbird, "Tyrannus crassirostris"
*Western Kingbird, "Tyrannus verticalis"
*Eastern Kingbird, "Tyrannus tyrannus"
*Loggerhead Kingbird, "Tyrannus caudifasciatus" (A)
*Gray Kingbird, "Tyrannus dominicensis"
*Scissor-tailed Flycatcher, "Tyrannus forficatus"
*Fork-tailed Flycatcher, "Tyrannus savana" (C)
*Rose-throated Becard, "Pachyramphus aglaiae"
*Masked Tityra, "Tityra semifasciata" (A)

Shrikes

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Laniidae

Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey.

*Brown Shrike, "Lanius cristatus" (C)
*Loggerhead Shrike, "Lanius ludovicianus"
*Northern Shrike, "Lanius excubitor"

Vireos

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Vireonidae

The vireos are a group of small to medium sized passerine birds restricted to the New World. They are typically greenish in colour and resemble wood warblers apart from their heavier bills.

*White-eyed Vireo, "Vireo griseus"
*Thick-billed Vireo, "Vireo crassirostris" (A)
*Bell's Vireo, "Vireo bellii"
*Black-capped Vireo, "Vireo atricapilla"
*Gray Vireo, "Vireo vicinior"
*Yellow-throated Vireo, "Vireo flavifrons"
*Plumbeous Vireo, "Vireo plumbeus"
*Cassin's Vireo, "Vireo cassinii"
*Blue-headed Vireo, "Vireo solitarius"
*Hutton's Vireo, "Vireo huttoni"
*Warbling Vireo, "Vireo gilvus"
*Philadelphia Vireo, "Vireo philadelphicus"
*Red-eyed Vireo, "Vireo olivaceus"
*Yellow-green Vireo, "Vireo flavoviridis"
*Black-whiskered Vireo, "Vireo altiloquus"
*Yucatan Vireo, "Vireo magister" (A)

Jays, crows, magpies, and ravens

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Corvidae

The Corvidae family includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size for the bird order Passeriformes. Some of the larger species show levels of learned behavior of a high degree.

*Gray Jay, "Perisoreus canadensis"
*Steller's Jay, "Cyanocitta stelleri"
*Blue Jay, "Cyanocitta cristata"
*Green Jay, "Cyanocorax yncas"
*Brown Jay, "Cyanocorax morio"
*Florida Scrub Jay, "Aphelocoma coerulescens"
*Island Scrub Jay, "Aphelocoma insularis"
*Western Scrub Jay, "Aphelocoma californica"
*Mexican Jay, "Aphelocoma ultramarina"
*Pinyon Jay, "Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus"
*Clark's Nutcracker, "Nucifraga columbiana"
*Black-billed Magpie, "Pica hudsonia"
*Yellow-billed Magpie, "Pica nuttalli"
*Eurasian Jackdaw, "Corvus monedula" (C)
*American Crow, "Corvus brachyrhynchos"
*Northwestern Crow, "Corvus caurinus"
*Tamaulipas Crow, "Corvus imparatus"
*Fish Crow, "Corvus ossifragus"
*Chihuahuan Raven, "Corvus cryptoleucus"
*Common Raven, "Corvus corax"

Larks

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Alaudidae

Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds.

*Sky Lark, "Alauda arvensis" (regular migrant-AK) (A-CA) (Ex-NY) (I-BC & WA)
*Horned Lark, "Eremophila alpestris"


=Swallows and martins=

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Hirundinidae

The Hirundinidae family is a group of passerines characterised by their adaptation to aerial feeding. Their adaptations include a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and short bills with wide gape. The feet are designed for perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base.

