Timeline of ancient Rome


Timeline of ancient Rome

This is a Timeline of events concerning ancient Rome, from the city foundation until the last attempt of the Eastern Roman Empire to re-conquer Rome.

8th century BC

* 753 BCndash Traditional date for the founding of Rome by Romulus; Rome as a kingdom
* 753/715 BCndash reign of Romulus
* 715/673 BCndash reign of Numa Pompilius: creation of the Roman senate and the priestly officials

7th century BC

* 673/641 BCndash reign of Tullus Hostilius
* 641/617 BCndash reign of Ancus Marcius
* 616/579 BCndash reign of Tarquinius Priscus

6th century BC

* 578/534 BCndash reign of Servius Tullius: defined the sacred boundary of Rome - the "pomerium"; first census
* 534/509 BCndash reign of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the last Roman king: builds temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus
* 509 BCndash Roman Republic begins: expulsion of Tarquinius Superbus: first consuls are Lucius Junius Brutus and Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus
* 508 BCndash The office of "pontifex maximus" (high priest)

5th century BC

* 496 BCndash Rome defeat the Etruscans at the battle of Lake Regillus
* 494 BCndash Following the first Secession of the Plebs, two tribunes of the plebs and two plebeian aediles are elected for the first time
* 459 BCndash The college of the tribune of the Plebs is raised from two to ten tribunes
* 449 BCndash The "Decemviri" publish the Twelve Tables of Roman law
* 447 BCndash Assembly of the People created: two quaestors elected for the first time
* 445 BC - Marriage between patricians and plebeians allowed
* 443 BC
**The office of consul is replaced by an assembly of military tribune with consular powers, the Tribuni militum consulari potestate for this year.
** Office of Censor created. Duties of Censor were Consular duties until this point, where consuls are replaced.
* 421 BCndash Number of quaestors raised from 2 to 4; office opened to plebeians
* 408 BCndash Consul replaced with Tribuni militum consulari potestate .

4th century BC

* 396 BC
** Rome captures and sacks the Etruscan city of Veii after a 10-year siege, the final assault was conducted by Marcus Furius Camillus
**Roman soldiers earn their first salary
* 394 BCndash Office of consul replaces Tribuni militum consulari potestate.
* 391 BCndash Office of Tribuni militum consulari potestate replaces office of consul.
* 390 BCndash The Gauls defeat the Roman army at the battle of the Allia; sack of Rome by the Gauls
* 375/371 BCndash Anarchy years: no magistrates elected
* 367 BCndash Office of consul replaces Tribuni militum consulari potestate for "last" time.
* 366 BC
**Elected the first non-patrician consul: Lucius Sextius Sextinus
**Office of "Praetor urbanus" created
* 351 BCndash Elected the first non-patrician censor
* 343 BCndash Beginning of the First Samnite war
* 342 BC
** Battle of Mount Gaurus.
** "Lex Genucia" passed: no man can hold the same office before 10 years have elapsed from the first election
* 341 BCndash Rome withdraws from the conflict with the Samnites. End of First Samnite war.
* 340 BCndash Rome enters the Latin War on the side of the Samnites.
* 338 BCndash End of the Latin War. Latin League dissolved, and territory placed under Roman control.
* 326 BCndash Second Samnite war begins.
* 321 BCndash Battle of the Caudine Forks.
* 316 BCndash Battle of Lautulae.
* 311 BCndash Etruscans join the Samnites against Rome.
* 310 BCndash Battle of Lake Vadimo between Rome and the Etruscans.
* 308 BCndash The Second Samnite war escalates when the Umbrians, Picentini, and Marsians join the war- against Rome.
* 306 BCndash The Hernici revolt against Rome (Livy ix. 42).
* 305 BCndash Battle of Bovianum ends with Samnite defeat and the end of main Samnite resistance.
* 304 BCndash Aequi defeated.
* 304 BCndash End of the Second Samnite War. Rome establishes many new colonies and gains control over much of central and southern Italy.
* 300 BCndash "Lex Ogulnia" passed: priesthoods opened to plebeians

