- Ki Tisa
Ki Tisa, Ki Tissa, Ki Thissa, or Ki Sisa (כי תשא — Hebrew for "when you take,” the sixth and seventh words, and first distinctive words in the parshah) is the 21st
weekly Torah portion("parshah") in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah readingand the ninth in the book of Exodus. It constitutes Exodus [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0230.htm#11 30:11–34:35.] Jews in the Diaspora read it the 21st Sabbath after Simchat Torah, generally in late February or March.
Building the Holy Place
Mosesthat when he took a censusof the Israelites, each person 20 years old or older, regardless of wealth, should give a half- shekeloffering.( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0230.htm#11 Ex. 30:11–15.] ) God told Moses to assign the proceeds to the service of the Tent of Meeting. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0230.htm#16 Ex. 30:16.] )
God told Moses to place a
copperlaver between the Tent of Meeting and the altar, so that Aaronand the priests could wash their hands and feet in waterwhen they entered the Tent of Meeting or approached the altar to burn a sacrifice, so that they would not die. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0230.htm#17 Ex. 30:17–22.] )
God directed Moses to make a sacred anointing oil from choice
spices — myrrh, cinnamon, cassia— and olive oil. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0230.htm#22 Ex. 30:22–25.] ) God told Moses to use it to anoint the Tent of Meeting, the furnishings of the Tabernacle, and the priests. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0230.htm#26 Ex. 30:26–30.] ) God told Moses to warn the Israelites not to copy the sacred anointing oil’s recipe for lay purposes, at pain of exile. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0230.htm#31 Ex. 30:31–33.] )
God directed Moses make sacred
incensefrom herbs — stacte, onycha, galbanum, and frankincense— to burn in the Tent of Meeting. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0230.htm#34 Ex. 30:34–36.] ) As with the anointing oil, God warned against making incense from the same recipe for lay purposes. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0230.htm#37 Ex. 30:37.] )
God informed Moses that God had endowed
Bezalelof the Tribe of Judahwith divine skill in every kind of craft. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0231.htm Ex. 31:1–5.] ) God assigned to him Oholiabof the Tribe of Danand granted skill to all who are skillful, that they might make the furnishings of the Tabernacle, the priests’ vestments, the anointing oil, and the incense. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0231.htm#6 Ex. 31:6–11.] ) God told Moses to admonish the Israelites nevertheless to keep the Shabbat(Sabbath), on pain of death. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0231.htm#12 Ex. 31:12–17.] ) Then God gave Moses two stone tablets inscribed by the finger of God. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0231.htm#18 Ex. 31:18.] )
The Golden Calf
Meanwhile, the people became impatient for Moses’ return, and implored Aaron to make them a god. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0232.htm Ex. 32:1.] ) Aaron told them to bring him their
gold earrings, and he cast them in a mold and made a molten golden calf. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0232.htm#2 Ex. 32:2–4.] ) They exclaimed, “This is your god, O Israel, who brought you out of the land of Egypt!” ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0232.htm#4 Ex. 32:4.] ) Aaron built an altar before the calf, and announced a festival of the Lord. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0232.htm#5 Ex. 32:5.] ) The people offered sacrifices, ate, drank, and danced. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0232.htm#6 Ex. 32:6.] )
God told Moses what the people had done, saying “let Me be, that My anger may blaze forth against them and that I may destroy them, and make of you a great nation.” ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0232.htm#7 Ex. 32:7–10.] ) But Moses implored God not to do so, lest the Egyptians say that God delivered the people only to kill them off in the mountains. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0232.htm#11 Ex. 32:11–12.] ) Moses called on God to remember
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and God’s oath to make their offspring as numerous as the stars, and God renounced the planned punishment. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0232.htm#13 Ex. 32:13–14.] )
Moses went down the mountain bearing the two tablets. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0232.htm#15 Ex. 32:15–16.] ) Joshua told Moses, “There is a cry of war in the camp,” but Moses answered, “It is the sound of song that I hear!” ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0232.htm#17 Ex. 32:17–18.] )When Moses saw the calf and the dancing, he became enraged and shattered the tablets at the foot of the mountain. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0232.htm#19 Ex. 32:19.] ) He burned the calf, ground it to powder, strewed it upon the water, and made the Israelites drink it. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0232.htm#20 Ex. 32:20.] ) When Moses asked Aaron how he committed such a great sin, Aaron replied that the people asked him to make a god, so he hurled their gold into the fire, “and out came this calf!” ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0232.htm#21 Ex. 32:21–24.] )Seeing that Aaron had let the people get out of control, Moses stood in the camp gate and called, “Whoever is for the Lord, come here!” ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0232.htm#25 Ex. 32:25–26.] ) All the
