Mao suit


Mao suit
Chinese tunic suit ("Zhongshan/Mao suit")
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek (front centre) and Mao Zedong (front right) both dressed in the Zhongshan suit (1945)

The modern Chinese tunic suit is a style of male attire known in China as the Zhongshan suit (simplified Chinese: 中山装; traditional Chinese: 中山裝; pinyin: Zhōngshān zhuāng) (after Sun Yat-Sen), and known in the West as the Mao suit (after Mao Zedong). Sun Zhongshan (better known as Sun Yat-sen) introduced the style shortly after the founding of the Republic of China as a form of national dress although with a distinctly political and later governmental implication.

After the end of the Chinese Civil War and the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the suit became widely worn by males and government leaders as a symbol of proletarian unity and an Eastern counterpart to the Western business suit. The name "Mao suit" comes from Chinese leader Mao Zedong's affinity for wearing them in public, thus tying the garment closely to him and Chinese communism in general in the Western imagination. Although they fell into disuse in the 1990s amid increasing Western influences, they are still worn on occasion by Chinese leaders during important state ceremonies and functions.

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Origins

When the Republic was founded in 1912, the style of dress worn in China was based on Manchu dress (qipao and changshan), which had been imposed by the Qing Dynasty as a form of social control. The majority-Han Chinese revolutionaries who overthrew the Qing were fueled by failure of the Qing to defend China against western imperialists and the low standing of the Qing in terms of technology and science compared to the West. Even before the founding of the Republic, older forms of Chinese dress were becoming unpopular among the elite and led to the development of Chinese dress which combined the changshan and the Western hat to form a new dress. The Zhongshan suit is similar development which combined Western and Eastern fashions.

The Zhongshan suit was an attempt to cater to contemporary sensibilities without adopting Western styles wholesale. Dr. Sun Yat-sen was personally involved, providing inputs based on his life experience in Japan: the Japanese cadet uniform became a basis of Zhongshan suit. There were other modifications as well: instead of the three hidden pockets in Western suits, the Zhongshan suit had four outside pockets to adhere to Chinese concepts of balance and symmetry; an inside pocket was also available. Over time, minor stylistic changes developed. The suit originally had seven buttons, later reduced to five.

After repeated attempts to win support and recognition from Western countries failed, the Nationalist Party government in Canton led by Dr. Sun gained help (advisers and critically vital small arms) from Soviet Russia, which viewed it as a likely revolutionary ally against Western interests in the Far East; Chinese nationalism at the time (of treaty ports and extraterritoriality discriminations) was naturally heavily infected with resentment against the West. As a result of this geopolitical alignment, Dr. Sun agreed to permit the nascent Chinese Communist Party to join the Nationalist Party—as individual members—not as a party-party union, combination or alliance. As a result, early Communist Party members adopted the attire as a mark of joining the Nationalist Party. Ironically, from that practice during an attenuated political marriage of convenience which would soon be divorced in blood (in 1927), Asian Marxist movements and governments henceforth would all consider this attire as a standard of political coloration, and it would continue to be appropriate dress for both sides of the bitter Chinese civil wars lasting decades.

After Sun Yat-sen's death in 1925, popular mythology assigned a revolutionary and patriotic significance to the Zhongshan suit. The four pockets were said to represent the Four Virtues cited in the classic Guanzi: Propriety, Justice, Honesty, and Shame. The five center-front buttons were said to represent the five Yuans (branches of government) cited in the constitution of the Republic of China and the three cuff-buttons to symbolize Sun Yat-sen's Three Principles of the People: Nationalism, Democracy, and People's Livelihood.

Historical development

Mao, wearing the suit, meets President Nixon in February 1972

In the 1920s and 1930s, civil servants of the Chinese government were required to wear the Zhongshan zhuang. A slightly modified version of the suit, adapted for combat, formed the basis for National Revolutionary Army army uniforms leading up through the Second Sino-Japanese War, although during the 1930s, as German military advice and assistance to the National Government waxed, the formal military uniform in the professional elements and ranks essentially became that of Weimar and then Nazi Germany (including the famous helmet).