*Purple Martin, "Progne subis"
*Cuban Martin, "Progne cryptoleuca" (A)
*Gray-breasted Martin, "Progne chalybea" (A)
*Southern Martin, "Progne elegans" (A)
*Brown-chested Martin, "Progne tapera" (A)
*Tree Swallow, "Tachycineta bicolor"
*Mangrove Swallow, "Tachycineta albilinea" (A)
*Violet-green Swallow, "Tachycineta thalassina"
*Bahama Swallow, "Tachycineta cyaneoviridis" (C)
*Northern Rough-winged Swallow, "Stelgidopteryx serripennis"
*Bank Swallow, "Riparia riparia"
*Cliff Swallow, "Petrochelidon pyrrhonota"
*Cave Swallow, "Petrochelidon fulva"
*Barn Swallow, "Hirundo rustica"
*House Martin, "Delichon urbica" (C)


=Chickadees and titmice=

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Paridae

The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects.

*Carolina Chickadee, "Poecile carolinensis"
*Black-capped Chickadee, "Poecile atricapilla"
*Mountain Chickadee, "Poecile gambeli"
*Mexican Chickadee, "Poecile sclateri"
*Chestnut-backed Chickadee, "Poecile rufescens"
*Boreal Chickadee, "Poecile hudsonica"
*Gray-headed Chickadee, "Poecile cincta"
*Bridled Titmouse, "Baeolophus wollweberi"
*Oak Titmouse, "Baeolophus inornatus"
*Juniper Titmouse, "Baeolophus ridgwayi"
*Tufted Titmouse, "Baeolophus bicolor"
*Black-crested Titmouse, "Baeolophus atricristatus"


=Verdin=

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Remizidae

The Penduline tits are a family of small passerine birds, related to the true tits. The Verdin is the only North American representative of its famiy.

*Verdin, "Auriparus flaviceps"

Bushtits

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Aegithalidae

The Long-tailed tits are a family of small passerine birds. heir plumage is typically dull grey or brown in color. There is only 1 North American representative of this primariy Palearctic family.

*Bushtit, "Psaltriparus minimus"

Nuthatches

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Sittidae

Nuthatches are small woodland birds. They have the unusual ability to climb down trees head first, unlike other birds which can only go upwards. Nuthatches have big heads, short tails and powerful bills and feet.

*Red-breasted Nuthatch, "Sitta canadensis"
*White-breasted Nuthatch, "Sitta carolinensis"
*Pygmy Nuthatch, "Sitta pygmaea"
*Brown-headed Nuthatch, "Sitta pusilla"

Treecreepers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Certhiidae

Treecreepers are small woodland birds, brown above and white below. They have thin pointed down-curved bills, which they use to extricate insects from bark. They have stiff tail feathers, like woodpeckers, which they use to support themselves on vertical trees.

*Brown Creeper, "Certhia americana"

Wrens

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Troglodytidae

Wrens are small and inconspicuous birds, except for their loud songs. They have short wings and a thin down-turned bill. Several species often hold their tails upright. All are insectivorous.

*Cactus Wren, "Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus"
*Rock Wren, "Salpinctes obsoletus"
*Canyon Wren, "Catherpes mexicanus"
*Carolina Wren, "Thryothorus ludovicianus"
*Bewick's Wren, "Thryomanes bewickii"
*House Wren, "Troglodytes aedon"
*Winter Wren, "Troglodytes troglodytes"
*Sedge Wren, "Cistothorus platensis"
*Marsh Wren, "Cistothorus palustris"

Dippers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Cinclidae

They are named for their bobbing or dipping movements. They are unique among passerines for their ability to dive and swim underwater.

*American Dipper, "Cinclus mexicanus"

Bulbuls

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Pycnonotidae

The bulbuls are a family of medium-sized passerine songbirds native to Africa and tropical Asia. These are noisy and gregarious birds with often beautiful striking songs.

*Red-whiskered Bulbul "Pycnonotus jocosus" (I)

Kinglets

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Regulidae

The kinglets are a small family of birds which resemble the titmice. They are very small insectivorous birds in the genus "Regulus". The adults have coloured crowns, giving rise to their name.

*Golden-crowned Kinglet, "Regulus satrapa"
*Ruby-crowned Kinglet, "Regulus calendula"

Old World warblers and gnatcatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Sylviidae

The family Sylviidae is a group of small insectivorous passerine birds. The Sylviidae mainly occur as breeding species, as the common name implies, in Europe, Asia and, to a lesser extent Africa. Most are of generally undistinguished appearance, but many have distinctive songs.

