List of natural disasters by death toll


List of natural disasters by death toll

A natural disaster is defined as a hazard which occurs naturally, that is a disaster that is not brought about by acts of human beings. A natural disaster might be caused by earthquakes, flooding, volcanic eruption, landslide, etc. In order to be classified as a disaster it will have profound environmental effect and/or human loss and frequently incurs financial loss.

Contents

Ten deadliest natural disasters

Rank Death toll (estimate) Event Location Date
1. &100000000010000000000001,000,000–2,500,000*[1] 1931 China floods China July, November, 1931
2. &10000000000900000000000900,000–2,000,000[2] 1887 Yellow River flood China September, October, 1887
3. &10000000000830000000000830,000[3] 1556 Shaanxi earthquake Shaanxi Province, China January 23, 1556
4. &10000000000500000000000500,000[1] 1970 Bhola cyclone East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) 01970-11-13November 13, 1970
5. &10000000000316000000000316,000[4] 2010 Haiti earthquake Port-au-Prince, Haiti 02010-01-12January 12, 2010
6. &10000000000300000000000300,000[5] 1839 India Cyclone India November 25, 1839
7. &0101010101010101010101017917189999999230,210 - 310,000 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami Sumatra, Indonesia and also affected India, Sri Lanka, Maldives 02004-12-26December 26, 2004
8. &10000000000250000000000250,000–300,000 526 Antioch earthquake Antioch, Byzantine Empire (now Turkey) 00526-05 May 526
9. &10000000000242419000000242,419 (the death toll has been estimated to be as high as 665,000)[1] 1976 Tangshan earthquake Tangshan, Hebei, China 01976-07-28July 28, 1976
10. &10000000000234117000000234,117[1] 1920 Haiyuan earthquake Haiyuan, Ningxia-Gansu, China 01920-12-16December 16, 1920

* Estimate by Nova's sources are close to 4 million and yet Encarta's sources report as few as 1 million. Expert estimates report wide variance.

An alternative listing is given by Hough in his 2008 book Global Security.[6]


Ten deadliest natural disasters of the past century

Rank Maximum death toll Event* Location Date
1. &10000000000257000000000257,000–436,000 1931 China floods China 01931-11-01November 1931
2. &10000000000242419000000242,419–779,000 1976 Tangshan earthquake China 01976-07-01July 1976
3. &10000000000300000000000300,000–500,000 1970 Bhola cyclone East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) 01970-11-01November 1970
4. &10000000000316000000000316,000[7] 2010 Haiti earthquake Haiti 02010-01-01January 2010
5. &01010101010101010101010179999999999230,000 - 310,000 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami Indonesia 02004-12-01December 2004
6. &10000000000234000000000234,000 1920 Haiyuan earthquake China 01920-12-01December 1920
7. &10000000000142000000000142,000 1923 Great Kanto earthquake Japan 01923-09-01September 1923
8. &10000000000138000000000138,000+ 2008 Cyclone Nargis Myanmar 02008-05-01May 2008
9. &10000000000138000000000138,000 1991 Bangladesh cyclone Bangladesh 01991-04-01April 1991
10. &10000000000120000000000120,000 1948 Ashgabat earthquake Turkmenistan 01948-10-01October 1948

* Does not include industrial or technological accidents.

Lists of natural disasters this century

Avalanches

Rank Death toll (estimate) Event Location Date
1. &1000000000005000000000050,000 1970 Huascarán avalanche; triggered by the 1970 Ancash earthquake[8] Peru 01970 1970
2. &100000000000040000000004,000 1962 Huascarán avalanche[8] Peru 01962 1962
3. &10000000000000265000000265 Winter of Terror Austria-Switzerland 01951 1951
4. &10000000000000172000000172 2010 Salang avalanches Afghanistan 02010 2010
5. &10000000000000125000000125 Kolka-Karmadon rock ice slide Russia 02002 2002
6. &10000000000000102000000102 2010 Kohistan avalanche Pakistan 02010 2010
7. &1000000000000009600000096 Wellington, Washington avalanche United States 01910 1910
8. &1000000000000009000000090 Frank Slide Canada 01903 1903
9. &1000000000000006200000062 1910 Rogers Pass avalanche Canada 01910 1910
10. &1000000000000005900000059 1993 Bayburt Üzengili avalanche Turkey 01993 1993
11. &1000000000000005700000057 1954 Blons avalanches Austria 01954 1954