3rd century BC

* 298 BCndash Third Samnite war begins
* 298 BCndash The Romans capture the Samnite cities of Taurasia, Bovianum Vetus and Aufidena.
* 297 BCndash Consul Fabius Maximus Rullianus defeats the Samnites near Tifernum (Liv. 10.14).8* 295 BCndash Battle of Sentinum.
* 294 BCndash Samnite victory at Luceria.
* 293 BCndash Battle of Aquilonia.
* 291 BCndash The Romans storm the Samnite city of Venusia.
* 290 BCndash End of the third Samnite War.
* 283 BCndash Rome defeats the Etruscans and the Boii (a Gallic tribe) in the Battle of Lake Vadimo
* 281 BC - Mounting tensions between Rome and Tarentum. Tarentum appeals to Pyrrhus of Epirus for aid.
* 280 BC
**Pyrrhus lands army in Italy. Beginning of the Pyrrhic War.
**Battle of Heraclea
* 279 BCndash Battle of Asculum.
* 275ndash Battle of Beneventum.
* 272 BC
**Pyrrhus withdraws to Epirus, end of the Pyrrhic War.
**Tarentum surrenders to Rome.
* 267 BCndash Number of quaestors raised from 4 to 6
* 264/241 BCndash First Punic War against Carthage
* 242 BC - Office of "Praetor peregrinus" created
* 241 BCndash Following the defeat of Carthage, Sardinia and Corsica becomes the first Roman province
* 229 BCndash First Illyrian War begins.
* 227 BC
**First Illyrian War ends with the surrender of Queen Teuta.
**Number of quaestors raised from 6 to 8; number of praetors raised from 2 to 4
* 224 BCndash Rome defeats invading Gallic army at the Battle of Telamon
* 223 BCndash Rome defeats Gauls in Cisalpine Gaul
* 220 BCndash Second Illyrian War begins.
* 219 BCndash Second Illyrian War ends.
* 218/201 BCndash Second Punic War against Carthage. Rome is defeated at the Battle of the River Trebia.
* 216 BCndash Hannibal inflicts a disaster for Rome at the Battle of Cannae
* 214/205 BCndash First Macedonian War, Romans defeated
* 213/211 BCndash Siege of Syracuse, Rome captures the city
* 204/202 BCndash Scipio Africanus Major invades Africa, Hannibal recalled and defeated in the Battle of Zama in 202 BC
* 202/196 BCndash Second Macedonian War, Roman victory

2nd century BC

* 197 BC
**Hispania Ulterior and Hispania Tarraconensis become Roman provinces
** Number of quaestors raised from 8 to 12; number of praetors raised from 4 to 6
* 192/189 BCndash Syrian war against the Seleucid dynasty
* 180 BCndash "Lex Villia annalis": established minimum ages for the "cursus honorum" offices; determined an interval of two years between offices
* 172/167 BCndash Third Macedonian War, Roman victory
* 154/138 BCndash War against the Lusitanians
* 149/146 BCndash Third Punic War against Carthage
* 149/148 BCndash Fourth Macedonian War
* 149 BCndash A permanent extortion court is established by "Lex Calpurnia"
* 146 BCndash Scipio Aemilianus Africanus (Scipio Africanus the Younger) puts an end to the Punic and Macedonian threat by destroying the cities of Carthage and Corinth; Macedonia and Africa are annexed as provinces
* 133 BCndash The tribune Tiberius Gracchus is murdered after approving an agrarian reform
* 121 BC
**Rome acquires the province of Transalpine Gaul (south of modern France) and a safe land route to Hispania
**The Senate approves the first "Senatus consultum de re publica defenda" to deal with the threat of violence started by tribune Gaius Gracchus
*112 BCndash Jugurthine War against king Jughurta of Numidia begins.
*107 BC
**Gaius Marius elected consul based on election promise to end the war in one year.
**Marian reforms of the Roman Legions put into effect.
*106 BC
**Gaius Marius elected consul a second time, and "in absentia", to continue the Jugurthine War.
*105 BC
**Jugurthine War ends with the capture of Jughurta.
**The invading tribe of the Cimbri inflict a major defeat on the Roman army in the battle of Arausio
*104/102 BC - Gaius Marius elected consul for three years in a row
*102 BC - Consular armies under Gaius Marius defeat Teutons in the Battle of Aquae Sextiae
*101 BC - Romans under Marius (proconsul) and Quintus Lutatius Catulus (consul) defeat the Cimbri in the Battle of Vercellae
*100 BC
**Gaius Marius elected consul for a 6th time.
**Political scandal surrounding Lucius Appuleius Saturninus forces Gaius Marius to retire from public life.

