List of Roman laws


List of Roman laws

This is a partial list of Roman laws. The name of the law is usually the gens of the legislator, declined on the feminine form (because in Latin law - lex, plural leges - is a word with feminine gender). When a law is the initiative of the two consuls, is given the name of the two, with the senior consul gens signalled first. Sometimes, a short description of the content of the law is added. Some laws listed have been made after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, but they were heavily influenced by Roman laws that were made before.

Roman laws

*"Lex Acilia Calpurnia" (67 BC)ndash permanent exclusion from office in cases of electoral corruption
*"Lex Acilia de intercalando" (191 BC)ndash adjustment of the calendar
*"Lex Acilia repetundarum" (123 BC)ndash repetundae procedures for jurors in courts overseeing senatorial ass to prevent corruption abroad.
*"Lex Aebutia de formulis" (c. 150 BC)ndash authorized praetor's discretion to be introduced into the court of the praetor urbanus, praetor able to remodel private law of Rome
*"Lex Aebutia de magistratibus extraordinariis" (154 BC?)ndash proposer of extra-ordinary magistracy cannot hold it
*"Lex Aelia et Fufia" (c. 150 BC?)ndash two laws probably regulating auspices
*"Lex Aelia Sentia" (AD 4)ndash manumissions of slaves
*"Lex Aemilia"ndash distribution of freedmen among tribes
*"Lex Aemilia De Censoribus" (c. 433 BC)ndash Passed during the Dictatorship of Mamercus Aemilius, by which the Censors were elected for a year and a half, rather than the entire five year period of the lustrum (Liv. IV.24, IX.33).
*"Lex Antonia de Termessibus"ndash alliance with Termessus
*"Leges Antoniae"ndash measures of Mark Antony against dictatorship etc
*"Lex Appuleia" (103 BC and 100 BC)ndash measures of Saturninus
*"Lex Aquilia" (possibly 286 BC, at least before 3rd century BC)
*"Lex Aternia-Tarpeia" (454 BC)ndash maximum fines
*"Lex Atinia" (149 BC)ndash Tribunes of the plebs automatically promoted to the senate
*"Lex Atinia de usucapione" (197 BC or 149 BC)ndash Dealing with ownership
*"Lex Aufeia"ndash settlement of Asia c. 124 BC
*"Lex Aufidia de ambitu" (61 BC)ndash Candidate who promises money and does not pay it should be unpunished
*"Lex Aurelia de tribunicia potestate" (75 BC)
*"Lex Aurelia iudiciaria" (70 BC)ndash Judices should be chosen from senatores, equites and tribuni aerarii
*"Lex Baebia" (192 BC)ndash number of praetors
*"Lex Calpurnia" (149 BC)ndash Establishes a permanent extortion court
*"Lex Canuleia" (445 BC)ndash Allows patricians and plebeians to intermarry
*"Lex Cassia" (137 BC)ndash Introduces secret votes in court jury decisions
*"Lex citationis" (AD 426)ndash During court proceedings, only five Roman lawyers could be cited
*"Lex Claudia" (218 BC)ndash Prohibits senators from participating in overseas trade
*"Lex Cornelia Annalis" (81 BC)ndash A sanction law for Sulla's past acts; part of his program to strengthen the Senate.
*"Lex Cornelia de sicariis et veneficiis" (80 BC)ndash dealing with injuries and deaths obtained by magic
*"Lex Curiata" (59 BC)ndash law to enable the Patrician P. Clodius Pulcher to be adopted into the Plebeian gens Fonteia, in order to apply for the popular tribunate
*"Lex Domitia de sacerdotis" (104 BC)ndash Establishes election of "pontifex maximus", until then chosen by the college of priests
*"Lex Fufia" (c. 150 BC)ndash substitute with the Lex Aelia in place of the obsolete patrum auctoritas
*"Lex Fufia Caninia" (2 BC)ndash limitation of manumission.
*"Lex Gabinia" (67 BC)ndash Pompey has special powers in the Mediterranean to fight against pirates.
*"Lex Gabinia tabellaria" (139 BC)ndash Introduces secret votes in election for magistrate offices
*"Lex Gellia Cornelia" (72 BC)ndash consuls of this year authorized Pompey to confer Roman citizenship to the deserving. Pompey's "clientela" and Spaniards were the beneficiaries
*"Leges Genuciae" (342 BC)ndash No man can hold the same office before 10 years have elapsed from the first election
*"Lex Hadriana" (?)ndash Hadrian's law that enabled permanent tenants to develop land, it was an extension of the Lex Marciana.
*"Lex Hieronica" (240 BC)ndash Taxation of Sicily
*"Lex Hortensia" (287 BC)ndash Plebiscites approved by the Assembly of the People gain the status of law
*"Lex Icilia" (454 BC)ndash Gave land to plebeians
*"Lex Iulia" (90 BC)ndash brought by consul L. Caesar, offered citizenship to all Italians who had not raised arms against Rome in the Italian War (Social War).
*"Lex Iulia de Adulteriis Coercendis" (18 BC)ndash made conjugal unfaithfulness a public as well as a private offense, with banishment a possible penalty
*"Lex Iulia de Maritandis Ordinibus" (18 BC)ndash marrying-age celibates and young widows that would not marry were barred from receiving inheritances and from attending public games
*"Lex Iulia de Repetundis" (59 BC)ndash Regarding extortion in the provinces
*"Lex Iulia Municipalis" (45 BC)ndash Set regulations for the Italian municipalities.
*"Lex Iunia Norbana" (c. 19 BC)ndash Regarding status of freedmen
*"Leges Juliae" (18 BC)ndash Regarding marriage
*"Lex Licinia Mucia" (95 BC)ndash Removed Latins and Italians from Rome.