*Middendorff's Grasshopper-Warbler, "Locustella ochotensis" (C)
*Lanceolated Warbler, "Locustella lanceolata" (A)
*Willow Warbler, "Phylloscopus trochilus" (A)
*Wood Warbler, "Phylloscopus sibilatrix" (A)
*Dusky Warbler, "Phylloscopus fuscatus" (C)
*Yellow-browed Warbler, "Phylloscopus inornatus" (A)
*Pallas's Warbler, "Phylloscopus proregulus" (A)
*Arctic Warbler, "Phylloscopus borealis"
*Lesser Whitethroat, "Sylvia curruca" (A)
*Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, "Polioptila caerulea"
*California Gnatcatcher, "Polioptila californica"
*Black-tailed Gnatcatcher, "Polioptila melanura"
*Black-capped Gnatcatcher, "Polioptila nigriceps" (C)

Old World flycatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Muscicapidae

This a large family of small passerine birds restricted to the Old World. Species below only occur in North America as vagrants. The appearance of these birds is very varied, but they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls.

*Narcissus Flycatcher, "Ficedula narcissina" (A)
*Mugimaki Flycatcher, "Ficedula mugimaki" (A)
*Red-breasted Flycatcher, "Ficedula parva" (C)
*Dark-sided Flycatcher, "Muscicapa sibirica" (C)
*Grey-streaked Flycatcher, "Muscicapa griseisticta" (C)
*Asian Brown Flycatcher, "Muscicapa dauurica" (A)
*Spotted Flycatcher, "Muscicapa striata" (A)


=Thrushes=

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Turdidae

The Thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly but not exclusively in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs.

*Siberian Rubythroat, "Luscinia calliope"
*Bluethroat, "Luscinia svecica"
*Siberian Blue Robin, "Luscinia cyane" (A)
*Red-flanked Bluetail, "Tarsiger cyanurus" (C)
*Northern Wheatear, "Oenanthe oenanthe"
*Stonechat, "Saxicola torquatus" (C)
*Eastern Bluebird, "Sialia sialis"
*Western Bluebird, "Sialia mexicana"
*Mountain Bluebird, "Sialia currucoides"
*Townsend's Solitaire, "Myadestes townsendi"
*Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush, "Catharus aurantiirostris" (A)
*Black-headed Nightingale-Thrush, "Catharus mexicanus" (A)
*Veery, "Catharus fuscescens"
*Gray-cheeked Thrush, "Catharus minimus"
*Bicknell's Thrush, "Catharus bicknelli"
*Swainson's Thrush, "Catharus ustulatus"
*Hermit Thrush, "Catharus guttatus"
*Wood Thrush, "Hylocichla mustelina"
*Eurasian Blackbird, "Turdus merula" (A)
*Eyebrowed Thrush, "Turdus obscurus"
*Dusky Thrush, "Turdus naumanni" (C)
*Fieldfare, "Turdus pilaris" (C)
*Redwing, "Turdus iliacus" (C)
*Song Thrush, "Turdus philomelos" (A)
*Clay-colored Thrush, "Turdus grayi"
*White-throated Thrush, "Turdus assimilis" (A)
*Rufous-backed Robin, "Turdus rufopalliatus"
*American Robin, "Turdus migratorius"
*Varied Thrush, "Ixoreus naevius"
*Aztec Thrush, "Ridgwayia pinicola" (C)

Babblers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Timaliidae

Babblers are rather diverse in size and coloration, but are characterised by soft fluffy plumage. The family is mostly restricted to the Old World, with the Wrentit as the only North American representative.

*Wrentit, "Chamaea fasciata"

Mockingbirds and thrashers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Mimidae

The Mimids are a family of passerine birds that includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers, and the New World catbirds. These birds are notable for their vocalization, especially their remarkable ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. The species tend towards dull grays and browns in their appearance.