1st century BC

* 91/88 BCndash Social wars, the last rebellion of the Italian nations against Rome
* 88 BCndash Sulla crosses the "pomerium" with his legions and invades Rome
* 88/85 BCndash First Mithridatic War against Mithridates VI of Pontus
* 83/82 BCndash First Roman civil war, between Sulla and the popular faction; Sulla wins and becomes "dictator"; censor office abolished (to be recreated in 70 BC)
* 83/82 BCndash Second Mithridatic War; Sulla returns to Rome and is nominated "dictator"
* 82/72 BCndash Sertorius, the last Marian general continues the civil war in Hispania
* 74/66 BCndash Third Mithridatic War, eventually won by Pompey
* 67 BCndash Pompey clears the Mediterranean of pirates
* 63 BC
**Fall of Jerusalem
**consulship of Cicero; Catiline conspiracies
* 59/54 BCndash An informal coalition is formed by Gāius Jūlius Caesar, Cnaeus Pompeius Magnus and Marcus Licinius Crassus to govern the Roman republic. This coalition is often referred to as the First triumvirate, even though it did not have the official sanction of law required for a legal triumvirate.
* 58/50 BCndash Caesar fights the Gallic wars, acquiring the province of Gallia Comata
* 54/53 BCndash First campaign against the Parthian Empire; Crassus utterly defeated and killed
* 49 BCndash Caesar crosses the Rubicon ("alea iacta est") and begins the Second Roman civil war against the "Optimates", the conservative faction of the senate, led by Pompey
* 48/45 BCndash Caesar pursues and defeats the "Optimates" in Greece and Africa
* 44 BCndash Caesar is assassinated on the Ides of March
* 44/42 BCndash Third Roman civil war, between the assassins of Caesar (led by Cassius and Brutus) and Caesar's heirs, Octavian and Mark Antony
* 43 BCndash Octavian, Antony and Lepidus form the second triumvirate
* 36 BCndash Antony's Parthian campaign ends in failure
* 32 BCndash End of peaceful relations between Octavian and Antony
*31 BCndash In the battle of Actium, Octavian decisively defeats Antony and Cleopatra
*30 BCndash Antony and Cleopatra commit suicide; Egypt becomes a Roman province
*27 BCndash End of the Republic, beginning of the Roman Empire: Octavian is now called Augustus Caesar and becomes the sole ruler of Rome
* 28/24 BCndash Augustus' campaigns against the Cantabrians in Hispania Tarraconensis (see Cantabrian Wars)
* 16/15 BCndash Augustus' campaigns against the Alpine tribes
* 12/7 BCndash Tiberius and Drusus conquer Pannonia and campaign against the Germanic tribes


=1st century AD=

* 5ndash Tiberius conquers Germania Inferior
* 6ndash Judaea becomes a Roman province
* 6/9ndash Rebellions in Pannonia and Dalmatia suppressed by Germanicus
* 9ndash Three Roman legions are ambushed and massacred by the Germans in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
* 11ndash Germania Inferior and the Rhine secured by Germanicus
* 14ndash Death of Augustus, Tiberius becomes emperor
* 14/15ndash Germanicus campaigns against the Germanic tribes
* 25ndash Caesar Germanicus adopts his nephew Castor as his heir
* 26ndash Tiberius retires to Capri, governing Rome by proxy
* 28ndash The tribe of the Frisii rebel because of taxes
* 31ndash The fall of Sejanus
* 37ndash Tiberius dies; Caligula becomes emperor
* 41ndash Caligula assassinated, Claudius becomes emperor
* 43ndash Claudius orders the Roman invasion of Britain
* 54ndash Claudius is allegedly poisoned by his wife Agrippinilla. Her son Nero becomes emperor
* 58/63ndash Nero orders war then peace with Parthia. Armenia is secured.
* 60/61ndash Boudica, queen of the Iceni, leads a rebellion in Britain.
* 64ndash Great Fire of Rome
* 66/74ndash Jewish rebellions in Judea
*68ndash military coup leads to Nero's suicidendash end of the Julio-Claudian dynasty; succeeded by Galba
*69ndash Year of the four emperors: after the assassination of Galba, Otho and Vitellius briefly become emperors before Vespasian's accession to power in the end of the year; Flavian dynasty begins
*69/70ndash Civilis leads the Batavian rebellion in Germania Inferior; defeated by Quintus Petillius Cerialis
*71/84ndash Pacification of Britain, conquest of modern Wales and Scotland
*79
** Titus becomes emperor
**August 24, An eruption of Vesuvius destroys much of Pompeii and Herculaneum
*80ndash Rome partially destroyed by fire
*81ndash Titus dies suddenly; his brother Domitian becomes emperor
*85ndash King Decebalus of Dacia rebels and invades Moesia
*89ndash Rebellions in Germania Inferior and Pannonia force peace with Decebalus of Dacia
*96ndash Domitian assassinatedndash end of Flavian dynasty; succeeded by Nerva, the first of the Five good emperors
*98ndash Trajan becomes emperor