Blizzards

Rank Death toll (estimate) Event Location Date
1. &100000000000040000000004,000 1972 Iran blizzard Iran 01972 1972
2. &10000000000000926000000926 2008 Afghanistan blizzard Afghanistan 02008 2008
3. &10000000000000400000000400 Great Blizzard of 1888 United States 01888 1888
4. &10000000000000318000000318 1993 North American Storm Complex United States 01993 1993
5. &10000000000000235000000235 Schoolhouse Blizzard United States 01888 1888
6. &10000000000000199000000199 Hakko-da Mountains incident Japan 01902 1902
7. &10000000000000144000000144 Armistice Day Blizzard United States 01940 1940
8. &10000000000000133000000133 2008 Chinese winter storms China 02008 2008
9. &10000000000000112000000112 1995 Kazakh Blizzard Kazakhstan 01995 1995
10. &10000000000000100000000100 Northeastern United States blizzard of 1978 United States 01978 1978

Communicable diseases

Pandemics killing at least &100000000010000000000001,000,000 people:

Rank Death toll (estimate) Event Location Date
1. &10000000100000000000000100,000,000 approx. Black Death Asia, Europe, Africa 01300 1300s–1720s
2. &1000000005000000000000050,000,000–100,000,000 Spanish Flu Worldwide 01918 1918–1920
3. &1000000004000000000000040,000,000–100,000,000 Plague of Justinian Asia, Europe, Africa 00540 540–590
4. &1000000001200000000000012,000,000 ? Third Pandemic of Bubonic Plague Worldwide 01850 1850s–1950s
5. &100000000050000000000005,000,000 Antonine Plague Roman Empire 00165 165–180
6. &100000000040000000000004,000,000 Asian Flu Worldwide 01956 1956–1958

Other deadly communicable diseases. Death counts are historical totals unless indicated otherwise.

Rank Death toll (estimate) Disease Notes
1. &10000000300000000000000300,000,000 approx. Smallpox 01900 1900 to eradication.[9] Declared eradicated May 8, 1980.[10]
2. &10000000200000000000000200,000,000 ? Measles last 150 years[11]
3. &1000000008000000000000080,000,000–&10000000250000000000000250,000,000 Malaria 20th century – present
4. &1000000004000000000000040,000,000–&10000000100000000000000100,000,000 Tuberculosis 20th century – present[11]
5. &1000000002525000000000025,250,000 AIDS pandemic 01981 1981–present.
6. at least &10000000000250000000000250,000 annually Seasonal influenza As of April 2009[12]

Cyclones (including hurricanes)

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 500,000 1970 Bhola cyclone East Pakistan, Pakistan (now Bangladesh) 01970-11-13November 13, 1970
2. 300,000 1839 Indian cyclone India 01839-11-25November 25, 1839
3. 300,000[13] 1737 Calcutta cyclone India 01737-10-07October 7, 1737
4. 210,000 Super Typhoon Nina—contributed to Banqiao Dam failure China 01975-08-07August 7, 1975
5. 200,000[14] Great Backerganj Cyclone of 1876 present day Bangladesh 01876-10-30October 30, 1876
6. ~146,000 Cyclone Nargis Myanmar 02008-05-02May 2, 2008
7. 138,866 1991 Bangladesh cyclone Bangladesh 01991-04-29April 29, 1991
8. 100,000 1882 Bombay cyclone Bombay, India 01882 1882
9. 60,000 1922 Swatow Typhoon China 01922-08-01August 1, 1922
10. 60,000 1864 Calcutta Cyclone India 01864-10-05October 5, 1864

