The Texas Chain Saw Massacre


The Texas Chain Saw Massacre

Infobox Film
name = The Texas Chain Saw Massacre


caption = The original movie poster
writer = Kim Henkel
Tobe Hooper
starring = Marilyn Burns
Gunnar Hansen
Edwin Neal
Allen Danziger
Paul A. Partain
Jim Siedow
Teri McMinn
William Vail
director = Tobe Hooper
producer = Tobe Hooper
Lou Peraino
distributor = Bryanston Distributing Company (U.S.)
New Line Cinema (1983 U.S. Re-release)
Blue Dolphin (UK)
released = October 1, 1974
runtime = 84 mins.
country = United States
budget =
gross =
music = Wayne Bell
Tobe Hooper
awards =
amg_id = 1:49206
imdb_id = 0072271
followed_by = "The Texas Chainsaw Massacre 2"
"The Texas Chain Saw Massacre" is a 1974 American independent horror film written, directed, and produced by Tobe Hooper and Kim Henkel. The film is the first in "The Texas Chainsaw Massacre" franchise, featuring Marilyn Burns, Gunnar Hansen, Teri McMinn, William Vail, Edwin Neal, and Paul A. Partain. The plot revolves primarily around a group of friends who embark on a road trip to rural Texas to visit the Hardesty family gravesite, which according to radio reports, had been gruesomely vandalized. On a detour to visit the Hardesty mansion, the friends fall victim to a family of cannibals, including the chainsaw-wielding Leatherface.

"The Texas Chain Saw Massacre" was strongly criticized at the time of its release for its graphic content, cite web |url= http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/19740101/REVIEWS/401010319/1023 |title= "The Texas Chainsaw Massacre" (1974) |accessdate=2008-05-31 |publisher= Roger Ebert |date= January 1, 1974] so much so that it led to the film being banned in various countries, including Australia and the United Kingdom. cite web |url= http://www.refused-classification.com/Films_texaschainsawmassacre.htm |title= "The Texas Chainsaw Massacre" 1 & 2 |accessdate=2008-07-07 |work= |publisher= Refused-Classification.com |date= ] However in recent years, the film has been considered a classic among critics, and has topped a "Total Film" poll as the greatest horror film of all time. [ cite web |url= http://www.theregister.co.uk/2005/10/11/top_horror_film/ |title= "Texas Chain Saw Massacre" voted best horror film |accessdate=2008-07-12 |work= |publisher= The Register |date= October 11, 2005] The film has since produced three sequels in addition to a remake that has its own .

Plot

The film begins with a group of five friends traveling the back roads of Texas en route to their grandfather's grave. Among them are Sally Hardesty (Marilyn Burns), her wheelchair-bound brother Franklin (Paul A. Partain), her boyfriend Jerry (Allen Danziger), his best friend Kirk (William Vail), and Kirk's girlfriend Pam (Teri McMinn). After visiting the cemetery, they stop at a gas station, but the station pumps are empty; they continue to the Hardesty mansion. On the way they encounter a hitchhiker (Edwin Neal), who slashes both himself and Franklin with a straight razor before being kicked out of the group's vehicle.

Arriving at the Hardesty house, the group separates and begins exploring. Kirk and Pam, in search of a place to swim, stumble upon a nearby residence. Looking for gasoline, Kirk enters the house. Leatherface (Gunnar Hansen) appears from behind a door and kills Kirk with a sledgehammer. Pam, looking for Kirk, wanders into the house, and she too is grabbed by Leatherface, who hangs her on a meat hook. Back at the vehicle, Sally, Franklin, and Jerry begin to worry about Kirk and Pam; Jerry sets off to search for them. Jerry discovers the nearby house and walks in to look for Kirk and Pam. He opens the freezer and finds Pam's body, which suddenly springs to life; Leatherface enters the room and kills Jerry with the sledgehammer, then pushes Pam's body back into the freezer.

As night falls, Sally and Franklin set off to find the others. Sally pushes Franklin through the woods as they call out for their friends. Leatherface appears out of the darkness and cuts into Franklin's abdomen with a chainsaw. Sally runs away screaming with Leatherface chasing after her. Sally eventually finds her way back to the gas station the group had passed earlier. The owner of the station, credited as "Cook" (Jim Siedow), tries to calm Sally, who is ranting about being chased by a man with a chainsaw. The owner leaves to get his truck and returns with a bag and some rope. Sally realizes that the owner is involved with Leatherface, and she attempts to fight back. The man subdues her, puts her into his truck, and then heads back to the house. As the man picks up the previously mentioned hitchhiker along the way, it is revealed that all are part of the same cannibilistic family. Sally wakes to find herself tied to a chair at a dining table, where Leatherface and the hitchhiker bring Grandpa (John Dugan) to take part in killing and eating Sally.