Levites rallied to Moses, and at his instruction killed 3,000 people, including brother, neighbor, and kin. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0232.htm#27 Ex. 32:27–29.] )
Moses went back to God and asked for God either to forgive the Israelites or kill Moses too, but God insisted on punishing only the sinners, which God did by means of a plague. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0232.htm#31 Ex. 32:31–35.] )
God’s Nature Revealed
Then God dispatched Moses and the people to the Promised Land, but God decided not to go in their midst, for fear of destroying them on the way. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0233.htm Ex. 33:1–3.] ) Upon hearing this, the Israelites went into mourning. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0233.htm#4 Ex. 33:4.] ) Now Moses would pitch the Tent of Meeting outside the camp, and Moses would enter to speak to God, face to face. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0233.htm#7 Ex. 33:7–11.] ) Moses asked God whom God would send with Moses to lead the people. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0233.htm#12 Ex. 33:12.] ) Moses further asked God to let him know God’s ways, that Moses might know God and continue in God’s favor. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0233.htm#13 Ex. 33:13.] ) And God agreed to lead the Israelites. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0233.htm#14 Ex. 33:14.] ) Moses asked God not to make the Israelites move unless God were to go in the lead, and God agreed. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0233.htm#15 Ex. 33:15–17.] ) Moses asked God to let him behold God’s Presence. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0233.htm#18 Ex. 33:18.] ) God agreed to make all God’s goodness pass before Moses and to proclaim God’s name and nature, but God explained that no human could see God’s face and live. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0233.htm#19 Ex. 33:19–20.] ) God instructed Moses to station himself on a rock, where God would cover him with God’s hand until God had passed, at which point Moses could see God’s back. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0233.htm#21 Ex. 33:21–23.] )God directed Moses to carve two stone tablets like the ones that Moses shattered, so that God might inscribe upon them the words that were on the first tablets, and Moses did so. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0234.htm Ex. 34:1–4.] ) God came down in a
cloudand proclaimed: “The Lord! The Lord! A God compassionate and gracious, slow to anger, abounding in kindness and faithfulness, extending kindness to the thousandth generation, forgiving iniquity, transgression, and sin; yet He does not remit all punishment, but visits the iniquity of parents upon children and children’s children, upon the third and fourth generations.” ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0234.htm#5 Ex. 34:5–7.] )
Moses bowed low and asked God to accompany the people in their midst, to pardon the people’s iniquity, and to take them for God’s own. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0234.htm#8 Ex. 34:8–9.] ) God replied by making a covenant to work unprecedented wonders and to drive out the peoples of the Promised Land. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0234.htm#10 Ex. 34:10–11.] ) God warned Moses against making a covenant with them, lest they become a snare and induce the Israelites’ children to lust after their gods. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0234.htm#12 Ex. 34:12–16.] )
God commanded that the Israelites not make molten gods, that they consecrate or redeem every first-born, that they observe the Sabbath, that they observe the
three pilgrim festivals, that they not offer sacrifices with anything leavened, that they not leave the Passoverlamb lying until morning, that they bring choice first fruits to the house of the Lord, and that they not boil a kid in its mother’s milk. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0234.htm#17 Ex. 34:17–26.] )
Moses Became Radiant
Moses stayed with God 40 days and 40 nights, ate no
bread, drank no water, and wrote down on the tablets the terms of the covenant. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0234.htm#28 Ex. 34:28.] ) As Moses came down from the mountain bearing the two tablets, the skin of his face was radiant, and the Israelites shrank from him. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0234.htm#29 Ex. 34:29–30.] ) Moses called them near and instructed them concerning all that God had commanded. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0234.htm#31 Ex. 34:31–32.] ) When Moses finished speaking, he put a veilover his face. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0234.htm#33 Ex. 34:33.] ) Whenever Moses spoke with God, Moses would take his veil off. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0234.htm#34 Ex. 34:34.] ) And when he came out, he would tell the Israelites what he had been commanded, and then Moses would then put the veil back over his face again. ( [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0234.htm#34 Ex. 34:34–35.] )
In classical rabbinic interpretation
Exodus chapter 30
Rabbi Abbahu taught that Moses asked God how Israel would be exalted, and God replied in the words of on the “tablets that were written on both their sides,”
Rav Chisdasaid that the writing of the tablets was cut completely through the tablets, so that it could be read from either side. Thus the letters " mem" and " samekh", which each form a complete polygon, left some of the stone tablets in the middle of those letters standing in the air where they were held stable only by a miracle. (Babylonian Talmud Shabbat 104a.)