Earthquakes

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. &10000000000830000000000830,000 1556 Shaanxi earthquake China 01556-01-23 January 23, 1556
2. &10000000000242419000000242,419–779,000 1976 Tangshan earthquake China 01976-07-28 July 28, 1976
3. &10000000000316000000000316,000 (Haitian sources)
50,000–92,000 (non-Haitian sources)[15]
2010 Haiti earthquake Port au Prince, Haiti 02010-01-12 January 12, 2010
4. &10000000000250000000000250,000 526 Antioch earthquake Antioch, Byzantine Empire (now Turkey) 00526-05 May 526
5. &10000000000235502000000235,502 1920 Haiyuan earthquake China 01920-12-16 December 16, 1920
6. &10000000000230210000000230,210 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake Indonesia 02004-12-26 December 26, 2004
7. &10000000000230000000000230,000 1138 Aleppo earthquake Syria 01138-10-11 October 11, 1138
8. &10000000000200000000000200,000 856 Damghan earthquake Iran 00856-12-22 December 22, 856
9. &10000000000150000000000150,000 893 Ardabil earthquake Iran 00893-03-23 March 23, 893
10. &10000000000142800000000142,800[16] 1923 Great Kanto earthquake Japan 01923-09-01 September 1, 1923
11. &10000000000123000000000123,000[1] 1908 Messina earthquake Italy 01908-12-28 December 28, 1908
12. &10000000000110000000000110,000 1948 Ashgabat earthquake Turkmen SSR, Soviet Union (now Turkmenistan) 01948-10-05 October 5, 1948
13. &10000000000108000000000108,000.[17] 1703 Genroku earthquake Japan 01703-12-31 December 31, 1703
14. &10000000000100000000000100,000 1290 Chihli earthquake China 01290-09-27 September 27, 1290
15. &10000000000100000000000100,000 1755 Lisbon earthquake Portugal 01755-11-01 November 1, 1755
16. &10000000000100000000000100,000 1667 Shamakhi earthquake Azerbaijan 01667-11 November 1667
17. &1000000000007900000000079,000 2005 Kashmir earthquake Pakistan (Pakistan-administered Kashmir) 02005-10-08 October 8, 2005
18. &1000000000007700000000077,000 1727 Tabriz earthquake Iran 01727-11-18 November 18, 1727
19. &1000000000007000000000070,000 1970 Ancash earthquake Peru 01970-05-31 May 31, 1970
20. &1000000000007000000000070,000 1932 Changma earthquake Gansu, China 01932-12-25 December 25, 1932
21. &1000000000006871200000068,712 (18,392 missing) 2008 Sichuan earthquake China 02008-05-12 May 12, 2008
22. &1000000000006000000000060,000 1268 Cilicia earthquake Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (now Turkey) 01268 1268
23. &1000000000006000000000060,000 1693 Sicily earthquake Italy 01693-01-11 January 11, 1693
24. &1000000000006000000000060,000 1935 Balochistan earthquake British India (now part of Pakistan) 01935-05-31 May 31, 1935
25. &1000000000005000000000050,000 1783 Calabrian earthquakes Italy 01783 1783
26. &1000000000005000000000050,000 1990 Manjil-Rudbar earthquake Iran 01990-06-21 June 21, 1990
27. &1000000000004500000000045,000 1999 İzmit earthquake Turkey 01999-08-17 August 17, 1999
28. &1000000000004000000000040,000 1498 Meiō Nankaidō earthquake Japan 01498-09-20 September 20, 1498
29. &1000000000004000000000040,000 1797 Riobamba earthquake Ecuador 01797 1797
30. &1000000000004000000000040,000 1927 Gulang earthquake Gansu, China 01927 1927
31. &1000000000003296200000032,962 1939 Erzincan earthquake Turkey 01939-12-26 December 26, 1939
32. &1000000000003000000000030,000 1202 Syria earthquake Syria 01202-05-20 May 20, 1202
33. &1000000000003000000000030,000 1939 Chillán earthquake Chile 01939-01-24 January 24, 1939
34. &1000000000002800000000028,000 1949 Khait earthquake Tajikistan 01949-07-10 July 10, 1949
35. &1000000000002627100000026,271 2003 Bam earthquake Iran 02003-12-26 December 26, 2003
36. &1000000000002500000000025,000 1988 Spitak earthquake Armenia 01988-12-07 December 7, 1988
37. &1000000000002370000000023,700 1293 Kamakura earthquake Japan 01293-05-27 May 27, 1293
38. &1000000000002300000000023,000 1976 Guatemala earthquake Guatemala 01976-02-04 February 4, 1976
39. &1000000000002206600000022,066 1896 Meiji-Sanriku earthquake Japan 01896-06-15 June 15, 1896
40. &1000000000002000000000020,000 1812 Caracas earthquake Venezuela 01812-03-26 March 26, 1812
41. &1000000000002000000000020,000 1905 Kangra earthquake British India 01905-04-04 April 4, 1905
42. &1000000000001972700000019,727 2001 Gujarat earthquake India 02001-01-26 January 26, 2001
43. &1000000000001583600000015,836[18] 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami Japan 02011-03-11 March 11, 2011
44. &1000000000001562100000015,621 1970 Tonghai earthquake China 01970-01-04 January 4, 1970
45. &1000000000001500000000015,000 1960 Agadir earthquake Morocco 01960-02-26 February 26, 1960
46. &1000000000001500000000015,000 1978 Tabas earthquake Iran 01978-09-16 September 16, 1978
47. &1000000000001222500000012,225 1962 Bou'in-Zahra earthquake Iran 01962-09-01 September 1, 1962
48. &1000000000001200000000012,000–15000 1907 Qaratog earthquake Tajikistan 01907-10-21 October 21, 1907
49. &1000000000001200000000012,000 1968 Dasht-e Bayaz and Ferdows earthquake Iran 01968-08-31 August 31, 1968
50. &1000000000001050000000010,500 1934 Bihar earthquake British India 01934-01-15 January 15, 1934
51. &1000000000001015300000010,153 1985 Mexico City earthquake Mexico 01985-09-19 September 19, 1985
52. &1000000000001000000000010,000 1509 Istanbul earthquake Constantinople, Ottoman Empire (now Istanbul, Turkey) 01509-09-10 September 10, 1509
53. &1000000000001000000000010,000 1703 Apennine earthquakes Italy 01703 1703
54. &1000000000001000000000010,000 1854 Ansei-Nankai earthquake Japan 01854-12-24 December 24, 1854
55. &1000000000001000000000010,000[19] 1944 San Juan earthquake Argentina 01944-01-15 January 15, 1944