*Gray Catbird, "Dumetella carolinensis"
*Northern Mockingbird, "Mimus polyglottos"
*Bahama Mockingbird, "Mimus gundlachii" (C)
*Sage Thrasher, "Oreoscoptes montanus"
*Brown Thrasher, "Toxostoma rufum"
*Long-billed Thrasher, "Toxostoma longirostre"
*Bendire's Thrasher, "Toxostoma bendirei"
*Curve-billed Thrasher, "Toxostoma curvirostre"
*California Thrasher, "Toxostoma redivivum"
*Crissal Thrasher, "Toxostoma crissale"
*Le Conte's Thrasher, "Toxostoma lecontei"
*Blue Mockingbird, "Melanotis caerulescens" (A)

Starlings

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Sturnidae

Starlings are small to medium-sized Old World passerine birds with strong feet. Their flight is strong and direct, and most are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country, and they eat insects and fruit. The plumage of several species is dark with a metallic sheen.

*European Starling, "Sturnus vulgaris" (I)

Accentors

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Prunellidae

The Accentors are in the only bird family which is completely endemic to the Palearctic. The species below only appears in North America as a vagrant.

*Siberian Accentor, "Prunella montanella" (C)

Wagtails and pipits

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Motacillidae

The Motacillidae are a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country. There are 54 species world wide and 11 North American species.

*Eastern Yellow Wagtail, "Motacilla tschutschensis"
*Citrine Wagtail, "Motacilla citreola" (A)
*Grey Wagtail, "Motacilla cinerea" (C)
*White Wagtail, "Motacilla alba"
*Tree Pipit, "Anthus trivialis" (A)
*Olive-backed Pipit, "Anthus hodgsoni"
*Pechora Pipit, "Anthus gustavi" (C)
*Red-throated Pipit, "Anthus cervinus"
*American Pipit, "Anthus rubescens"
*Sprague's Pipit, "Anthus spragueii"

Waxwings

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Bombycillidae

The waxwings are a group of passerine birds characterised by soft silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. In the Bohemian and Cedar Waxwings, these tips look like sealing wax, and give the group its name. These are arboreal birds of northern forests. They live on insects in summer and berries in winter.

*Bohemian Waxwing, "Bombycilla garrulus"
*Cedar Waxwing, "Bombycilla cedrorum"

Silky-flycatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Ptilogonatidae

The Silky-flycatchers are a small family of passerine birds which occur mainly in Central America. They are related to waxwings, and like that group have a soft silky plumage, usually grey or pale yellow in colour.

*Gray Silky-flycatcher, "Ptilogonys cinereus" (A)
*Phainopepla, "Phainopepla nitens"

Olive Warbler

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Peucedramidae

The Olive Warbler is the only representative of its family. It was formally classified with the Parulidae, but DNA studies warrant its classification in a distinct family.

*Olive Warbler, "Peucedramus taeniatus"


=Wood-warblers=

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Parulidae

The Wood Warblers are a group of small often colourful passerine birds restricted to the New World. Most are arboreal, but some like are more terrestrial. Most members of this family are insectivores.