Sally frees herself from her restraints and flees the house. The hitchhiker and Leatherface chase after her, with the hitchhiker slashing her back with his straight razor as they run. As the group reaches the road, a passing semi-trailer truck runs down the hitchhiker. When the driver stops, Sally pleads with him for both of them to get in the truck and leave. Leatherface chases the truck driver and Sally around the truck. The truck driver throws a wrench at Leatherface causing him to fall; Leatherface's leg is cut as the chainsaw falls onto it. A pickup truck approaches, and Sally manages to get into the truck bed. Sally laughs hysterically as she escapes, and Leatherface twirls and swings his chainsaw in frustration.

Production

Creation

Tobe Hooper stated that the idea for featuring a chainsaw in a horror film came to him while in the hardware section of a crowded store, as he imagined a way to get out quickly through the crowd. The concept for the film arose in the early 1970s while he was a college professor and documentary cameraman in his native Austin, Texas. [cite book|last=Phillips|first=Kendall R.|title=Projected Fears: Horror Films and American Culture |publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group|date=2005|pages=102|chapter=5|isbn=0275983536] [ cite web |url= http://www.texaschainsawmovie.com/tobe-hooper.html |title= Tobe Hooper |accessdate=2008-07-11 |work= |publisher= TexasChainSawMovie.com |date= ]

"The Texas Chain Saw Massacre" was based loosely on the murders committed by 1950s serial killer Ed Gein, who served as the inspiration for a number of other horror films including Alfred Hitchcock's "Psycho" (1960), Jonathan Demme's "The Silence of the Lambs" (1991) and William Girdler's Three on a Meathook (1972).cite video | people=Gregory, David (Director and Writer) | year=2000 | url=http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0286214/| title=Texas Chainsaw Massacre: The Shocking Truth | medium=Documentary| publisher=Blue Underground] [ cite web |url= http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/serial_killers/notorious/gein/bill_1.html |title= Ed Gein: The Inspiration for Buffalo Bill and Psycho |accessdate=2008-08-21 |publisher= Trutv|date= ] cite book | title = Recycled Culture in Contemporary Art and Film: The Uses of Nostalgia | first = Vera | last = Dika | year = 2003 | publisher = Cambridge University Press | location = Britain | pages = Pages 63 | id = ISBN 0521016312]

The movie's special effects were simple and limited by the budget. The blood depicted was often real, as the cast members were injured accidentally during filming. [ cite web |url= http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,100135,00.html |title= 'Chainsaw' Cuts Up the Screen |accessdate=2008-07-12 |work= |publisher= FOX News |date= October 15, 2003 ] For example, Marilyn Burns' index finger was cut with a razor because there were difficulties getting the stage blood to come out of the tube behind the blade. [ cite web |url= http://gunnarhansen.com/faq.htm |title= Gunnar Hansen FAQ |accessdate=2008-08-21 |work= |publisher= |date= ] Burns' costume was so drenched in stage blood that it was virtually solid on the last day of shooting.

The scene after Pam is hung on the meathook, when Leatherface first uses his chainsaw, caused some worry to actor William Vail (Kirk). Kirk was about to have his head cut off, and behind scenes actor Hansen told Vail not to move or he would be literally killed. He then brought the actually running chainsaw down within 3 inches of his face.

The film was shot mainly using an Eclair NPR 16mm camera. [ cite web |url= http://sci-fishock.com/texaschain.aspx |title= The Texas Chain Saw Massacre |accessdate=2008-06-01 |publisher= Sci-FiShock.com |date= ] The film was distributed and produced through Bryanston Distributing Company.