Famines

Note: Some of these famines may be caused or partially caused by humans.

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 15,000,000–43,000,000 Great Chinese Famine China 01958 1958–1961
2. 24,000,000 Chinese Famine of 1907 China 01907 1907
3. 19,000,000 Indian Famine British India 01896 1896–1902
4. 15,000,000 Bengal famine of 1770, incl. Bihar & Orissa India 01769 1769–1771
5. 13,000,000 Northern Chinese Famine China 01876 1876–1879
6. 10,000,000 Indian Great Famine of 1876–78 India 01876 1876–1879
7. 7,500,000 Great European Famine Europe (all) 01315 1315–1317
8. 7,000,000-10,000,000 Soviet famine of 1932–1933 (Holodomor) Soviet Union 01932 1932–1934
9. 5,000,000 Chinese Famine of 1936 China 01936 1936
10. 5,000,000 Russian famine of 1921 Russia, Ukraine 01921 1921–1922
11. 3,000,000 Chinese Drought 1941 China 01941 1941
12. 3,000,000 Chinese Famine of 1928–1930 China 01928 1928–1930
13. 2,000,000 Russian famine of 1601–1603 Russia (Muscovy) 01601 1601–1603
14. 2,000,000 Vietnamese Famine of 1945 Vietnam 01943 1943–1945
15. 2,000,000 Deccan Famine of 1630–32 India 01630 1630–1632
16. 1,500,000–4,000,000 Bengal Famine of 1943 India 01943 1943
17. 1,200,000-3,500,000 North Korean famine North Korea 01996 1996–1998
18. 1,000,000–1,500,000 Great Irish Famine Ireland 01846 1846–1849
19. 1,000,000 1984–1985 famine in Ethiopia Ethiopia 01984 1984
20. 1,000,000 Horn of Africa famine Ethiopia, Sudan, Somalia 01888 1888
21. 26,000–1,000,000 Bangladesh famine of 1974—Official records claim 26,000. However, various sources claim about 1,000,000. Bangladesh 01974 1974
22. 150,000+ Finnish famine of 1866–1868 Finland, northern Sweden 01866 1866–1868