=2nd century AD=

*101/102ndash First Dacian War
*105/106ndash Second Dacian War; king Decebalus commits suicide and Dacia becomes a province
* 106ndash Building of Trajan's Forum and construction of Trajan's column
*113/117ndash Trajan's successful campaigns against the Parthian Empire
*115/117ndash Jewish rebellions in Egypt
*117ndash Hadrian becomes emperor
*121/125ndash Hadrian travels through the Northern Empire
*122ndash construction of Hadrian's Wall begins
*128/132ndash Hadrian travels through Africa and the Eastern Empire
*131/135 - Jewish rebellions led by Simon bar Kokhba
*138ndash Antoninus Pius becomes emperor
*140/143ndash After a rebellion Antoninus conquers Scotland; construction of Antonine Wall begins
*150/163ndash rebellions in Scotland, Antonine Wall is abandoned and reoccupied several times
*161ndash Marcus Aurelius becomes emperor
*162/166ndash Lucius Verus successful campaigns against the Parthian Empire
*167ndash The tribe of the Marcomanni crosses the Danube and invades Dacia
*168/175ndash Marcus Aurelius' campaigns against the Marcomanni
*180ndash Death of Marcus Aurelius, the last of the Five good emperors; Commodus becomes emperor
*184ndash Antonine Wall abandoned for the last time
*193ndash Commodus is murdered. After the short reigns of Pertinax and Didius Julianus, Septimius Severus becomes emperor. There is opposition from first Pescennius Niger and then Clodius Albinus
*197ndash Septimius Severus secures the empire after the battle of Lugdunum
*198ndash Septimius Severus invades Parthia


=3rd century AD=

*208/211ndash Severus campaigns against the Caledonians
*211ndash Severus dies. His sons Caracalla and Geta become joint emperors. Caracalla has Geta murdered shortly thereafter.
*217ndash Caracalla assassinated; Macrinus becomes emperor
*218ndash Macrinus deposed and executed, Elagabalus is installed on the throne
*222ndash Elagabalus is murdered. Alexander Severus becomes emperor
*231-3ndash War against Persia
*235ndash Alexander killed in a soldier mutiny. Maximinus Thrax becomes emperor.
*238ndash Year of the Six Emperors. The Senate supports a revolt of Gordian I and Gordian II in Africa. These two are defeated by an ally of Thrax, and the Senate appoints Balbinus and Pupienus as co-emperors. They are soon assassinated, and Thrax is killed in a mutiny. The young Gordian III becomes emperor.
*241ndash Victory over the Persians at Resaina.
*244ndash Romans defeated at Misiche. Philip the Arab becomes emperor.
*249ndash Decius usurps the throne with support from the Danubian legions. He names his son Herennius co-emperor.
*251ndash Decius and Herennius defeated and slain by Cniva, king of the Goths. Another son of Decius, Hostilian is briefly emperor, but dies in a plague outbreak. Gallus and his son Volusianus become emperors.
*252ndash King Shapur I of Persia defeats the Romans at Barbalissos.
*253ndash Aemilianus becomes emperor after leading a revolt and Gallus and Volusianus are slain by their own troops. Valerian and his son Gallienus become emperors after Aemilianus is killed by his own soldiers. Shapur captures Antioch.
*257ndash Valerian retakes Antioch. The Franks invade Gaul and Iberia (Hispania). The Alemanni invades Italy but are defeated at Milan.
*258ndash Goths invade Asia Minor
*260ndash Valerian is taken captive by the Persians. Retreating Persian army attacked by Odaenathus of Palmyra. Postumus proclaimed emperor in Gaul. He is also supported in Iberia (Hispania) and Britain.
*267ndash Odaenathus assassinated. His widow Zenobia takes control of Palmyra
*268ndash Gallienus defeats Gothic invasion, but is later assassinated. Claudius II becomes emperor.
*269ndash Postumus is killed. Victorinus proclaimed emperor in Gaul and Britain. The Palmyrenes takes Egypt and Syria. Claudius defeats the Goths at Naissus in Moesia.
*270ndash Claudius dies of plague. After a brief rule by Claudius' brother Quintillus, Aurelian becomes emperor.
*271ndash Aurelian campaigns against the Vandals, Juthungi and the Sarmatians. Victorinus is murdered and his soldiers proclaim Tetricus I emperor
*272ndash Aurelian defeats Zenobia at Antioch and Emesa and takes Palmyra. Zenobia is captured. The province of Dacia is abandoned.
*273ndash Palmyra revolts. The city is destroyed by Aurelian.
*274ndash Aurelian defeats the army of Tericus at the Catalaunian fields.
*275ndash Aurelian is murdered. Tacitus becomes emperor.
*276ndash Tacitus dies. After the brief reign and assassination of Florianus, Probus becomes emperor.
*277ndash The Burgundians, Longiones, Alemanni and Franks defeated.
*279ndash Probus campaigns against the Vandals in Illyricum.
*282ndash Carus proclaimed emperor. Probus killed by his own troops.
*283ndash Carus dies during an invasion of Persia. His sons Carinus and Numerian become emperors.
*284ndash Numerian dies. Diocletian proclaimed emperor and marches against Carinus.
*285ndash Carinus dies in battle against Diocletian. Diocletian splits the empire into two halves and appoints Maximian emperor of the Western portion while Diocletian rules the East.
*286ndash Carausius revolts in Britain.
*293ndash Diocletian appoints Constantius I and Galerius as caesars. Carausius murdered by Allectus who proclaims himself emperor.
*296ndash Allectus defeated and slain.
*299ndash Galerius defeats the Sarmatians and the Carpi