Baraitataught that when Moses broke the tablets in Resh Lakish interpreted this to mean that God gave Moses strength because he broke the tablets. (Babylonian Talmud Shabbat 87a.)
Reading the report of “And Aaron said: ‘. . . I cast it into the fire, and there came out "this" calf,’” and through the word “this,” Aaron was also elevated, as it is said in
Leviticus[http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0306.htm#13 6:13,] “"This" is the offering of Aaron and of his sons, which they shall offer to the Lord on the day when he is anointed” to become High Priest. ( Leviticus Rabbah8:1.)
Exodus chapter 34
The Mishnah interpreted applied to the Sabbath, and limited its prohibition to plowing and reaping not elsewhere required by commandment. (Mishnah Sheviit 1:4.)
Tractate Sukkah in the Mishnah, Tosefta,
Jerusalem Talmud, and Babylonian Talmud interpreted the laws of Sukkot in and )
*A Kohen must wash his hands and feet before service. ()
*Not to reproduce the anointing oil ()
*To let the land lie fallow in the Sabbatical year ()
*A Kohen must wash his hands and feet before service. ()
*Not to anoint with anointing oil ()(See Maimonides. "The Commandments: Sefer Ha-Mitzvoth of Maimonides". Translated by Charles B. Chavel, 1:33–34, 45, 143, 180–81; 2:82–84, 182–83. London: Soncino Press, 1967. ISBN 0-900689-71-4.)
haftarahfor the parshah is:
Ashkenazi Jews: 1 Kings [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt09a18.htm 18:1–39]
Sephardi Jews: 1 Kings [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt09a18.htm#20 18:20–39]
Michelangelo)] Both the parshah and the haftarah in First Kings describe God’s prophet confronting idolatry to restore worship of God, the parshah in Moses’ anger at the golden calf ( ); sound ("kol") is observed ( ).
On Shabbat Parah
When the parshah coincides with Shabbat Parah (the special Sabbath prior to Passover — as it does in 2006, 2007, and 2009), the haftarah is Ezekiel [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt1236.htm#16 36:16–38.] On Shabbat Parah, the Sabbath of the
red heifer, Jews read Numbers [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0419.htm 19:1–22,] which describes the rites of purification using the red heifer ("parah adumah"). Similarly, the haftarah in Ezekiel also describes purification. In both the special reading and the haftarah in Ezekiel, sprinkled water cleansed the Israelites. ( are reflected in in the "Kedushah D’Sidra" section of the "Minchah" service for Shabbat. (Reuven Hammer. "Or Hadash: A Commentary on Siddur Sim Shalomfor Shabbat and Festivals", 1, 4, 228. New York: The Rabbinical Assembly, 2003. ISBN 0916219208.)
The Weekly Maqam
the Weekly Maqam, Sephardi Jewseach week base the songs of the services on the content of that week's parshah. For Parshah Ki Tisa, Sephardi Jews apply Maqam Hijaz, the maqam that expresses mourning and sorrow. This is appropriate, because it is the parshah that contains the episode of the golden calf, a very sad and embarrassing episode in the history of the Israelite people.
The parshah has parallels or is discussed in these sources:
* in JPS; 20:5 in NJPS (punishing children for fathers’ sin); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0212.htm#3 12:3–27,] [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0212.htm#43 43–49] (Passover); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0213.htm#6 13:6–10] (Passover); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0223.htm#16 23:14–19] (three pilgrim festivals).
Leviticus[http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0323.htm#4 23:4–43] (three pilgrim festivals).