Financing

Hooper and Kim Henkel—the writers of the original screenplay— formed a corporation named Vortex, Inc. with Henkel as president and Hooper as vice president. Citation| last =Farley| first =Ellen | last2 =Knoedelseder, Jr| first2 =William| title =The Chainsaw Massacres| newspaper =Cinefantastique | volume=16| issue=4/5| year = 1986| date =October] They asked Bill Parsley to provide funding for "this simple little ol' horror movie". Parsley formed a company named MAB, Inc. and invested US$60,000 toward the film. In return MAB owned fifty percent of the film and its profits. Production manager Ron Bozman told most of the cast and crew to defer parts of their salaries until after the movie was sold. Vortex made the idea more attractive by awarding nearly everyone with a share of Vortex's potential profits, ranging from .25% to 6% (i.e., points). Because of a miscommunication between Vortex and the others, the cast and crew were not informed that Vortex owned only fifty percent of the film, thereby making their points worth half of the assumed value.

Midway through the editing process, Henkel and Hooper had exceeded the budget for the film. P.I.T.S. donated US$23,532 in exchange for nineteen percent of Vortex's already fifty percent share of the profits. That left Henkel and Hooper with 45% of Vortex between them and the remaining 36% divided up among twenty cast and crew members. Warren Skaaren made a deal as an equal partner with Hooper and Henkel, along with a fifteen percent share of Vortex. Skaaren was paid a deferred salary of US$5,000 and a "monitoring fee" of three percent of the gross profits (i.e., MAB and Vortex combined). David Foster arranged for a private screening for some of Bryanston Distributing Company's West Coast executives and received 1.5% of Vortex's profits and a deferred fee of US$500.

On August 28, 1974, Bozman and Skaaren were offered a contract of US$225,000 and 35% of the profits from the worldwide distribution of the film by Louis (Butchi) Periano of Bryanston Distribution Company. Years later, Bozman was quoted saying, "We made a deal with the devil, [sigh] , and I guess that, in a way, we got what we deserved." The contract with Bryanston was signed. After the investors recouped their money (including interest), Skaaren's salary and monitoring fee were paid, and the lawyers and accountants were paid, only US$8,100 remained to be divided among the twenty filmmakers.

Casting

Many of the cast members had little or no acting credits prior to being cast. The cast consisted of actors native to or currently residing in Texas who had previous roles in commercials or television and stage shows, as well as actors who were acquaintances of Hooper. Involvement in the film propelled many cast members into the motion picture industry. The lead role of Sally went to the then-unknown Marilyn Burns. [ cite web |url= http://www.x-entertainment.com/articles/0844/ |title= "The Texas Chain Saw Massacre" - Movie Review |accessdate=2008-07-06 |work= |publisher= X-Entertainment |date= February 11, 2003 ] Burns had appeared previously on stage, and while attending the University of Texas at Austin, she joined its film commission board. Teri McMinn was a student and worked with various local theater companies, including the Dallas Theater Center. Her picture was spotted by Henkel in the "Austin American Statesman". He called McMinn to come in for a reading. On her last call-back, he requested that she wear short shorts. Her costume proved to be the most comfortable of all the cast members' costumes, taking into consideration the Texas heat that was to last through out the entire shoot. For the role of Leatherface, Icelandic-American actor Gunnar Hansen was cast. cite web |url= http://www.anecdotage.com/index.php?aid=5710 |title= "Texas Chain Saw Massacre" |accessdate=2008-07-06 |work= |publisher= Anecdotage.com |date= February, 2001 ] In preparation for his role, Hansen decided that Leatherface was mentally retarded and never learned to speak properly. Hansen visited a school for the mentally challenged and watched how the students moved and spoke to get a feel for his character. Hansen recalled, "It was 95, 100 degrees every day during filming. They wouldn't wash my costume because they were worried that the laundry might lose it, or that it would change color. They didn't have enough money for a second costume. So I wore that [mask] 12 to 16 hours a day, seven days a week, for a month."

Release

Upon the completion of post-production, filmakers found it difficult to secure a distributor willing to market the film, due to the graphic content. However, on August 28, 1974, the Bryanston Distributing Company agreed to distribute the film. "The Texas Chain Saw Massacre" premiered on October 1, 1974 in Austin, Texas, almost a year after filming was complete. The film was shown nationally as a Saturday afternoon matinée, attracting an audience consisting of pre-teens and adolescents. The film found success with a broader audience after it was falsely marketed as being a "true story". [ cite web |url= http://www.snopes.com/movies/films/chainsaw.asp |title= "Texas Chain Saw Massacre" myth debunked |accessdate=2008-06-01 |publisher= snopes.com |date= 2007 ]