=4th century AD=

*301ndash Diocletian issues the Edict on Maximum Prices.
*303ndash Diocletian orders the persecution of Christians.
*305ndash Diocletian and Maximian abdicate. Constantius and Galerius becomes Augusti. Maximinus is appointed Caesar in the east and Severus in the west.
*306ndash Constantius dies at York. His son Constantine I proclaimed emperor. Maxentius, son of Maximian, proclaims himself emperor in Rome.
*307ndash Maxentius reinvests his father Maximian as emperor. Severus is put to death. Galerius lays siege to Rome.
*308ndash Conference of Carnuntum. Diocletian convinces Maximian to step down. Licinius appointed Caesar in the East.
*310ndash Maximian again proclaims himself emperor, but is captured by Constantine. He commits suicide.
*311ndash Galerius dies at Sardica. Maximinus and Licinius split his realm between them.
*312ndash Constantine defeats and kills Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge. Licinius marries Constantine's sister Constantia. Constantine converts to Christianity.
*313ndash Licinus defeats Maximinus twice. Maximinus dies at Tarsus.
*Constantine issues Edict of Milan, ending persecution of Christians and establishing religious toleration throughout the Empire.
*314ndash Constantine defeats Licinius at Cibalae
*317ndash Constantine defeats Licinius on the Campus Ardiensis. Licinius forced to cede all his European provinces except Thrace.
*318ndash Excommunication of Arius.
*324ndash Constantine defeats Licinius at the Hebrus River and at Chrysopolis. Licinius abdicates.
*325ndash The Ecumenical Council of Nicaea.
*326ndash Constantine orders the death of his oldest son, Crispus.
*330ndash Constantine makes Constantinople the capital.
*332ndash Constantine campaigns against the Goths.
*334ndash Constantine campaigns against the Sarmatians.
*337ndash Constantine dies at Nicomedia. His three sons, Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans become emperors.
*338ndash Constantine II defeats the Alemanni. War with Persia.
*340ndash Constantine II invades Italy. He is ambushed and slain by Constans at Aquileia.
*341ndash Constans and Constantius II issue a ban against pagan sacrifice.
*347ndash The Donatists revolt in Africa.
*348ndash Constantius defeats the Persians at the Battle of Singara.
*350ndash Magnentius usurps the throne in the west. Constans is captured and killed. Julius Nepotian attacks Rome with a band of gladiators
*351ndash Constantius appoints his cousin Constantius Gallus as Caesar. Magnentius is defeated at Mursa.
*353ndash Constantius defeats Magnentius at Mons Seleuci. Magnentius commits suicide.
*354ndash Gallus is put to death.
*355ndash Julian is appointed Caesar in Gaul.
*357ndash Julian defeats the Franks at Strasbourg.
*360ndash With a Persian war imminent, Constantius orders Julian to send several legions east. The troops mutiny and proclaim Julian Augustus.
*361ndash Constantius dies of illness, naming Julian his successor. Julian openly declares himself a pagan, but his attempt at rejuvenating paganism in the empire fails.
*363ndash Julian invades Persia, but forced to retreat, he is mortally wounded during a skirmish and dies. Jovian is proclaimed emperor.
*364ndash Jovian dies of accidental asphyxiation. Valentinian I becomes emperor and splits the empire with his brother Valens.
*375ndash Valentinian dies and is succeeded by Gratian as Western emperor.
*378ndash Valens is defeated and killed by the Goths at the Battle of Adrianople. Theodosius I succeeds him as Eastern emperor.
*384ndash Gratian is murdered, Valentinian II becomes emperor.
*392ndash Valentinian II dies of apparent suicide, though murder by Arbogast is more likely. Arbogast installs the puppet Eugenius on the Western throne, but Theodosius refuses to recognize the usurper.
*394ndash Eugenius and Arbogast are deposed and killed by Theodosius, who briefly reunites the empire for the last time.
*395ndash Theodosius I dies, leaving the Western empire to his son Honorius and the Eastern empire to his son Arcadius.