*Numbers [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0405.htm#11 5:11–31] (drinking the accursed thing); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0409.htm 9:1–14] (Passover); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0414.htm#18 14:18] (punishing children for fathers’ sin); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0425.htm 25:1–18] (sacrifices to another god; zealots kill apostates; zealots rewarded with priestly standing; plague as punishment; leader makes atonement); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0428.htm#16 28:16–31] (Passover, Shavuot); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0429.htm#12 29:12–34] (Sukkot).
Deuteronomy[http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0505.htm#8 5:8 in JPS,] 5:9 in NJPS (punishing children for fathers’ sin); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0509.htm#8 9:8–21,] [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0509.htm#25 25–29] (golden calf); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0510.htm 10:1] (second set of tablets); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0516.htm#13 16:1–17] (three pilgrim festivals); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0524.htm#16 24:16] ("no" capital punishment of children for fathers’ sin); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0531.htm#10 31:10–13] (Sukkot).
*Judges [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0708.htm#24 8:24–27] (cult object from molten jewelry); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0721.htm#19 21:19] (Sukkot).
*1 Kings [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt09a08.htm 8:1–66] (Sukkot); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt09a12.htm#26 12:26–30] (golden calves); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt09a12.htm#32 12:32] (northern feast like Sukkot).
*Jeremiah [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt1131.htm#29 31:28–29 in JPS, 31:29–30 in NJPS] ("not" punishing children for fathers’ sin).
*Ezekiel [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt1216.htm#17 16:17] (idols from molten jewelry); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt1218.htm 18:1–4] ("not" punishing children for fathers’ sin); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt1245.htm#25 45:25] (Sukkot).
Psalms[http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt2625.htm#4 25:4] (“Show me Your ways”); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt2627.htm#11 27:11] (“Teach me Your way”); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt2645.htm#9 45:9] (cassia); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt2649.htm#8 49:8] (ransom to God); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt2656.htm#9 56:9] (God’s book); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt2669.htm#29 69:29] (blot out of the book of the living); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt2678.htm#55 78:55] (God drove out the nations before them); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt2680.htm#9 80:9] (God drove out the nations before them); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt2686.htm#11 86:11] (“Teach me . . . Your way”); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt2689.htm#21 89:21] (holy anointing oil); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt2691.htm 91:1, 4] (God’s covert; God covering with God’s limb); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt2694.htm#14 94:14] (Israel as God’s inheritance); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt2695.htm#11 95:11] (God’s rest); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt2699.htm#7 99:7] (God spoke to Moses from a cloud); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt26a8.htm#5 108:5] (God’s truth); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt26b9.htm#33 119:33] (“Teach me . . . the way”); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt26d3.htm#2 133:2] (anointing oil); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt26d9.htm#16 139:16] (God’s book); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt26e7.htm#20 147:20] (God’s separate treatment of Israel).
*Zechariah [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt2314.htm#16 14:16–19] (Sukkot).
*Ezra [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt35a03.htm#4 3:4] (Sukkot).
*Nehemiah [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt35b08.htm 8:14–18] (Sukkot).
*2 Chronicles [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt25b05.htm 5:3–14] (Sukkot); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt25b07.htm#8 7:8] (Sukkot); [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt25b08.htm#12 8:12–13] (three Pilgrim festivals).
