Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity


Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity

Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a mechanism of cell-mediated immunity whereby an effector cell of the immune system actively lyses a target cell that has been bound by specific antibodies. It is one of the mechanisms through which antibodies, as part of the humoral immune response, can act to limit and contain infection. Classical ADCC is mediated by natural killer (NK) cells; monocytes and eosinophils can also mediate ADCC. For example Eosinophils can kill certain parasitic worms known as helminths through ADCC. ADCC is part of the adaptive immune response due to its dependence on a prior antibody response.

ADCC by NK cells

The typical ADCC involves activation of NK cells by antibodies. An NK cell's Fc receptor recognizes the Fc portion of an antibody, such as IgG, which has bound to the surface of a pathogen-infected target cell. The most common Fc receptor on the surface of an NK Cell is called CD16 or FcγRIII. Once bound to the Fc receptor of IgG, the Natural Killer cell releases cytokines such as IFN-γ, and cytotoxic granules containing perforin and granzymes that enter the target cell and promote cell death by triggering apoptosis. This is similar to, but independent of, responses by cytotoxic T cells (CTLs).

ADCC by eosinophils

Large parasites like helminths are too big to be engulfed and killed by phagocytosis. They also have an external structure or integument that is resistant to attack by substances released by neutrophils and macrophages. However, an antibody called IgE can coat these parasites. The Fc receptor (FceRI) of an eosinophil can then recognize IgE. The interaction between FceRI and the Fc portion of helminth-bound IgE causes the eosniophil to degranulate.

Further reading

*cite book | author = Janeway CA, Jr. "et al" | title = Immunobiology. | edition = 5th ed. | publisher = Garland Publishing | year = 2001 | id = [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?call=bv.View..ShowTOC&rid=imm.TOC&depth=10 (electronic full text via NCBI Bookshelf)] ISBN 0-8153-3642-X
*cite book | author = Pier GB, Lyczak JB, Wetzler LM | title = Immunology, Infection, and Immunity | edition = | publisher = ASM Press| year = 2004 | id = ISBN 1-55581-246-5

External links

* [http://www-micro.msb.le.ac.uk/3035/3035Immunopath.html University of Leicester] , Virus Immunopathology Notes
*


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity — An immune response in which antibody, by coating target cells, makes them vulnerable to attack by immune cells. Antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity is commonly (and blissfully) abbreviated ADCC. * * * (ADCC), antibody dependent cellular …   Medical dictionary

  • antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity — (ADCC) The killing of antibody coated target cells by cells with Fc receptors that recognize the Fc region of the bound antibody. Most ADCC is mediated by NK cells that have the Fc receptor or CD16 on their surface …   Dictionary of microbiology

  • antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity — (= ADCC) Killing of target cells by lymphocytes or other leucocytes that carry antibody specific for the target cell, attached to their Fc receptors. The cell involved in the killing may be a passive carrier of the antibody …   Dictionary of molecular biology

  • cell-mediated cytotoxicity — cytolysis of a target cell by effector lymphocytes, such as cytotoxic T lymphocytes or NK cells; it may be antibody dependent (see antibody dependent cell mediated c.) or independent, as in certain type IV hypersensitivity reactions (q.v.) …   Medical dictionary

  • Cytotoxicity — is the quality of being toxic to cells. Examples of toxic agents are a chemical substance, an immune cell or some types of venom (e.g. from the puff adder or brown recluse spider). Contents 1 Cell physiology 2 Measuring cytotoxicity …   Wikipedia

  • Cell — The basic structural and functional unit in people and all living things. Each cell is a small container of chemicals and water wrapped in a membrane. Each cell in the human body there are 100 trillion cells in each of us contains the entire… …   Medical dictionary

  • cytotoxicity — The quality or state of being cytotoxic. antibody dependent cell mediated c. (ADCC) a form of cell mediated c. that functions by binding of the FC region of IgG antibodies to Fc receptors on leukocytes. The FAB region of the antibody binds to the …   Medical dictionary

  • Monoclonal antibody therapy — Each antibody binds only one specific antigen. Monoclonal antibody therapy is the use of monoclonal antibodies (or mAb) to specifically bind to target cells or proteins. This may then stimulate the patient s immune system to attack those cells.… …   Wikipedia

  • Natural killer cell — Latin lymphocytus K Code TH H2.00.04.1.02006 Natural killer cells (or NK cells) are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte that constitute a major component of the innate immune system. NK cells play a major role in the rejection of …   Wikipedia

  • ADCC — Antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity, an immune response in which antibody, by coating target cells, makes them vulnerable to attack by immune cells. Antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity is commonly (and blissfully) abbreviated… …   Medical dictionary


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.