=5th century AD=

*410ndash Rome is sacked by Alaric I
*423ndash After a long and disastrous reign, Honorius dies; succeeded by the usurper Joannes
*425ndash Valentinian III becomes Western emperor
*447ndash Eastern Rome loses to Attila the Hun
*452ndash Attila the Hun is turned away from Rome by Pope Leo I.
*455ndash Valentinian III is assassinated and succeeded by Petronius Maximus as emperor. Rome is plundered by the Vandals, and Maximus is killed during mob violence. Avitus becomes emperor of the west.
*457ndash Avitus is deposed by the "magister militum" Ricimer and killed. Majorian is installed as Western emperor.
*461ndash Majorian is deposed by Ricimer. Libius Severus becomes Western emperor.
*465ndash Libius Severus dies, possibly poisoned by Ricimer.
*467ndash Anthemius becomes western emperor with the support of Leo I.
*468ndash War against the Vandals by the joint forces of both empires. Naval expedition ends in failure.
*472ndash Ricimer kills Anthemius and makes Olybrius new western emperor. Both Ricimer and Olybrius die of natural causes. Gundobad becomes "magister militum" in Italy.
*473ndash Gundobad makes Glycerius new western emperor.
*474ndash Gundobad leaves Italy to take part in a succession struggle among the Burgundians. Glycerius is deposed by Julius Nepos who proclaims himself western emperor.
*475ndash Julius Nepos forced to flee to Dalmatia by his "magister militum" Orestes. Orestes proclaims his own son Romulus Augustus as western emperor.
*476ndash Germanic general Odoacer kills Orestes, forces Romulus Augustus to abdicate and proclaims himself King of Italy. Traditional date for the fall of the western Roman Empire.
*480ndash Julius Nepos, still claiming to be emperor, is killed in Dalmatia. "De jure" end of the western Roman Empire.


=6th century AD and beyond=

*533ndash Justinian I begins to restore the empire in the west; Belisarius defeats the Vandals at the Battle of Ad Decimum and the Battle of Ticameron
*536ndash Belisarius recaptures Rome from the Ostrogoths
*552ndash Narses defeats the Ostrogoths at the Battle of Taginae
*553ndash Narses defeats the Ostrogoths at the Battle of Mons Lactarius
*568ndash The Lombards invade Italy; no further attempts to restore the empire
*607ndash Emperor Phocas donates The Pantheon to the Pope and has a column erected in the Forum.
*663ndash Constans II is the last emperor to visit Rome, and the city gradually slips out of imperial control.

ee also

*Ancient History
*History of Rome
**Ancient Rome
**Founding of Rome
**Roman Kingdom
**Roman Republic
**Roman Empire
*List of ancient Romans
*List of Roman battles
*Military History of Rome
*Political Institutions of Rome
*Roman culture.


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