Ratings

Tobe Hooper reportedly hoped the complete uncut print of the film would be given a PG rating by the MPAA. However, the film was released uncensored by the MPAA film rating system, with an R rating. [ cite web |url= http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,1548419,00.html |title= The Texas Chainsaw Massacre: Ultimate Edition |accessdate=2008-06-01 |publisher= Entertainment Weekly |date=2006] The movie was banned or delayed in many countries, and where it was released, it was frequently edited. The film was banned in the United Kingdom largely on the authority of BBFC secretary James Ferman, [ cite web |url= http://www.sbbfc.co.uk/TheTexasChainSawMassacre.asp |title= "The Texas Chain Saw Massacre" |accessdate=2008-06-01 |publisher= sBBFC.co.uk |date= 2006 ] but saw a limited cinema release because of various city councils. Censors attempted to edit the film for the purposes of a wider release in 1977 but were unsuccessful.

The Censorship Board in Australia first viewed "The Texas Chain Saw Massacre" in June 1975. The 83-minute print was swiftly refused registration. The distributor appealed to the Review Board who upheld the decision in August 1975. The distributor prepared a reconstructed 77-minute version, only to see it banned again in December 1975. In 1976, the film was banned again.

It would take five years for the film to be re-presented to the censors. However the result was much the same. Greater Union Orgainzation (GUO) Film Distributors refused registration for a 2283.4 (83m 27s) print in July 1981. The reason given for the ban was "violence".

Reception

The film grossed an estimated US$30 million in the United States, making it one of the most successful independent films, until being overtaken by John Carpenter's "Halloween" (1978). [cite web |url= http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,278290,00.html|title= "Tool Time" |accessdate=2008-08-21 |work= |publisher= Entertainment Weekly|date=] "The Texas Chain Saw Massacre" has been translated into more than 25 languages and released across Europe, Canada and, because of controversy, not until 1982 in Australia.

"The Texas Chain Saw Massacre" was generally well-received by most critics. "TV Guide" called it "an intelligent, absorbing, and deeply disturbing horror film that is nearly bloodless in its depiction of violence", [ cite web |url= http://movies.tvguide.com/texas-chain-saw-massacre/review/120053 |title= "The Texas Chain Saw Massacre": Review |accessdate=2008-07-08 |work= |publisher= TVGuide.com|date= ] and "Empire Magazine" called it"the most purely horrifying horror movie ever made". cite web |url= http://www.metacritic.com/video/titles/texaschainsawmassacre?q=texas%20chainsaw%20massacre |title= The Texas Chain Saw Massacre(1974): Reviews |accessdate=2008-06-01 |publisher= MetaCritic |date= January 1, 2000] Mike Emery of the "Austin Chronicle" said that the film was "horrifying, yet engrossing ... But the worst part about this vision is that despite its sensational aspects, it never seems too far from what could be the truth." "Chicago Reader" said, "The picture gets to you more through its intensity than its craft, but Hooper does have a talent." Christopher Null of Filmcritic.com said, "In our collective consciousness, Leatherface and his chainsaw have become as iconic as Freddy and his razors or Jason and his hockey mask." [ cite web |url= http://www.filmcritic.com/misc/emporium.nsf/reviews/The-Texas-Chain-Saw-Massacre-(1974) |title= The Texas Chain Saw Massacre (1974) |accessdate=2008-07-08 |work= |publisher= FilmCritic.com |date= 2003 ] Several reviewers disliked the film's gory special