Philo. [http://www.earlyjewishwritings.com/text/philo/book3.html "Allegorical Interpretation" 2] :15:54–55; [http://www.earlyjewishwritings.com/text/philo/book4.html 3:] 15:46, 31:95, 32:101, 48:140–42; [http://www.earlyjewishwritings.com/text/philo/book7.html "That the Worse Is Wont To Attack the Better"] 44:159–60; [http://www.earlyjewishwritings.com/text/philo/book8.html "On the Posterity of Cain and His Exile"] 4:13, 5:15–16, 41:136, 46:158, 48:169; [http://www.earlyjewishwritings.com/text/philo/book9.html "On the Giants"] 5:2–3, 12:53–55; [http://www.earlyjewishwritings.com/text/philo/book10.html "On the Unchangableness of God"] 24:109–10; [http://www.earlyjewishwritings.com/text/philo/book12.html "Concerning Noah's Work as a Planter"] 6:26; [http://www.earlyjewishwritings.com/text/philo/book13.html "On Drunkenness"] 15:66–67, 24:96; [http://www.earlyjewishwritings.com/text/philo/book16.html "On the Migration of Abraham"] 2:7–8, 15:84–85, 31:170–71; [http://www.earlyjewishwritings.com/text/philo/book17.html "Who Is the Heir of Divine Things?"] 4:19–20, 35:167–68, 38:186–39:189, 41:196; [http://www.earlyjewishwritings.com/text/philo/book19.html "On Flight and Finding"] 17:88–90, 29:165; [http://www.earlyjewishwritings.com/text/philo/book20.html "On the Change of Names"] 2:7–10, 17:108–09; [http://www.earlyjewishwritings.com/text/philo/book25.html "On the Life of Moses"] 2:49:270–74; [http://www.earlyjewishwritings.com/text/philo/book29.html "The Special Laws"] 3:22:124–27. Alexandria, Egypt, early 1st Century C.E.. Reprinted in, e.g., "The Works of Philo: Complete and Unabridged, New Updated Edition". Translated by Charles Duke Yonge, 43, 55, 61, 66, 129, 133, 145, 148–49, 153, 156, 167, 193, 212, 215, 253, 261, 269, 277, 290–92, 329, 336, 341, 350, 515, 606. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson Pub., 1993. ISBN 0-943575-93-1.
*Romans [http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Romans%209:14â€“18%20;&version=31; 9:14–18.] 1st Century. (“I will have mercy on whom I have mercy”).
*John [http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?book_id=50&chapter=7&version=31 7:1-53] (Sukkot).
Mishnah: Sheviit 1:1–4; Challah 4:9; Pesachim 5:4; Shekalim 1:1–4:9; Megillah 3:4, 4:10; Avot 5:6; Zevachim 9:7; Menachot 9:2; Chullin 8:4; Bekhorot 1:1–7; Keritot 1:1–2. Land of Israel, circa 200 C.E. Reprinted in, e.g., "The Mishnah: A New Translation". Translated by Jacob Neusner, 69, 157, 237, 251–58, 321, 324, 686, 721, 751, 781, 788–89, 836. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988. ISBN 0-300-05022-4.
Tosefta: Challah 2:9; Shabbat 15:16; Pisha (Pesachim) 4:3; Shekalim 1:1–3:1; Kippurim (Yoma) 1:18, 2:1, 4:9, 13–14; Megillah 3:1, 36; Sotah 3:10, 6:6, 11; Bava Kamma 7:4; Sanhedrin 4:9, 13:3; Avodah Zarah 3:19, 4:6; Menachot 1:12, 7:1; Parah 4:4. Land of Israel, circa 300 C.E. Reprinted in, e.g., "The Tosefta: Translated from the Hebrew, with a New Introduction". Translated by Jacob Neusner, 1:339, 418, 488, 523–33, 546, 548, 564–66, 644, 652, 841, 856, 860; 2:986–87, 1160, 1182, 1189, 1273, 1276, 1409, 1433, 1754. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson Pub., 2002. ISBN 1-56563-642-2.
*Mekhilta According to Rabbi Ishmael 81:1. Land of Israel, late 4th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., "Mekhilta According to Rabbi Ishmael". Translated by Jacob Neusner, vol. 2, 251–57. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1988. ISBN 1-55540-237-2.
Jerusalem Talmud: Peah 3a, 8a, 10a, 22b, 31b; Sheviit 1a, 4a. Land of Israel, circa 400 C.E. Reprinted in, e.g., "Talmud Yerushalmi". Edited by Chaim Malinowitz, Yisroel Simcha Schorr, and Mordechai Marcus, vols. 3, 6a. Brooklyn: Mesorah Pubs., 2006.