*Bachman's Warbler, "Vermivora bachmanii" (E?)
*Blue-winged Warbler, "Vermivora pinus"
*Golden-winged Warbler, "Vermivora chrysoptera"
*Tennessee Warbler, "Vermivora peregrina"
*Orange-crowned Warbler, "Vermivora celata"
*Nashville Warbler, "Vermivora ruficapilla"
*Virginia's Warbler, "Vermivora virginiae"
*Colima Warbler, "Vermivora crissalis"
*Lucy's Warbler, "Vermivora luciae"
*Crescent-chested Warbler, "Parula superciliosa" (A)
*Northern Parula, "Parula americana"
*Tropical Parula, "Parula pitiayumi"
*Yellow Warbler, "Dendroica petechia"
*Chestnut-sided Warbler, "Dendroica pensylvanica"
*Magnolia Warbler, "Dendroica magnolia"
*Cape May Warbler, "Dendroica tigrina"
*Black-throated Blue Warbler, "Dendroica caerulescens"
*Yellow-rumped Warbler, "Dendroica coronata"
*Black-throated Gray Warbler, "Dendroica nigrescens"
*Golden-cheeked Warbler, "Dendroica chrysoparia"
*Black-throated Green Warbler, "Dendroica virens"
*Townsend's Warbler, "Dendroica townsendi"
*Hermit Warbler, "Dendroica occidentalis"
*Blackburnian Warbler, "Dendroica fusca"
*Yellow-throated Warbler, "Dendroica dominica"
*Grace's Warbler, "Dendroica graciae"
*Pine Warbler, "Dendroica pinus"
*Kirtland's Warbler, "Dendroica kirtlandii"
*Prairie Warbler, "Dendroica discolor"
*Palm Warbler, "Dendroica palmarum"
*Bay-breasted Warbler, "Dendroica castanea"
*Blackpoll Warbler, "Dendroica striata"
*Cerulean Warbler, "Dendroica cerulea"
*Black-and-white Warbler, "Mniotilta varia"
*American Redstart, "Setophaga ruticilla"
*Prothonotary Warbler, "Protonotaria citrea"
*Worm-eating Warbler, "Helmitheros vermivorus"
*Swainson's Warbler, "Limnothlypis swainsonii"
*Ovenbird, "Seiurus aurocapilla"
*Northern Waterthrush, "Seiurus noveboracensis"
*Louisiana Waterthrush, "Seiurus motacilla"
*Kentucky Warbler, "Oporornis formosus"
*Connecticut Warbler, "Oporornis agilis"
*Mourning Warbler, "Oporornis philadelphia"
*MacGillivray's Warbler, "Oporornis tolmiei"
*Common Yellowthroat, "Geothlypis trichas"
*Gray-crowned Yellowthroat, "Geothlypis poliocephala" (C)
*Hooded Warbler, "Wilsonia citrina"
*Wilson's Warbler, "Wilsonia pusilla"
*Canada Warbler, "Wilsonia canadensis"
*Red-faced Warbler, "Cardellina rubrifrons"
*Painted Redstart, "Myioborus pictus"
*Slate-throated Redstart, "Myioborus miniatus" (C)
*Fan-tailed Warbler, "Euthlypis lachrymosa" (C)
*Golden-crowned Warbler, "Basileuterus culicivorus" (C)
*Rufous-capped Warbler, "Basileuterus rufifrons" (C)
*Yellow-breasted Chat, "Icteria virens"

Bananaquit

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Coerebidae or Genus "Coereba" "Incertae sedis"

The Bananaquit is a small passerine bird. It has a slender, curved bill, adapted to taking nectar from flowers and is the only member of the genus Coereba (Vieillot, 1809) and is normally placed within the family Coerebidae, although there is uncertainty whether that placement is correct (hence the assignment Genus: "Coereba" "Incertae sedis").

*Bananaquit, "Coereba flaveola" (C)

Tanagers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Thraupidae

The tanagers are a large group of small to medium-sized passerine birds restricted to the New World, mainly in the tropics. Many species are brightly coloured. They are seedeaters, but their preference tends towards fruit and nectar. Most have short, rounded wings.

*Hepatic Tanager, "Piranga flava"
*Summer Tanager, "Piranga rubra"
*Scarlet Tanager, "Piranga olivacea"
*Western Tanager, "Piranga ludoviciana"
*Flame-colored Tanager, "Piranga bidentata" (C)
*Western Spindalis, "Spindalis zena" (C)

American sparrows, towhees, juncos, and longspurs

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Emberizidae

The Emberizidae are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with a distinctively shaped bill. In Europe, most species are named as buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as Sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns.

