- Captivity (animal)
Animals that live under human care are in captivity. Captivity can be used as a generalizing term to describe the keeping of either
domesticated animals ( livestockand pets) or wildanimals. This may include for example farms, private homes and zoos. Keeping animals in human captivity and under human care can thus be distinguished between three primary categories according to the particular motives, objectives and conditions.
Keeping and breeding livestock domesticated for
economicreasons in farms, stud farms and similar establishments.
Keeping pets domesticated for personal reasons mostly at private homes.
Wild animal keeping
Keeping wild, non-domesticated animals in
menageries, zoos, aquaria, marine mammal parks or dolphinariums and similar establishments for various reasons:
*prestige (illustration of wealth and power)
domesticationof animals is the oldest documented keeping of animals in captivity. The result was habituation of wild animal speciesto survive in the company of, or by the labor of, human beings. Domesticated species are those whose behaviour, life cycle, or physiologyhas been altered as a result of their breeding and living conditions under human control for multiple generations. Probably the earliest known domestic animal has been the dog, likely as early as 15000 BC among hunter-gatherers in several locations.
Throughout history not only domestic animals as pets and
livestockwere kept in captivity and under human care, but also wild animals. Some were failed domestication attempts. Also, in past times, primarily the wealthy, aristocrats and kings collected wild animals for various reasons. Contrary to domestication, the ferociousness and natural behaviour of the wild animals were preserved and exhibited. Today's zoos claim other reasons for keeping animals under human care: conservation, educationand science.
Behavior of animals in captivity
Captive animals, especially those which are not domesticated, sometimes develop repetitive, apparently purposeless motor behaviors called "
stereotypical behaviors". These behaviors are thought to be caused by the animals' abnormal environment. Many who keep animals in captivity, especially in zoos and related institutions and in research institutions, attempt to prevent or decrease stereotypical behavior by introducing novel stimuli, known as environmental enrichment.
European Convention for the Protection of Pet Animals
Wild Animal Keeping:
Marine mammal park
Cruelty to Animals and Animal Welfare:
List of animal welfare and animal rights groups
Cruelty to animals
World Society for the Protection of Animals
* [http://www.pet-abuse.com/ Pet-Abuse.com]
* [http://www.waza.org/ World Association of Zoos and Aquaria]
* [http://www.bronxzoo.com/ New York Zoos and Aquarium]
* [http://www.wspa-international.org WSPA international website]
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