After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, and especially during the long initial period marked by intensive Maoist indoctrination and mass oppression through waves of purges and campaigns and "criticism/struggle" culminating with the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution from 1965-76 when Mao himself died, the suit became widely worn by the entire male population, formally as a symbol of proletarian unity, but in fact as a form of personal—and virtually camouflage—coloration; it was, of course, regularly worn by Communist Party cadres until the 1990s when it was largely replaced by the Western business suit.

The Mao suit remained the standard formal dress for the first and second generations of PRC leaders such as Deng Xiaoping. During the 1990s, it began to be worn with decreasing frequency by leaders of Jiang Zemin's generation as more and more Chinese politians and began wearing traditional Western-style suits with neckties. Jiang wore it only on special occasions, such as to state dinners, but this practice was almost totally discontinued by his successor Hu Jintao.[1] By the early part of the 21st century, the Mao suit is rarely worn even on formal occasions. The military-green version of the suit is more often worn, usually by civilian party officials wishing to demonstrate control over – or camaraderie with – the military in their capacity as officials of the Central Military Commission. In Taiwan, the Zhongshan suit was seldom seen after the 1970s. Moreover, given the subtropical weather much of the year in Taiwan, for a time a modified version became at least semi-standard which dropped the high-collar buttoned up original constriction in favor of a Western style open dress shirt collar, unbuttoned.

Today among the Chinese people, the Mao suit has been largely abandoned by the younger generation in urban areas, but is still regarded as formal attire by many old people. It is also prevalent among Chinese peasants as casual dress.

See also


References

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Mao-suit — Maoˈ jacket or Maoˈ suit noun A high collared, usu cotton jacket or suit in the style of those worn by Mao Zedong and his followers, common dress in modern China • • • Main Entry: ↑Maoist …   Useful english dictionary

  • Mao suit — noun A type of jacket popularized in China in the 20th century, with two breast pockets and two waist pockets. Syn: Mao jacket, Zhongshan suit …   Wiktionary

  • Mao suit — an outfit worn in the People s Republic of China consisting of a Mao jacket and loose trousers. [1970 75] * * * …   Universalium

  • Mao suit — an outfit worn in the People s Republic of China consisting of a Mao jacket and loose trousers. [1970 75] …   Useful english dictionary

  • Mao Zedong — Mao redirects here. For other uses, see Mao (disambiguation). This is a Chinese name; the family name is Mao. Mao Ze dong 毛泽东 Official 1967 Portrait of Mao Ze …   Wikipedia

  • Mao-jacket — Maoˈ jacket or Maoˈ suit noun A high collared, usu cotton jacket or suit in the style of those worn by Mao Zedong and his followers, common dress in modern China • • • Main Entry: ↑Maoist …   Useful english dictionary

  • Mao Zedong and Sun Yatsen suits — Inspired by military uniform, the fitted jacket with rounded collar and Western trousers of the Sun Yatsen suit (zhongshanzhuang) emerged as an important fashion for young revolutionaries in the 1920s. Mao Zedong adapted the style for the… …   Encyclopedia of Contemporary Chinese Culture

  • Mao-Anzug — Der Mao Anzug (nach Mao Zedong), in China als Sun Yat sen Anzug (chinesisch 中山裝 / 中山装 Zhōngshān zhuāng ‚Zhongshan Anzug‘) bekannt, nach Sun Yat sen (auch bekannt als Sūn Zhōngshān), ist ein nach Gründung der Republik China im… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Suit (clothing) — Western dress codes Formal wear Formal Semi formal Informal (including lounge suits) Smart casual Business casual Casual Active attire …   Wikipedia

  • Mao — /maʊ/ (say mow) adjective of the simple, undecorative, practical style of clothing common in China since the 1949 revolution: Mao suit; Mao cap. {from Mao Zedong} …   Australian English dictionary


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