*White-collared Seedeater, "Sporophila torqueola"
*Yellow-faced Grassquit, "Tiaris olivacea" (C)
*Black-faced Grassquit, "Tiaris bicolor" (A)
*Olive Sparrow, "Arremonops rufivirgatus"
*Green-tailed Towhee, "Pipilo chlorurus"
*Spotted Towhee, "Pipilo maculatus"
*Eastern Towhee, "Pipilo erythrophthalmus"
*Canyon Towhee, "Pipilo fuscus"
*California Towhee, "Pipilo crissalis"
*Abert's Towhee, "Pipilo aberti"
*Rufous-winged Sparrow, "Aimophila carpalis"
*Cassin's Sparrow, "Aimophila cassinii"
*Bachman's Sparrow, "Aimophila aestivalis"
*Botteri's Sparrow, "Aimophila botterii"
*Rufous-crowned Sparrow, "Aimophila ruficeps"
*Five-striped Sparrow, "Aimophila quinquestriata"
*American Tree Sparrow, "Spizella arborea"
*Chipping Sparrow, "Spizella passerina"
*Clay-colored Sparrow, "Spizella pallida"
*Brewer's Sparrow, "Spizella breweri"
*Field Sparrow, "Spizella pusilla"
*Worthen's Sparrow, "Spizella wortheni" (A)
*Black-chinned Sparrow, "Spizella atrogularis"
*Vesper Sparrow, "Pooecetes gramineus"
*Lark Sparrow, "Chondestes grammacus"
*Black-throated Sparrow, "Amphispiza bilineata"
*Sage Sparrow, "Amphispiza belli"
*Lark Bunting, "Calamospiza melanocorys"
*Savannah Sparrow, "Passerculus sandwichensis"
*Grasshopper Sparrow, "Ammodramus savannarum"
*Baird's Sparrow, "Ammodramus bairdii"
*Henslow's Sparrow, "Ammodramus henslowii"
*Le Conte's Sparrow, "Ammodramus leconteii"
*Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow, "Ammodramus nelsoni"
*Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrow, "Ammodramus caudacutus"
*Seaside Sparrow, "Ammodramus maritimus"
*Fox Sparrow, "Passerella iliaca"
*Song Sparrow, "Melospiza melodia"
*Lincoln's Sparrow, "Melospiza lincolnii"
*Swamp Sparrow, "Melospiza georgiana"
*White-throated Sparrow, "Zonotrichia albicollis"
*Harris's Sparrow, "Zonotrichia querula"
*White-crowned Sparrow, "Zonotrichia leucophrys"
*Golden-crowned Sparrow, "Zonotrichia atricapilla"
*Dark-eyed Junco, "Junco hyemalis"
*Yellow-eyed Junco, "Junco phaeonotus"
*McCown's Longspur, "Calcarius mccownii"
*Lapland Longspur, "Calcarius lapponicus"
*Smith's Longspur, "Calcarius pictus"
*Chestnut-collared Longspur, "Calcarius ornatus"
*Pine Bunting, "Emberiza leucocephalos" (A)
*Little Bunting, "Emberiza pusilla" (C)
*Rustic Bunting, "Emberiza rustica"
*Yellow-throated Bunting, "Emberiza elegans" (A)
*Yellow-breasted Bunting, "Emberiza aureola" (A)
*Gray Bunting, "Emberiza variabilis" (A)
*Pallas's Bunting, "Emberiza pallasi" (A)
*Reed Bunting, "Emberiza schoeniclus" (C)
*Snow Bunting, "Plectrophenax nivalis"
*McKay's Bunting, "Plectrophenax hyperboreus"


=Cardinals, saltators, and grosbeaks=

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Cardinalidae

The Cardinals are a family of passerine birds that are robust, seed-eating birds, with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumages.

*Crimson-collared Grosbeak, "Rhodothraupis celaeno" (C)
*Northern Cardinal, "Cardinalis cardinalis"
*Pyrrhuloxia, "Cardinalis sinuatus"
*Yellow Grosbeak, "Pheucticus chrysopeplus" (C)
*Rose-breasted Grosbeak, "Pheucticus ludovicianus"
*Black-headed Grosbeak, "Pheucticus melanocephalus"
*Blue Bunting, "Cyanocompsa parellina" (C)
*Blue Grosbeak, "Passerina caerulea"
*Lazuli Bunting, "Passerina amoena"
*Indigo Bunting, "Passerina cyanea"
*Varied Bunting, "Passerina versicolor"
*Painted Bunting, "Passerina ciris"
*Dickcissel, "Spiza americana"


=Blackbirds, meadowlarks, cowbirds, grackles, and orioles=

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Icteridae

The Icterids are a group of small to medium, often colourful passerine birds restricted to the New World and include the grackles, New World blackbirds, and New World orioles. Most species have black as a predominant plumage colour, often enlivened by yellow, orange or red.

