- Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War
The Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War was the major military and naval operations west of the
Mississippi River. The area excluded the states and territories bordering the Pacific Ocean, which formed the Pacific Coast Theater of the American Civil War.
Though geographically isolated from the battles to the east, several small-scale military actions took place in the
The campaign classification established by the
United States National Park Service[U.S. National Park Service, [http://www.cr.nps.gov/hps/abpp/battles/bycampgn.htm#West "Civil War Battle Studies by Campaign"] .] is more fine-grained than the one used in this article. Some minor NPS campaigns have been omitted and some have been combined into larger categories. Only a few of the 75 battles the NPS classifies for this theater are described. Boxed text in the right margin show the NPS campaigns associated with each section.
The Confederate Trans-Mississippi Department was formed
May 26, 1862, to include Missouri, Arkansas, Texas, Indian Territory(now Oklahoma), and Louisianawest of the Mississippi River. It absorbed the Trans-Mississippi District (Department Number Two), which had been organized January 10, 1862, to include that part of Louisiana north of the Red River, the Indian Territory, and the states of Missouri and Arkansas, except for the country east of St. Francis County, Arkansas, to Scott County, Missouri. The combined department had its headquarters at Shreveport, Louisiana, and Marshall, Texas.
* Maj. Gen.
Earl Van Dorn( January 10 1862ndash May 23 1862, District part of Department Number Two)
* Brig. Gen.
Paul O. Hébert( May 26 1862ndash June 20 1862)
* Maj. Gen.
John B. Magruder(assigned June 20 1862, but did not accept)
* Maj. Gen.
Thomas C. Hindman( June 20 1862ndash July 16 1862)
* Maj. Gen.
Theophilus H. Holmes( July 30 1862ndash February 9 1863)
* Lt. Gen.
Edmund Kirby Smith( March 7 1863ndash April 19 1865)
* Lt. Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner (
April 19 1865ndash April 22 1865)
Edmund Kirby Smith( April 22 1865ndash May 26 1865)
Arizona and New Mexico
In 1861, the
Confederate States Armylaunched a successful campaign into the territory of present day Arizonaand New Mexico. Residents in the southern portions of this territory adopted a secession ordinance of their own and requested that Confederate forces stationed in nearby Texasassist them in removing Union Armyforces still stationed there. The Confederate territory of Arizona was proclaimed by Col. John Baylorafter victories in the Battle of Mesillaat Mesilla, New Mexico, and the capture of several Union forces. Confederate troops were unsuccessful in attempts to press northward in the territory and withdrew from Arizona completely in 1862 when Union reinforcements arrived from California.
Battle of Glorieta Passwas a small skirmish in terms of both numbers involved and losses (140 Union, 190 Confederate). Yet the issues were large, and the battle was decisive in resolving them. The Confederates might well have taken Fort Union and Denver had they not been stopped at Glorieta. As one Texan put it, "If it had not been for those devils from Pike's Peak, this country would have been ours."
This small battle dissolved any possibility of the Confederacy taking New Mexico and the far west territories. In April, Union volunteers from California pushed the remaining Confederates out of present-day Arizona at the
Battle of Picacho Pass. In the Eastern United States, the fighting dragged on for three more years, but in the Southwest the war was over.
Though a slave state with a highly organized and militant secessionist movement, thanks to the pro-slavery "
border ruffians" who battled antislavery militias in Kansas in the 1850s, Missourians sided with the Union by a ratio of two or three to one. Pro-Confederate Governor Claiborne F. Jacksonand his small state guard under General Sterling Pricelinked up with Confederate forces under General Ben McCulloch. After victories at the Battle of Wilson's Creekand at Lexington, Missouri, Confederate forces were driven out of the state by the arrival of large Union forces in February 1862 and were effectively locked out by defeat at the Battle of Pea Ridge, Arkansas, on March 7and March 8.