*"Lex Licinia Pompeia" (55 BC)ndash Pompey and Crassus set forth to prolong Caesar's proconsulship in both the Gauls for another 5 years.
*"Lex Licinia Sextia" (367 BC)ndash Resumes consulship, requires plebeian as a consul. Aka "Leges Liciniae Sextiae"
*"Lex Maenia" (after 293 BC)ndash plebeian achievement, it carried the principle of Lex Pubilia to elections
*"Lex Maenia Sestia" (452 BC)ndash scale for fines, 1 ox = 12 sheep = 100 lb. of bronze
*"Lex de Maiestate" (?)ndash treason law passed by Sulla to regulate the activities of pro-magistrates in their provinces, especially unapproved war and unauthorized travel
*"Lex Manilia" (66 BC)ndash Pompey's actions against Mithridates
*"Lex Marciana" (around Flavian dynasty)ndash dealt with imperial and private cases in North Africa, regulated relations between cultivators and the proprietors
*"Lex Minucia" (216 BC)ndash Appointment of three finance commissioners
*"Lex Ogulnia" (300 BC)ndash The priesthoods are open to plebeians
*"Lex Oppia" (215 BC)ndash Limited female adornment
*"Lex Ovinia" (318 BC)ndash Allowed ex-magistrates to become Senators
*"Les Papia de Peregrinis" (65 BC)ndash challenged false claims of citizenship and deported foreigners from Rome
*"Lex Papia Poppaea" (AD 9)ndash Regarding marriage
*"Lex Papiria de dedicationibus" (c. 304 BC)ndash Forbade consecration of real property without approval of the popular assembly
*"Lex Papiria Julia" (430 BC)ndash made payment of fines in bronze mandatory
*"Lex de Permutatione Provinciae" (44 BC)ndash Marcus Antonius set this law which gave him a five year's command in Cisalpine and Transalpine Gaul in lieu of Macedon. Also gave authorization to transfer Caesar's legions from Macedon to the new provinces.
*"Lex Petronia" (?)ndash concerning slaves
*"Lex Plautia de Reditu Lepidanorum" (70 BC)ndash granted a pardon to Lepidus' former associates
*"Lex Plautia Judiciaria" (?)ndash chose jurors from other classes, not just the "Equites"
*"Lex Plautia Papiria" (89 BC)ndash Granted citizenship to Roman allies
*"Lex Poetelia Papiria" (326 BC)ndash Regarding debt-slavery
*"Lex Porcia" (I) (199 BC)ndash proposed by tribune P. Porcius Laeca to give right of appeal in capital cases
*"Lex Porcia" (II) (195 BC)ndash M. Porcius Cato prohibited scourging of citizens without appeal
*"Lex Porcia" (III) (184 BC)ndash consul L. Porcius Licinus safeguarded citizens from summary execution on military service, all dealing with right of appeal (provocatio).
*"Lex Pompeia" (89 BC)ndash Regarding citizenship rights in Gaul
*"Leges provinciae" (146 BC)ndash a set of laws designed to regulate and organize the administration of Roman provinces
*"Lex Publilia" (339 BC)ndash Restricted "patrum auctoritas"
*"Lex Pupia" (72/61 BC)ndash Senate could not meet on Comitiales Dies
*"Lex Romana Burgundionum"ndash one of the law tables for Romans after the fall of Western Roman Empire
*"Lex Romana Visigothorum" (AD 506)ndash one of the law tables for Romans after the fall of Western Roman Empire
*"Lex Roscia" (49 BC)ndash Caesar proposed, full Latin Rights on the people of Transalpine Gaul.
*"Lex Rubria" (122 BC)ndash Authorized a colony on the ruins of Carthage
*"Lex Sacrata" (494 BC)ndash law after first secession of the plebeians that either affirmed the sacrosanctity of the tribunes or established the plebeians as a sworn confederacy against patricians
*"Lex Scantinia" (c. 149 BC)ndash a law possibly regulating sexual behavior, including pederasty, adultery and passivity
*"Leges Semproniae Agrariae" (133 BC)ndash Set of laws issued by Tiberius Gracchus to redistribute land among the poor; repealed after his assassination
*"Lex Servilia Caepio" (106 BC)ndash Some control of the court "de rebus repentundis" was handed back to senators from the equites.
*"Lex Servilia Glaucia" (100 BC?)ndash provided allotments for veterans on land in southern Gaul.
*"Lex Terentia Cassia" (73 BC)ndash Safeguarded Rome's grain supply and distributed grain at reduced rates
*"Lex Titia" (43 BC)ndash Gave Octavian, Mark Antony and Lepidus full powers to defeat the assassins of Julius Caesar; legalized the second triumvirate
*"Lex Trebonia" (55 BC)ndash Organization of the provinces
*"Lex Tullia" (63 BC)ndash Passed by Cicero in his consulship to regulate election fraud. See ambitus.
*"Lex Valeria" (maybe in 509 BC and 449 BC or 300 BC)ndash it granted every Roman citizen legal right to appeal against a capital sentence, defined and confirmed the right of appeal ("provocatio").
*"Lex Valeria" (82 BC)ndash Appointed Sulla dictator.
*"Lex Valeria Cornelia" (AD 5)ndash Regarding voting in the Comitia Centuriata
*"Leges Valeria Horatiae" (449 BC)ndash Regarding the rights of the plebs
*"Leges Valeria Publicola" (449 BC)ndash Grants the right to appeal to the People of any decision of magistrates
*"Lex Vatinia" (59 BC)ndash Gave Julius Caesar governorship of Cisalpine Gaul and of Illyricum for five years.
*"Lex Villia annalis" (180 BC)ndash Established minimum ages for the "cursus honorum" offices; determined an interval of two years between offices
*"Lex Voconia" (169 BC)ndash Disallowed women from being the main heir to a dead man's estate, including cases were there were no male relatives alive