effects. Critic Roger Ebert of the "Chicago Sun-Times" believed that it was well-acted, well-directed, and effective; but claimed that the film became too gratuitously violent and seemed "weird" in parts. Steve Crum of Dispatch Tribune Newspapers criticized the film, describing it as "cultish trash that set new low standards for brutality". [ cite web |url= http://uk.rottentomatoes.com/author/author-9176/ratings.php?letter=t&cats=30&genreid=&switches= |title= Steve Crum - Rotten Tomatoes |accessdate=2008-06-01 |publisher= RottenTomatoes.com |date= 2006 ] Stephen Koch's 1976 diatribe against the film in "Fashions in Pornography" for "Harper's Magazine" described "The Texas Chain Saw Massacre" as "unrelenting sadistic violence as extreme and hideous as a complete lack of imagination can possibly make it". [cite book|last=Staiger|first=Janet|title=Perverse Spectators: The Practices of Film Reception|publisher=NYU Press|date=2000|pages=183|isbn=081478139X] Robin Wood stated "Watching it recently with a large, half-stoned youth audience who cheered and applauded every one of Leatherface's outrages against their representatives on screen was a terrifying experience". [cite book|last=Braudy|first=Leo|coauthors=Marshall Cohen|title=Film Theory and Criticism: Introductory Readings|publisher=Oxford University Press US|date=2004|edition=6th edition|pages=770|isbn=0195158172] More recently, however, critics have called "The Texas Chain Saw Massacre" one of the scariest movies ever made. cite web |url= http://www.filmvault.com/filmvault/austin/t/texaschainsawmass5.html |title= The Texas Chainsaw Massacre |accessdate=2008-06-05 |publisher= FilmVault.com |date= 1998-11-02 ] Rob Gonsalves of eFilmCritic.com refers to the film as "a masterpiece", and hails it as "The Great American Horror Movie". cite web |url= http://efilmcritic.com/review.php?movie=2279&reviewer=416 |title= "The Texas Chain Saw Massacre" (Review) |accessdate=2008-06-01 |publisher= Rob Gonsalves |date= 2006 ] Noted reviewer Rex Reed called it "The most terrifying motion picture I have ever seen." Horror novelist Stephen King considers it "cataclysmic terror", and stated, "I would happily testify to its redeeming social merit in any court in the country." In a 2005 poll conducted by "Total Film", "The Texas Chain Saw Massacre" topped the list as the greatest horror film of all time, beating John Carpenter's "Halloween". cite web |url= http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/film/4323968.stm |title= Texas Massacre tops horror poll |accessdate=2008-07-09 |work= |publisher= British Broadcasting Corporation |date= October 9, 2005 ] Movie review website Rotten Tomatoes gave the film an 89% "fresh" rating. [ cite web |url= http://uk.rottentomatoes.com/m/1021112-texas_chainsaw_massacre/ |title= The Texas Chainsaw Massacre (1974) |accessdate=2008-07-10 |work= |publisher= Rotten Tomatoes |date= ] "Variety" stated, "Despite the heavy doses of gore in The Texas Chain Saw Massacre, Tobe Hooper's pic is well-made for an exploiter of its type. The script by Hooper and Kim Henkel is a take-off on the same incident which inspired Robert Bloch's novel (and later Alfred Hitchcock's film) "Psycho"." [ cite web |url= http://www.variety.com/review/VE1117795563.html?categoryid=31&cs=1&query=The+Texas+Chain+Saw+Massacre |title= The Texas Chain Saw Massacre |accessdate=2008-07-11 |work= |publisher= Variety.com |date= January 1, 1974 ] The film has also been declared one of the few horror movies to invoke "the authentic quality of nightmare". [cite book|last=Worland|first=Rick |title=The Horror Film: An Introduction|publisher=Blackwell Publishing|date=2006|isbn=1405139021]