*Bobolink, "Dolichonyx oryzivorus"
*Red-winged Blackbird, "Agelaius phoeniceus"
*Tricolored Blackbird, "Agelaius tricolor"
*Tawny-shouldered Blackbird, "Agelaius humeralis" (A)
*Eastern Meadowlark, "Sturnella magna"
*Western Meadowlark, "Sturnella neglecta"
*Yellow-headed Blackbird, "Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus"
*Rusty Blackbird, "Euphagus carolinus"
*Brewer's Blackbird, "Euphagus cyanocephalus"
*Common Grackle, "Quiscalus quiscula"
*Boat-tailed Grackle, "Quiscalus major"
*Great-tailed Grackle, "Quiscalus mexicanus"
*Shiny Cowbird, "Molothrus bonariensis"
*Bronzed Cowbird, "Molothrus aeneus"
*Brown-headed Cowbird, "Molothrus ater"
*Black-vented Oriole, "Icterus wagleri" (A)
*Orchard Oriole, "Icterus spurius"
*Hooded Oriole, "Icterus cucullatus"
*Streak-backed Oriole, "Icterus pustulatus" (C)
*Bullock's Oriole, "Icterus bullockii"
*Spot-breasted Oriole, "Icterus pectoralis" (I)
*Altamira Oriole, "Icterus gularis"
*Audubon's Oriole, "Icterus graduacauda"
*Baltimore Oriole, "Icterus galbula"
*Scott's Oriole, "Icterus parisorum"

Finches

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Fringillidae

Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have 12 tail feathers and 9 primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well.

*Common Chaffinch, "Fringilla coelebs" (A)
*Brambling, "Fringilla montifringilla"
*Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch, "Leucosticte tephrocotis"
*Black Rosy-Finch, "Leucosticte atrata"
*Brown-capped Rosy-Finch, "Leucosticte australis"
*Pine Grosbeak, "Pinicola enucleator"
*Common Rosefinch, "Carpodacus erythrinus" (C)
*Purple Finch, "Carpodacus purpureus"
*Cassin's Finch, "Carpodacus cassinii"
*House Finch, "Carpodacus mexicanus"
*Red Crossbill, "Loxia curvirostra"
*White-winged Crossbill, "Loxia leucoptera"
*Common Redpoll, "Carduelis flammea"
*Hoary Redpoll, "Carduelis hornemanni"
*Eurasian Siskin, "Carduelis spinus" (A)
*Pine Siskin, "Carduelis pinus"
*Lesser Goldfinch, "Carduelis psaltria"
*Lawrence's Goldfinch, "Carduelis lawrencei"
*American Goldfinch, "Carduelis tristis"
*Oriental Greenfinch, "Carduelis sinica" (C)
*Eurasian Bullfinch, "Pyrrhula pyrrhula" (C)
*Evening Grosbeak, "Coccothraustes vespertinus"
*Hawfinch, "Coccothraustes coccothraustes" (C)


=Old World sparrows=

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Passeridae

Old World sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small plump brownish or greyish birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed-eaters, and they also consume small insects.

*House Sparrow, "Passer domesticus (I)"
*Eurasian Tree Sparrow, "Passer montanus (I)"

ee also

*List of birds
*Lists of birds by region

References

Citations

ources

*cite book |url=http://www.aou.org/checklist |title=Check-list of North American Birds |publisher=American Ornithologists' Union |location=Washington, D.C. |year=1998 |edition=7th edition |isbn=1-891276-00-X |accessdate=2008-02-26
*cite web |url=http://www.americanbirding.org/checklist.pdf |title=ABA checklist |accessdate=2008-02-26 |publisher=American Birding Association
*cite journal |title=Splitting headaches? Recent taxonomic changes affecting the British and Western Palaearctic lists |first=Martin |last=Collinson |journal=British Birds |volume=99 |date=June 2006 |pages=306–23


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