A guerrilla conflict began to wrack Missouri. Gangs of Confederate insurgents, commonly known as "
bushwhackers", ambushed and battled Union troops and Unionist state militia forces. Much of the fighting was between Missourians of different persuasions; both sides carried out large-scale atrocities against civilians, ranging from forced resettlement to murder. Historians estimate that the population of the state fell by one-third during the war; most survived but fled or were driven out by one side or the other. Many of the most brutal bushwhacker leaders, such as William C. Quantrilland William T. "Bloody Bill" Anderson, won national notoriety. A group of their followers remained under arms and carried out robberies and murders for sixteen years after the war, under the leadership of Jesse James, his brother Frank James, and Cole Youngerand his brothers.
Texas and Louisiana
The Union mounted several attempts to capture the trans-Mississippi regions of Texas and Louisiana from 1862 until the war's end. With ports to the east under blockade or captured, Texas in particular became a blockade-running haven. Referred to as the "back door" of the Confederacy, Texas and western Louisiana continued to provide
cottoncrops that were transferred overland to the Mexican border town of Matamoros, Tamaulipas, and shipped to Europe in exchange for supplies.
Determined to close this trade, the Union mounted several invasion attempts of Texas, each of them unsuccessful. Confederate victories at
Galveston, Texas, and the Battle of Sabine Pass repulsed invasion forces. The Union's disastrous Red River Campaignin western Louisiana, including a defeat at the Battle of Mansfield, effectively ended the Union's final invasion attempt of the region until the fall of the Confederacy. Jeffrey Prushankin argues that Kirby Smith's "pride, poor judgment, and lack of military skill" prevented General Richard Taylor from potentially winning a victory that could have greatly affected the military and political situation east of the Mississippi River. [Prushankin, p. 233.]
Isolated from events in the east, the Civil War continued at a low level in the Trans-Mississippi theater for several months after Lee's surrender in April 1865. The last battle of the war occurred at Palmito Ranch in southern Texasndash a Confederate victory.
Indian Territoryoccupied most land of the current U.S. state of Oklahomaand served as an unorganized region set aside for Native American tribes of the Southeastern United Statesafter being removed from their lands more than thirty years before the war. The area hosted numerous skirmishes and seven officially recognized battles [cite web | url=http://www.nps.gov/history/hps/abpp/battles/OKmap.htm| title=Civil War Sites in Oklahoma| work= National Park Service| accessdate=2008-08-10] involving Native American units allied with the Confederate States of America, Native Americans loyal to the United States government, and Union and Confederate troops. A campaign led by Union General James G. Bluntto secure Indian Territory culminated with the Battle of Honey Springson July 17, 1963. Though his force included Native Americans, the Union did not incorporate Native American soldiers into its regular army. [ [http://www.civilwardata.com/dbstatus.html American Civil War Resource Database] ] Officers and soldiers supplied to the Confederacy from Native American lands numbered at 7,860 [ [http://www.civilwardata.com/dbstatus.html American Civil War Resource Database] ] and came largely from the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminolenations. [Confer, Clarissa. "The Cherokee Nation in the Civil War" (University of Oklahoma Press, 2007) pg.4] Among these was Brig. Gen. Stand Watie, who raided Union positions in Indian Territory with his 1st Cherokee Mounted Riflesregiment well after the Confederacy abandoned the area. He became the last Confederate General to surrender on June 25, 1865.
* Eicher, John H., and Eicher, David J., "Civil War High Commands", Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
* Prushankin, Jeffrey S., "A Crisis in Confederate Command: Edmund Kirby Smith, Richard Taylor, and the Army of the Trans-Mississippi", Louisiana State University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-8071-3088-5.
* [http://www.cr.nps.gov/hps/abpp/battles/bycampgn.htm#Trans National Park Service campaign descriptions]
* [http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/117glorietaraton/117facts3.htm National Park Service lesson plan on Glorieta]
* [http://www.dean.usma.edu/history/web03/atlases/american_civil_war/html/acw01.html "West Point Atlas" map of principal Civil War campaigns]
* [http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/misc/civilwar/civilwar.htm National Park Service Civil War at a Glance]
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