Home video

"The Texas Chain Saw Massacre" was released on videotape and CED format in the 1980s by Wizard Video and Vestron Video. The film was again banned in the United Kingdom in 1984, during the moral panic surrounding video nasties. After the retirement of its secretary James Ferman in 1999, the British Board of Film Classification passed the movie uncut on cinema and video, with the 18 certificate, almost 25 years after "The Texas Chain Saw Massacre"'s original release. [ cite web |url= http://www.bbfc.co.uk/website/Classified.nsf/0/D35CE290A629176B80256737002B7882?OpenDocument |title= The Texas Chainsaw Massacre rated 18 by the BBFC |accessdate=2008-06-01 |publisher= British Board of Film Classification |date= 1999 ]

"The Texas Chain Saw Massacre" was originally released on DVD format in October 1998 for the United States, and, because of the controversy, in May 2000 for the United Kingdom. [cite web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/films/2001/10/02/txs_chainsaw_massacre_1974_dvd_review.shtml|title=The Texas Chainsaw Massacre (1974)|last= Coates|first=Tom |date=October 2, 2001|publisher=BBC|accessdate=2008-08-20] The Australian DVD release date was in early 2002. A region 1 two-disc edition was released, entitled "The Texas Chainsaw Massacre: Ultimate Edition". The release included several interviews, improved audio and picture quality, and other features such as deleted scenes. [ cite web |url= http://www.thetexaschainsawmassacredvd.com/ |title= "The Texas Chain Saw Massacre: 2-Disc Ultimate Edition" |accessdate=2008-07-12 |work= |publisher= The Texas Chainsaw Massacre DVD |date= ] Reviews for the release were extremely positive, with critics praising the sound and picture quality of the restoration. [ cite web |url= http://dvd.ign.com/articles/737/737317p1.html|title= The Texas Chain Saw Massacre (Ultimate Edition) |accessdate=2008-08-21 |work= |publisher= IGN |date= October 5, 2006 ] [ cite web |url= http://www.dvdactive.com/reviews/dvd/texas-chain-saw-massacre-ultimate-edition-the.html|title= "Texas Chain Saw Massacre, The": Ultimate Edition |accessdate=2008-08-21 |work= |publisher= DVDactive.com |date=] Dark Sky Films released a Blu-ray Disc version of the film, on September 30, 2008. [ cite web |url= http://www.blu-ray.com/news/?id=1347 |title= Texas Chainsaw Massacre Announced for Blu-ray |accessdate=2008-07-06 |work= |publisher= Blu-ray.com |date= May 30, 2008 ] A region 2 three-disc edition, entitled "The Texas Chain Saw Massacre: Seriously Ultimate Edition" is scheduled for release in the United Kingdom on November 3, 2008. [cite web|url=http://www.zetaminor.com/dvd/incoming_db/listing.php?id=7343|title=The Texas Chain Saw Massacre - Seriously Ultimate Edition |accessdate=2008-09-09]

equels

The film was first succeeded by "The Texas Chainsaw Massacre 2" in 1986, once again directed by Tobe Hooper. Unlike the first film, the sequel was much more graphic and violent than the original, and was consequently banned in Australia for twenty years, but finally released on DVD in a revised edition during 2006. [ cite web |url= http://www.classification.gov.au/special.html?n=46&p=156&sTitle=Texas+Chainsaw+Massacre&sMature=1&sMediaFilm=1&sMediaPublications=1&sediaGames=1&sDateFromM=1&sDateFromY=1970&sDateToM=12&sDateToY=2006&record=217714 |title= The Texas Chainsaw Massacre 2 - SE Film (DVD) |accessdate=2008-06-02 |publisher= Office of Film and Literature Classification |date= 2006 ] The sequel also had a larger budget than the original, and more special effects were used. The sequel was less well-received by the critics, as they felt it had moved away from the terror of the original for the sake of dark humor. [ cite web |url= http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/19860825/REVIEWS/608250301/1023 |title= The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, Part 2 |accessdate=2008-06-02 |publisher= Roger Ebert |date= 1986-08-25] Gunnar Hansen was originally offered to reprise his role in the second film, but ultimately declined. [cite web|url=http://www.bloody-disgusting.com/interview/25|title=Gunnar Hansen: Interview|last=Waddell|first=Callum|publisher=Bloody Disgusting|accessdate=2008-09-28]

The film spawned two more sequels; ' (1990) was the next, with a budget of US$2 million. Hooper did not return for the film; it was directed by Jeff Burr. In the movie, R. A. Mihailoff starred as the Leatherface. Chris Parcellin of Film Threat said, "It's really just another generic slasher flick with nothing beyond the Leatherface connection to recommend it to discerning fans." [cite web |url= http://www.filmthreat.com/index.php?section=reviews&Id=1347|title= Leatherface: Texas Chainsaw Massacre III |accessdate=2008-06-03 |publisher= Chris Parcellin |date= 2000 ] The third sequel, ' was released in 1995, starring Renée Zellweger and Matthew McConaughey. The film was a semi-remake of the original, although it was originally intended to be a complete remake of the first film. Maitland McDonagh of "TV Guide's Movie Guide" said that the movie was "tired and dated." [ cite web |url= http://movies.tvguide.com/texas-chainsaw-massacre-generation/review/130976 |title= Texas Chainsaw Massacre: The Next Generation |accessdate=2008-06-03 |publisher= TVGuide.com |date= ]