Talmud: Berakhot 7a–b, 10b, 30b, 32a–b, 55a, 62b, 63b; Shabbat 10b, 30a, 33a, 69b–70a, 86a, 87a, 89a, 119b, 132a; Eruvin 22a, 54a, 96a; Pesachim 2b, 5a, 8b, 26a, 54a, 59b, 63a–64a, 70a, 95b, 118a; Shekalim 2a–22b; Yoma 3b, 22a, 28a, 32b, 36b–37a, 43b, 45a, 66b, 85b–86b; Sukkah 48b, 50a; Beitzah 13b, 16a; Rosh Hashanah 9a, 16b, 17b; Taanit 8a, 21b, 27b, 28b; Megillah 6b, 10b, 15a–b, 19b, 25a–b, 29b–30a, 31a; Moed Katan 3b–4a, 9a, 15a, 16b, 18b; Chagigah 6b, 11b, 12b, 16a; Yevamot 6b–7a, 49b, 62a, 72a; Ketubot 30a, 31a, 34a, 106a; Nedarim 10b, 32a, 33a, 38a; Nazir 47a; Sotah 13b–14a; Gittin 60b; Kiddushin 17a, 29a–b, 33b; Bava Kamma 34b, 50a, 55a, 71a, 92a, 112a, 119a; Bava Batra 10b, 15a–b, 75a; Sanhedrin 7a, 13a, 27b, 35b, 38b, 56b, 60b, 63a, 74a, 78b, 83b, 102a, 108a, 110a, 111a; Makkot 8b, 11a, 12a, 13a, 14b, 23a–24a; Shevuot 10b, 15a, 39a; Avodah Zarah 8a, 10b, 44a, 53b; Horayot 4a–b, 6b, 11b; Zevachim 15b, 18a, 19b, 21a, 112b; Menachot 5b–6a, 21b, 35b, 36b, 53b, 72a, 84b, 87b–88a, 89a, 99b, 101b; Chullin 62b, 106b, 114a, 115a, 139b; Bekhorot 3a, 6a, 50a, 51b; Arakhin 4a, 15b, 16b; Temurah 14b, 16a; Keritot 2a, 3a, 5a–6b; Meilah 19a; Niddah 40a, 41a. Babylonia, 6th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., "Talmud Bavli". Edited by Yisroel Simcha Schorr, Chaim Malinowitz, and Mordechai Marcus, 72 vols. Brooklyn: Mesorah Pubs., 2006.
Exodus Rabbah39:1–47:9. 10th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., "Midrash Rabbah: Exodus". Translated by S. M. Lehrman, 3:458–545. London: Soncino Press, 1939. ISBN 0-900689-38-2.
Rashi. "Commentary". [http://www.chabad.org/library/article.asp?AID=9891&showrashi=true Exodus 30–34.] Troyes, France, late 11th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., Rashi. "The Torah: With Rashi’s Commentary Translated, Annotated, and Elucidated". Translated and annotated by Yisrael Isser Zvi Herczeg, vol. 2, 423–86. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 1994. ISBN 0-89906-027-7.
*Judah Halevi. "
Kuzari". Toledo, Spain, 1130–1140. Reprinted in, e.g., Jehuda Halevi. "Kuzari: An Argument for the Faith of Israel." Intro. by Henry Slonimsky, 68–69, 83, 105, 132, 211, 221–22. New York: Schocken, 1964. ISBN 0-8052-0075-4.
Maimonides. " Guide for the Perplexed", [http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/gfp/gfp014.htm 1:4,] [http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/gfp/gfp018.htm 8,] [http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/gfp/gfp025.htm 15,] [http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/gfp/gfp026.htm 16,] [http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/gfp/gfp028.htm 18,] [http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/gfp/gfp031.htm 21,] [http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/gfp/gfp047.htm 37,] [http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/gfp/gfp056.htm 46,] [http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/gfp/gfp058.htm 48,] [http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/gfp/gfp064.htm 54,] [http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/gfp/gfp074.htm 64,] [http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/gfp/gfp076.htm 66,] [http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/gfp/gfp119.htm 2:32,] [http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/gfp/gfp132.htm 45,] [http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/gfp/gfp134.htm 47;] [http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/gfp/gfp153.htm 3:17,] [http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/gfp/gfp160.htm 24,] [http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/gfp/gfp168.htm 32,] [http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/gfp/gfp177.htm 41,] [http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/gfp/gfp181.htm 45,] [http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/gfp/gfp184.htm 48,] [http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/gfp/gfp185.htm 49,] [http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/gfp/gfp187.htm 51,] [http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/gfp/gfp189.htm 53.] Cairo, Egypt, 1190. Reprinted in, e.g., Moses Maimonides. "The Guide for the Perplexed". Translated by Michael Friedländer, 3, 17, 21, 26–27, 30–31, 52–53, 61, 65, 75–76, 96, 98, 221, 245, 248, 287, 304, 323, 346, 358, 371, 380, 385, 392–93. New York: Dover Publications, 1956. ISBN 0-486-20351-4.