Floods and landslides

Note: Some of these floods and landslides may be partially caused by humans, for example, the dams, levees, seawalls and retaining walls failure.

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 2,500,000–3,700,000[20] 1931 China floods China 1931
2. 900,000–2,000,000 1887 Yellow River (Huang He) flood China 1887
3. 500,000–700,000 1938 Yellow River (Huang He) flood China 1938
4. 231,000 Banqiao Dam failure, result of Typhoon Nina. Approximately 86,000 people died from flooding and another 145,000 died during subsequent disease. China 1975
5. 145,000 1935 Yangtze river flood China 1935
6. more than 100,000 St. Felix's Flood, storm surge Netherlands 1530
7. 100,000 Hanoi and Red River Delta flood North Vietnam 1971
8. 100,000 1911 Yangtze river flood China 1911
9. 50,000–80,000 St. Lucia's flood, storm surge Netherlands 1287
10. 2,400 North Sea flood, storm surge Netherlands, England, Belgium 31 January 1953

Heat waves

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 56,000 2010 Russian heat wave Russia 2010
2. 40,000 2003 European heat wave Europe 2003
3. 5,000–10,000 1988 United States heat wave United States 1988
4. 1,700 1980 United States heat wave United States 1980
5. 1,500 2003 Southern India heat wave India 2003
6. 946 1955 Los Angeles heat wave United States 1955
7. 891 1972 New York City heat wave United States 1972
8. 739 1995 Chicago heat wave United States 1995[21]
9. 503 2010 Japanese heat wave Japan 2010[citation needed]

Lightning strikes

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 4,000 Palace of the Grand Masters Explosion, Rhodes Greece 1856
2. 3,000 Church of San Nazaro Explosion, Brescia Italy 1769

Limnic eruptions

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 1,746 Lake Nyos Cameroon 1986
2. 37 Lake Monoun Cameroon 1984

Storms (non-cyclone)

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 15,100 Torrential rains and mudslides Venezuela 1999
2. 1,000 Rio de Janeiro floods and mudslides Brazil 2011
3. 500 Lofoten, Heavy storm Norway 1849
4. 250 Great Lakes Storm of 1913 United States and Canada (Great Lakes region) 1913
5. 242 1996 Amarnath Yatra tragedy India 1996
6. 210 Trøndelag, storm ("Follastormen") Norway 1625
7. 189 Eyemouth, Scotland, storm ("Black Friday") United Kingdom 1881
8. 140 Trøndelag, storm ("Titran disaster") Norway 1899
9. 128 2008 Santa Catarina floods and mudslides Brazil 2008
10. 96 Lofoten, storm Norway 1868