A remake entitled "The Texas Chainsaw Massacre" was released in 2003. The film starred Jessica Biel, Eric Balfour, Andrew Bryniarski as Leatherface, and R. Lee Ermey as Sheriff Hoyt. The film received more positive critic reviews than the other sequels, though it only managed to achieve a 35% "fresh" rating on Rotten Tomatoes, with 52 out of 150 reviews being positive. [ cite web |url= http://uk.rottentomatoes.com/m/texas_chainsaw_massacre/ |title= "The Texas Chainsaw Massacre" |accessdate=2008-06-03 |publisher= RottenTomatoes.com |date= ] Notable critic Roger Ebert called it "a contemptible film: Vile, ugly and brutal." [ cite web |url= http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20031017/REVIEWS/310170308/1023 |title= "The Texas Chainsaw Massacre" |accessdate=2008-06-03 |publisher= Roger Ebert |date= October 17, 2003 ] A prequel to the remake, "" was released in 2006. The film was directed by Jonathan Liebesman, and produced by Michael Bay and Mike Fleiss. It had a starring cast of Jordana Brewster, Taylor Handley, with R. Lee Ermey and Andrew Bryniarski reprising their roles as Sheriff Hoyt and Leatherface respectively. The film was panned by most critics, with a 14% "fresh" rating on Rotten Tomatoes. [ cite web |url= http://uk.rottentomatoes.com/m/texas_chainsaw_massacre_the_beginning/ |title= "The Texas Chainsaw Massacre: The Beginning" |accessdate=2008-06-03 |publisher= Rotten Tomatoes |date= ] Mark Palermo said, "The focus in (The) Texas Chainsaw Massacre: The Beginning isn't on the confrontation of demons, moral reckoning, or terror. It's an unimaginative exercise in suffering". [ cite web |url= http://uk.rottentomatoes.com/m/texas_chainsaw_massacre_the_beginning/articles/1606730/the_focus_in_texas_chainsaw_massacre_the_beginning_isnt_on_the_confrontation_of_demons_moral_reckoning_or_terror_its_an_unimaginative_exercise_in_suffering |title= The Texas Chainsaw Massacre: The Beginning
accessdate=2008-06-03 |publisher= Rotten Tomatoes |date=
]

Legacy

"The Texas Chain Saw Massacre" has been considered one of the greatest horror films of all time, having had a significant impact on the horror genre. Ridley Scott credited the film as an inspiration for the 1978 smash hit "Alien". [ cite web |url= http://www.dvdmg.com/texaschainsawmassacre.shtml |title= "The Texas Chainsaw Massacre" (1974) |accessdate=2008-07-09 |work= |publisher= DVDMG.com |date= January 16, 2004 ] Channel 4 called it "a triumph of style and atmosphere", and said "The Texas Chain Saw Massacre" is without doubt one of the most influential horror films of all time. [ cite web |url= http://www.channel4.com/film/reviews/film.jsp?id=109162 |title= "The Texas Chainsaw Massacre" Movie Review |accessdate=2008-07-09 |work= |publisher= Channel 4 |date= ] John Carpenter's "Halloween" incorporated the film's use of minimal blood and gore, and focused instead on the suspense. Debra Hill commented on the film saying, "We didn't want it to be gory. We wanted it to be like a jack-in-the box." [ cite web |url= http://www.halloweenmovies.com/filmarchive/h1bts.htm |title= "Halloween" - Behind the scenes |accessdate=2008-07-09 |work= |publisher= HalloweenMovies.com |date= ] The film was among "TIME Magazine's" Top 25 Horror films of all time. [ cite web |url= http://www.time.com/time/specials/2007/article/0,28804,1676793_1676808_1677011,00.html |title= "The Texas Chain Saw Massacre", 1974 |accessdate=2008-07-09 |work= |publisher= "TIME |date= ] New York City's Museum of Modern Art added the film to its permanent collection, validating its claim as legitimate, unconventional art. [cite book|last=Rockoff|first=Adam|title=Going to Pieces: The Rise and Fall of the Slasher Film, 1978-1986|publisher=McFarland|date=2002|pages=42|isbn=0786412275] Comedian Patton Oswalt refers to the title as "The Greatest Movie Title Ever", because it perfectly describes the movie. In the realm of music, the punk rock band The Ramones mention the movie in their song "Chainsaw", on their 1976 LP "The Ramones". Horror filmmaker and heavy metalsinger Rob Zombie claims the film to be a major influence, most notably in his film "House of 1000 Corpses". [cite web|url=http://www.abc.net.au/triplej/review/film/s996936.htm|title=The Texas Chainsaw Massacre|publisher=ABC|accessdate=2008-08-23] Isabel Cristina Pinedo stated that "the horror genre must keep terror and comedy in tension if it is to successfully tread the thin line that separates it from terrorism and parody... this delicate balance is struck in "The Texas Chainsaw Massacre" in which the decaying corpse of Grandpa not only incorporates horrific and humorous effects, but actually uses one to exacerbate the other." [cite book|last=Pinedo|first=Isabel Cristina|title=Recreational Terror: Women and the Pleasures of Horror Film Viewing|publisher=SUNY Press|date=1997|pages=48|isbn=0791434419] Scott Von Doviak of "Hick Flicks" called it "one of the rare horror movies to make effective use of daylight, right from the gruesome opening shot of a decaying corpse splayed across a cemetery tombstone." [cite book|last=Von Doviak|first=Scott |title=Hick Flicks: The Rise and Fall of Redneck Cinema|publisher=McFarland|date=2005|pages=172|isbn=0786419970] The book, "Contemporary North American Film Directors" called the film "a disquieting inspection of rural insanity, more intricate and less bloodthirsty than the title might connote." [cite book|last=Allon|first=Allon|coauthors=Cullen, Del; Patterson, Hannah |title=Contemporary North American Film Directors: A Wallflower Critical Guide|publisher=Wallflower Press|date=2002|pages=246|isbn=1903364523]