Zohar[http://www.kabbalah.com/k/index.php/p=zohar/zohar&vol=24 2:187b–193b.] Spain, late 13th Century. Reprinted in, e.g, "The Zohar". Translated by Harry Sperling and Maurice Simon. 5 vols. London: Soncino Press, 1934.
Niccolò Machiavelli. " The Prince", . Florence, Italy, 1532.
Thomas Hobbes. "Leviathan", England, 1651. Reprint edited by C. B. Macpherson, 181, 431, 437–38, 460–61, 503–04, 672, 676–77, 723. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Classics, 1982. ISBN 0140431950.
Moses Mendelssohn. "Jerusalem", § 2. Berlin, 1783. Reprinted in "Jerusalem: Or on Religious Power and Judaism". Translated by Allan Arkush; introduction and commentary by Alexander Altmann, 120, 122–23, 129. Hanover, N.H.: Brandeis Univ. Press, 1983. ISBN 0-87451-264-6.
Shlomo Ganzfried. "Kitzur Shulchon Oruch", [http://www.geocities.com/yona_n.geo/kizzur/kizzur140.html ch. 140.] Hungary, 1864. Translated by Eliyahu Touger, 2:587. New York: Moznaim Publishing Corp., 1991. ISBN 0-940118-63-7.
Louis Ginzberg. [http://philologos.org/__eb-lotj/vol3/p03.htm#THE%20GOLDEN%20CALF "Legends of the Jews", 3:119–44.] Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1911.
*Jack M. Sasson. “Should Cheeseburgers Be Kosher? A Different Interpretation of Five Hebrew Words.” "
Bible Review" 19 (6) (Dec. 2003): 40–43, 50–51.
* [http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0230.htm#11 Masoretic text and 1917 JPS translation]
* [http://Bible.ort.org/books/torahd5.asp?action=displaypage&book=2&chapter=30&verse=11&portion=21 Hear the parshah chanted]
name = Commentaries on Parshah Ki Tisa
title = Commentaries on Parshah Ki Tisa
titlestyle = background:lightblue;;
list1 =[http://ajrsem.org/index.php?id=201 Academy for Jewish Religion] • [http://www.aish.com/torahPortion/pArchive.asp?eventType=21&eventName=Ki+Tisa Aish.com] • [http://judaism.uj.edu/Content/InfoUnits.asp?CID=916 American Jewish University] • [http://www.anshe.org/parsha/kisisa.htm Anshe Emes Synagogue, Los Angeles] • [http://www.chabad.org/article.asp?AID=15567 Chabad.org] • [http://www.jtsa.edu/x1941.xml Jewish Theological Seminary] • [http://www.myjewishlearning.com/texts/Weekly_Torah_Commentary/kitissa_index.htm MyJewishLearning.com] • [http://www.rabbishmuel.com/files/torah_sermons125.serm-kitisa.doc Ohev Sholom Talmud Torah] • [http://ohr.edu/yhiy/article.php/2544 Ohr Sameach] • [http://www.ou.org/torah/archive2.htm#kitisa Orthodox Union] • [http://www.oztorah.com/current/kitissa/kitissa.php OzTorah, Torah from Australia] • [http://www2.jrf.org/recon-dt/index.php#Ki%20Tisa Reconstructionist Judaism] • [http://www.judaic.org/addtl_files/ki%20tissa.htm Sephardic Institute] • [http://www.shiur.com/index.php?id=C0_164_6&spar=164&s_id=164 Shiur.com] • [http://www.teach613.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=38&Itemid=48 Teach613.org, Torah Education at Cherry Hill] • [http://www.tfdixie.com/parshat/kitissa/ Torah from Dixie] • [http://www.torah.org/learning/parsha/parsha.html?id1=29 Torah.org] • [http://www.urj.org/torah/exodus/ Union for Reform Judaism] • [http://www.chiefrabbi.org/tt-index.html United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth] • [http://www.uscj.org/Ki_Tissah_57677225.html United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism]
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