Tornadoes

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 1,300 The Daulatpur-Salturia Tornado Manikganj, Bangladesh April 26, 1989
2. 923 1969 East Pakistan Tornado East Pakistan, Pakistan (now Bangladesh) 1969
3. 695 The Tri-State Tornado United States (MissouriIllinoisIndiana) March 18, 1925
4. 681 1973 Dhaka Tornado Bangladesh 1973
5. 600 The Valletta, Malta Tornado Malta 1551
6. 500 The Sicily Tornadoes Sicily, Two Sicilies (now Italy) 1851
6. 500 The Narail-Magura Tornadoes Jessore, East Pakistan, Pakistan (now Bangladesh) 1964
6. 500 The Comoro Tornado Comoro 1951
9. 440 The Tangail Tornado Bangladesh 1988
10. 400 The Ivanovo-Yaroslavl, Russia, Tornado Soviet Union (now Russia) 1984

Tsunamis

Rank
Death toll
Event Location Date
1. 230,210 - 310,000 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Maldives, Malaysia, Somalia, Bangladesh, Thailand 26 December, 2004
2. 123,000[1] 1908 Messina earthquake/tsunami Messina, Italy 1908
3. 100,000 1755 Lisbon earthquake/tsunami/fire Portugal, Spain, Morocco, Ireland, and the United Kingdom (Cornwall) 1755
4. 40,000 (est.) Minoan Eruption Greece 2nd millennium BCE
5. 36,000 Caused by 1883 eruption of Krakatoa Indonesia 1883
6. 30,000 1707 Hōei earthquake Tōkaidō/Nankaido, Japan 1707
7. 25,674 1868 Arica earthquake/tsunami Arica, Chile 1868
8. 22,070 1896 Meiji-Sanriku earthquake Sanriku, Japan 1896
9. 15,812 to 19,797* 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami Japan 11 March, 2011
10. 15,030 1792 Mount Unzen eruption in southwest Kyūshū /tsunami Kyūshū, Japan 1792
11. 12,000 1771 Great Yaeyama Tsunami Yaeyama, Okinawa, Japan 1771
12. Unknown Kaveripattinam(Poompuhar) Tsunami Poompuhar, TamilNadu, India 400 AD

* Official figures, from National Police Agency, 27 Sep 2011.[22]

Volcanic eruptions

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 92,000 Mount Tambora (see also Year Without a Summer) Indonesia 01815-04-10April 10, 1815
2. 36,000 Krakatoa Indonesia August 26–27, 1883
3. 33,000 Mount Vesuvius Pompeii and Herculaneum, Italy August 24, 79
4. 29,000 Mount Pelée Martinique May 7 or May 8, 1902
5. 23,000 Nevado del Ruiz (Armero tragedy) Colombia 01985-11-13November 13, 1985
6. 15,000 Mount Unzen Japan 01792 1792
7. 10,000 Mount Kelut Indonesia 01586 1586
8. 9,350 Laki. Killed about 25% of the population (33% were killed about 70 years before by smallpox) Iceland 01783-06-08June 8, 1783
9. 6,000 Santa Maria Guatemala 01902 1902
10. 5,115 Mount Kelut Indonesia 01919-05-19May 19, 1919

A supervolcanic eruption at Lake Toba around 74,000 years ago could have wiped out as much as 99% of the global human population, reducing the population from a possible 60 million to less than 10 thousand; see Toba catastrophe theory. However, this theory may not be widely accepted because the evidence could possibly be disputed, and there have been, for instance, no remains found.[citation needed] The eruption is not listed here as it was pre-historic and outside the scope of this article. Also, the Thera eruption in the Aegean Sea between 1550 and 1650 BC may have caused a large number of deaths throughout the region, from Crete to Egypt. See also La Garita Caldera, Yellowstone Caldera, and Supervolcanoes.

