- Flag of Russia
Name = Russia
Nickname = Триколор
Use = 111100
Proportion = 2:3
December 11 1993(originally adopted on January 20 1705)
Design = Rectangular tri-color with three equal-size horizontal bands: the upper one is white, the middle blue, and the lower red. [President’s Order No. 2126 of December 11, 1993.]
Nickname2 = Андреевский флаг
St. Andrew Flag
Use2 = 000001
Adoption2 = 1991 (originally adopted in 1712)
Design2 = White with a blue saltire.
The flag of
Russiais a tricolor of three equal horizontal fields, whiteon the top, bluein the middle and redon the bottom. The flag was first used as an ensign for merchant and war ships and only became official in 1896. Rumored to be based on the Dutch tricolor, the flag continued to be used by the Russian Provisional Governmenteven after the Tsar was toppled in the February Revolutionand was not replaced until the October Revolutionwhich established a Bolshevikgovernment. From that time period, a red flagcharged with communist symbols was favored over the tricolor. It was not until the collapse of the Soviet Unionin 1991 that the tricolor was brought back as the official flag of the new Russian Federation. The modern era flag underwent a slight change in 1993 and has been official since 2000. The flag of Russia provided the Pan-Slavic coloursof red, blue and white that appear in the flags of Slavic countries (including the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Serbia).
There was no universally accepted flag for Russia until the middle of the 17th century. The earliest mention of the flag occurs during the reign of Tsar Alexis I, in 1668, and is related to the construction of the first Russian naval ship, the frigate Oryol.
According to one source, the choice of the colors may originate from the
Dutch flag, and is related to the nationality of the ship's lead engineer Butler. During the construction, he faced the need for the flag, and issued a request to the Boyar Duma, to "...ask His Tsarist Majesty as to which (as is the custom among other nations) flag shall be raised on the ship." The official response merely indicated that, as such issue is as yet unprecedented, even though the land forces do use (apparently different) flags, the Tsarordered that his (Butler's) opinion be sought about the matter, asking specifically as to the custom existing in his country. The Netherlandshad at the time already settled on its current flag, consisting of red, white and blue stripes, which Butler duly told the Tsar.
This conversation apparently took notice, as the source proceeds to describe the materials bought "overseas" for the ship, and specifically mentions red, blue and white fabric. It is not at all certain, however, that the choice of the "colours" was affected by the Dutch flag. Another possibility is that the flag repeats the colour choice of the
Coat of armsof Moscow; that emblem is alleged by at least one author (Prince Aleksandr Putyanin) to effectively be the first Russian flag. The different theories about the colour origins of the Russian flag are discussed in more detail below.
A different account traces the origin of the Russian flag to Tsar Peter the Great's visits to Archangel in 1693 and 1694. Peter was keenly interested in shipbuilding in the European style, different from the barges ordinarily used in Russia at the time. In 1693, Peter had ordered a Dutch-built frigate from Amsterdam. In 1694 when it arrived, the Dutch red-white-and-blue banner flew from its stern. Peter decided to model Russia's naval flag after this banner by changing the sequence of colours. It eventually became the flag of the Russian empire. [Robert Massie, "Peter the Great" (New York: Ballantine Books), 1980]
While differing in the circumstances, the two flag origin versions agree on the Dutch flag influence. However, there are historical reasons to doubt that the flag was chosen as late as Peter's reign. One of the strongest arguments against that comes from a German flag book of 1695 by Carel Allard, which is considered to be one of the world's first flag books. Printed only a year after Peter's trip to Western Europe, the book already describes three flags of a similar design noted as belonging to the either Tsar of
Muscovy, or Muscovy itself. [http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/ru_tzar.html#mow One of the three flags shown] is the tricolor with a double-headed eagle holding a shield in its hands, and wearing a golden crown over both of its heads. [http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/ru~1697.html#1698p4 Another] is the tricolor with a blue saltire over it, [http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/ru~1697.html#1698p4 and the third] consists of two white (top left and bottom right) and two red (top right and bottom left) squares, with a blue cross in the middle. [ [http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/ru.html Russian flags] ]
The flag was used as naval and military ensign since at least as early as 1693, and was adopted as a
merchant flagin 1705. On May 7, 1883it was authorized to be used on land. However, it did not become an official national flag ("State Flag") until the coronation of Tsar Nicholas II in 1896.
Meaning and origin of the colors
While there are several theories as to the origin and reason for the choice of white, blue and red for the colors, none is currently accepted as universally correct. There is no official meaning assigned to the colors in Russian laws.
The three colors purportedly came from the
coat of armsof the Grand Duchy of Moscow, which depict Saint Georgewearing white (silver) armor, riding a white horse, wearing a blue cape and holding a blue shield, on a red field. According to another version, these three colors were associated with the robes of the Virgin Mary, the holy protectress of Russia.
Yet another interpretation of the three colors is that the order that they are placed in reflected the Russian social system under the monarchy: white represents God, blue the Tsar and red the peasants. Another very common interpretation is the association of colors with the main parts of the Russian Empire: white thus represents
Belarus("White Russia"), blue Ukraine(or "Malorossia", "Little Russia"), and red " Great Russia".
A different interpretation associates white with the bright future (where the colour itself is associated with brightness, while its placement at the top - with future); blue with clouded present, and red with bloody past.
In the Swedish-speaking part of Finland, the colours of the modern Russian flag, White, Blue and Red, are interpreted to describe the year of 1809, when Finland became a part of Russia, i.e. White - sv. Vit, Blue - sv. Blå and Red - sv. Röd -> Vi Blev Ryssar (We became Russians).
A variant of the flag was authorized for private use by Tsar Nicholas II during
World War I, adding the Romanoveagle on a yellow field in a canton in the top left-hand corner. This variant was never made official.
Bolshevikstook power in 1917, the tricolor design was discarded, and a definitive new flag of the Russian Republic (one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union) was introduced in 1954 (see flag of Russian SFSR), and this remained the republic's flag until the collapse of the Soviet Unionin 1991. All of the Soviet Republics' flags were created by introducing a small, but noticeable change, to the flag of the Soviet Union. In this case, the change was an introduction of the left-hand blue band. The previous Soviet design was different (a plain red flag with different variants of the "RSFSR" abbreviation in the honor canton).
The original flag of 1883 (rather than the black-yellow-white colour combination) was re-adopted by Russia on
August 22, 1991. The readoption date is celebrated yearly as the national flag day.
president of Russiauses a Presidential Standard ( _ru. Штандарт Президента), which is officially defined as the tricolor with the Coat of Arms (at this case the two-headed eagle is depicted without the shield) in the middle.
List of Russian flags
Coat of arms of Russian Federation
Flag of the Russian SFSR
Flag of the Soviet Union
Coat of arms of Moscow
* [http://www.kremlin.ru/articles/state_insignia_01_2.shtml Official image of the Russian flag, on the official site of the Russian President.]
* [http://www.kremlin.ru/articles/state_insignia_01_1.shtml Text of the constitutional law about the flag.]
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