Other media

Shortly after "The Texas Chain Saw Massacre" established itself as a success on home video in 1982, a mass-market video game adaptation was released for the Atari 2600 by Wizard Video.cite web |url= http://uk.gamespot.com/atari2600/action/texaschainsawmassacre/index.html|title="The Texas Chainsaw Massacre" Atari game|accessdate=2008-06-01|publisher= GameSpot] In the game, the player assumes the role of the movie's chainsaw-wielding villain, Leatherface, and attempts to murder trespassers while avoiding obstacles such as fences and cow skulls. [cite web|url=http://www.allgame.com/cg/agg.dll?p=agg&sql=1:9317|title=" Texas Chainsaw Massacre" overview|accessdate=2008-06-01|publisher=Allgame] As one of the first horror-themed video games, "The Texas Chainsaw Massacre" caused controversy when it was released due to the violent nature of the video game and sold poorly because many game stores refused to carry it. [cite web|url=http://bavatuesdays.com/classic-horror-movies-on-the-atari-2600/|title=Classic horror movies on the Atari 2600|accessdate=2008-07-08|publisher=BavaTuesdays.com|date=April 27, 2008] cite web|url=http://www.x-entertainment.com/articles/0834/|title="The Texas Chainsaw Massacre" Atari game|accessdate=2008-06-01|publisher=X-Entertainment|date=2003] Wizard Video's other commercial release, "Halloween", had a slightly better reception; [cite web|url=http://www.roguecinema.com/article241.html|title=Halloween for the Atari 2600|accessdate=2008-07-11|publisher=Rogue Cinema|date=April 1, 2008] however, the limited number of copies sold has made both games highly valued items among Atari collectors. [cite web|url=http://www.atariguide.com/4/468.htm|title=Halloween for the Atari 2600 by Wizard|accessdate=2008-07-11|publisher=AtariGuide.com|date=June 28, 2008]

Notes

References

*cite book |title= The Texas Chain Saw Massacre Companion |last= Jaworzyn |first= Stephen |authorlink= |coauthors= |year= 2003 |publisher= Titan Books |location= |isbn= 1-84023-660-4 |pages=
*cite book |title= The Texas Chainsaw Massacre |last= Hand |first= Stephen |authorlink= |coauthors= |year= 2004 |publisher= Games Workshop |location= |isbn= 1-84416-060-2 |pages=
*cite book |title= Projected Fears: Horror Films and American Culture |last= Phillips |first= Kendall R. |authorlink= |coauthors= |year= 2005 |publisher= Greenwood Publishing Group |location= |isbn= 0275983536 |pages=
*cite book |title= Horror Films of the 1970s |last= Muir |first= John Kenneth |authorlink= |coauthors= |year= 2002 |publisher= McFarland |location= |isbn= 0786412496 |pages= 332
*cite book |title= Eaten Alive at a Chainsaw Massacre: The Films of Tobe Hooper |last= Muir |first= John Kenneth |authorlink= |coauthors= |year= 2002 |publisher= McFarland |location= |isbn= 0786412828|pages=
*cite book |title= American Cinema of the 1970s: Themes and Variations |last= Friedman |first= Lester D. |authorlink= |coauthors= |year= 2007 |publisher= Rutgers University Press |location= |isbn= 0813540232 |pages= 133

External links

*
* [http://www.texaschainsawmassacre.net/ "The Texas Chainsaw Massacre": A Visit to the Film Locations]
* [http://www.junction-house.com/web/about.htm "The Junction House"] - The restaurant now operating in the original house from the film


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