Wildfires and bushfires

Rank Death toll Event Location Date
1. 1,200–2,500 Peshtigo Fire, Wisconsin United States October 8, 1871
2. 1,200 Kursha-2 Fire Soviet Union August 3, 1936
3. 453 Cloquet Fire, Minnesota United States October 12, 1918
4. 418 Great Hinckley Fire, Minnesota United States September 1, 1894
5. 282 Thumb Fire, Michigan United States September 5, 1881
6. 273 Matheson Fire, Ontario Canada July 29, 1916
7. 240 Sumatra and Kalimantan Fires Indonesia 1997
8. 230 Landes region France 1949
9. 213 Black Dragon Fire China May 1987
10. 173 Black Saturday bushfires Australia February 7 – March 14, 2009
11. 167 Fires of Needle Ridge United States February 12 – April 4, 1980
12. 110 Paraná Forest Fire Brazil 1963[citation needed]
13. 71 Black Friday bushfires (1939) Australia January 13, 1939

See also

Portal icon Disasters portal
Portal icon Death portal

Other lists organized by death toll

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f The world's worst natural disasters Calamities of the 20th and 21st centuries CBC News'.' Retrieved 2010-10-29.
  2. ^ "NOVA Online | Flood! | Dealing with the Deluge". Pbs.org. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/flood/deluge.html. Retrieved 2010-08-11. 
  3. ^ "Top 10 Deadliest Earthquakes". Time. January 13, 2010. http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1953425_1953424,00.html. Retrieved May 8, 2010. 
  4. ^ "Magnitude 7.0 - HAITI REGION". Earthquake.usgs.gov. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2010/us2010rja6/#summary. Retrieved 2010-08-11. 
  5. ^ "The Worst Natural Disasters by Death Toll". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2008-04-06. http://docs.lib.noaa.gov/noaa_documents/NOAA_related_docs/death_toll_natural_disasters.pdf. Retrieved 2011-03-11. 
  6. ^ Understanding Global Security, Peter Hough, 2008, chapter 8, page 192, table 8.1 'The ten worst natural disasters in history'
  7. ^ cite web|url=http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqinthenews/2010/us2010rja6/#summary
  8. ^ a b "The Peru Earthquake: A Special Study". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists Oct 1970: 18. http://books.google.com/books?id=FwcAAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA18. 
  9. ^ "UC Davis Magazine, Summer 2006: Epidemics on the Horizon". http://ucdavismagazine.ucdavis.edu/issues/su06/feature_1b.html. Retrieved 2008-01-03. 
  10. ^ Smallpox and bioterrorism, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 81 no. 10 Genebra October 2003 ISSN 0042-9686
  11. ^ a b "Torrey EF and Yolken RH. 2005. Their bugs are worse than their bite. Washington Post, April 3, p. B01". Birdflubook.com. http://birdflubook.com/a.php?id=40&t=p. Retrieved 2010-08-11. 
  12. ^ Influenza (Seasonal), World Health Organization, April 2009. Retrieved 2010-02-13.
  13. ^ "10 'Worst' Natural Disasters". Eas.slu.edu. http://www.eas.slu.edu/hazards.html. Retrieved 2010-08-11. 
  14. ^ ThinkQuest Team #C003603. "Hurricanes: case studies". Library.thinkquest.org. http://library.thinkquest.org/C003603/english/hurricanes/casestudies.shtml. Retrieved 2010-08-11. 
  15. ^ Magnitude 7.0 - HAITI REGION
  16. ^ http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/today/index.php?month=9&day=1&submit=View+Date
  17. ^ http://www.japanvisitor.com/index.php?cID=429&pID=1820
  18. ^ http://www.npa.go.jp/archive/keibi/biki/higaijokyo_e.pdf
  19. ^ "Listado de Terremotos Históricos". Inpres.gov.ar. http://www.inpres.gov.ar/seismology/seismology/historic/hist.panel.htm. Retrieved 2010-08-11. 
  20. ^ "Worst Natural Disasters In History". Nbc10.com. http://www.nbc10.com/news/4030540/detail.html. Retrieved 2010-08-11. 
  21. ^ Eric Klinenberg (July 30, 2002). "Dead Heat: Why don't Americans sweat over heat-wave deaths?". Slate. http://www.slate.com/id/2068612. Retrieved 30 July 2010. 
  22. ^ "Damage Situation and Police Countermeasures associated with 2011Tohoku district - off the Pacific Ocean Earthquake". http://www.npa.go.jp/archive/keibi/biki/higaijokyo_e.pdf. 

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