General denominations

*"Lex Agraria"ndash A law regulating distribution of public lands
*"Lex annalis"ndash qualifications for magistracies
*"Lex ambitu"ndash Laws involving electoral bribery and corruption.
*"Lex Curiata de Imperio"ndash Law that Comitia Curiata used to ratify the choice of a new king, also confirmed Octavian's adoption as Caesar's son in 43 BC
*"Lex frumentaria"ndash A law regulating price of grain
*"Lex sumptuaria"ndash A law regulating the use of luxury items and public manifestations of wealth

The conclusions of the Senate

*"Senatus consultum"ndash A Senate decree
*"Senatus consultum ultimum" or "Senatus consultum de re publica defenda" ndash a late republic alternative to nominating a dictator
*"Senatus consultum Tertullianum"ndash concerning inheritance (time of Hadrian)
*"Senatus consultum Orphitianum" (c. AD 200)ndash concerning inheritance
*"Senatus consultum Silanianum" (AD 10)ndash concerning slaves
*"Senatus consultum Claudianum" (AD 52)ndash concerning slaves
*"Senatus consultum Macedonianum"ndash concerning loan/mutuum (time of Vespasian)
*"Senatus consultum Neronianum" (c. AD 100)ndash concerning "legatum"
*"Senatus consultum Pegasianum" (c. AD 100)ndash concerning "fideicommissum"
*"Senatus consultum Vellaeanum" (AD 46)ndash concerning "intercedere"

Other

*"Constitution of the Roman Republic" Set the separation of powers and checks and balances of the Roman Republic
*"Acceptilatio"ndash spoken statement of debt or obligation release
*"Constitutio Antoniniana"ndash granted citizenship to the Empire's freemen
*"Corpus Iuris Civilis"ndash codification by emperor Justinian
*"Stipulatio"ndash basic oral contract
*"Twelve Tables"ndash The first set of Roman laws published by the "Decemviri" in 451 BC, which would be the starting point of the elaborate Roman constitution. The twelve tables covered issues of civil, criminal and military law. Every Roman that went to school was supposed to know them by heart.

Notes

*Note 1ndash The word "Republic" derives from the Latin "res publica" (literally, "public affairs"). The Romans often wrote the two words as one, "respublica" and inflected both words.

ee also

*Roman law
*Twelve Tables
*Constitution of the Roman Republic

External links

* [http://web.upmf-grenoble.fr/Haiti/Cours/Ak The Roman Law Library, incl. "Leges"]
*cite web|url=http://www.unrv.com/government/index-of-roman-laws.php|title=Index of Roman Laws


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