Japan–Korea disputes
Japanese-Korean disputes
Flag of Japan.svg Flag of North Korea.svg Flag of South Korea.svg
Japan North Korea South Korea Locator.png
  Japan
  North Korea
  South Korea

There have been disputes between Japan and Korea (both North and South) on many issues over the years. The two nations have a complex history of cultural exchange, trade, and war, underlying their relations today. In ancient times, cultural exchanges of ideas between Japan and Korea were common through Koreans immigrating to Japan or via Japanese trade and diplomacy with Korea. Yayoi people skeleton is similar to the modern Japanese and Koreans .[1] However During the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1897), Koreans looked down on the Japanese because Koreans had a spiritual culture based on Confucianism. As a result, Korean thinks that the Japanese has an inferiority complex toward Korea.[2] the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598), and the 1910–1945 Japanese control of Korea, have scarred the relations of both countries ever since.

Today, Japan and South Korea are major trading partners, and many students, tourists, entertainers, and business people travel between the two countries, whereas North Korea's political and economic relations with Japan are not as developed.

Contents

Historical issues

Korea under Japanese rule

With the Treaty of Ganghwa in 1875, Japan became involved in Korean politics. In 1895, Empress Myeongseong was assassinated by Japanese agents.[3] In 1897, Joseon was renamed the Korean Empire (1897–1910), and King Gojong became Emperor Gojong. In 1905, Japan forced Korea to sign the Eulsa Treaty,[4] making Korea effectively a protectorate of Japan. In 1909, following the signing of the treaty, An Jung-geun assassinated Japanese statesman Itō Hirobumi, the Resident-General of Korea, for Ito's role in the occupation of Korea.

In 1910, Japan annexed Korea. The legality of the annexation and the subsequent 35-years of Japanese colonial rule are controversial, and have been criticized as illegal based on the 1905 protectorate treaty's having been signed under duress, as well as its never having been ratified by the Emperor of Korea.[5][6][7] Japanese scholarship has challenged this view of the treaty as invalid.[8]

Many Koreans suffered under Japanese rule.[9] Korean resistance to the Japanese occupation manifested in the massive nonviolent March 1st Movement of 1919. Thereafter the Korean liberation movement, coordinated by the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea in exile, was active in neighboring Manchuria, China and Siberia.[10] Japanese control of Korea ended in 1945 with Japan's surrender on the USS Missouri.

Japanese apologies to Korea for colonization

Following independence from Imperial Japan, both North and South Korea demanded apologies for what they regard as a brutal, unjust occupation. Some Japanese cabinet members have made apologies, while other Japanese politicians have made statements either whitewashing or justifying the Japanese occupation.[11]

Several Japanese Prime Ministers have issued apologies, including Prime Minister Obuchi in the Japan-Republic of Korea Joint Declaration of 1998, and Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi in the Japan-DPRK Pyongyang Declaration of 2002.[12] Koizumi said, "I once again express my feelings of deep remorse and heartfelt apology, and also express the feelings of mourning for all victims, both at home and abroad, in the war."[13] While Koreans welcomed the apologies at the time, many Koreans now view the statements as insincere, because of the continuing actions of Japanese officials that contradict such statements of remorse. In one example, hundreds of Japanese politicians made a tributary visit to the Yasukuni Shrine to honor Japan's war dead while Prime Minister Koizumi was simultaneously issuing an apology. This was seen by South Koreans as a conflict between actions and words and has caused many South Koreans to distrust Japanese statements of apology.[14]

Statements by Japanese politicians on colonial rule

Since the 1950s, many prominent politicians and officials in Japan have made statements on Japanese colonial rule in Korea which created outrage and led to diplomatic scandals in Korean-Japanese relations. The statements have led to anti-Japanese sentiments among Koreans, and a widespread perception that Japanese apologies for colonial rules have been insincere.[15][16][17][18]

During the talks between Japan and Korea in 1953, Kubota Kanichiro (久保田貫一郞), one of Japanese representatives, stated that "Japanese colonial rule was beneficial to Korea...Korea would have been colonized by other countries anyway, which would have led to harsher rules than Japanese rules." This remark is considered by Koreans as the first reckless statement by Japanese politicians on colonial rules on Korea.[19]

In 1997, Abe Shinzo (安倍晋三), an ex-Prime Minister of Japan, stated that "Many so-called victims of comfort women system are liars...prostitution was ordinary behavior in Korea because the country had many brothels." [20]

On May 31, 2003, Aso Taro (麻生太郎), another ex-Prime Minister of Japan, stated that "the change to Japanese name (創氏改名) during Japanese colonial rule was what Koreans wanted." [21]

On October 28, 2003, Ishihara Shintaro (石原愼太郞), Governor of Tokyo stated that "The annexation of Korea and Japan was Koreans' choice...the ones to be blamed are the ancestors of Koreans".[15]

In 2007, Shimomura Hakubun (下村博文), Deputy Chief Cabinet Secretary of Japanese government, stated that "The comfort women system existed, but I believe it was because Korean parents sold their daughters at that time." [16]

On March 27, 2010, in the centennial of Japan-Korean annexation, Edano Yukio (枝野幸男), Japanese Minister of State for Government Revitalization, stated that "The invasion and colonization and China and Korea was historically inevitable...since China and Korea could not modernize themselves."[17]

Japanese compensation to Korea for colonial rule

Twenty years after World War II, South Korea and Japan re-established diplomatic relations with the 1965 signing of the Treaty on Basic Relations. In 2005, South Korea disclosed diplomatic documents that detailed the proceedings of the treaty. Kept secret for 40 years, the documents revealed that Japan provided 500 million dollars in soft loans and 300 million in grants to South Korea as compensation for its 1910-45 occupation, and that South Korea agreed to demand no more compensation after the treaty, either at a government-to-government level or an individual-to-government level.[22] It was also revealed that the South Korean government assumed the responsibility for compensating individuals on a lump sum basis[23] while rejecting Japan's proposal for direct compensation.[24]

However, the South Korean government used most of the loans for economic development and have failed to provide adequate compensation to victims, paying only 300,000 won per death, with only a total of 2,570 million won to the relatives of 8,552 victims who died in forced labor.[23][25] As the result, the Korean victims are preparing to file a compensation suit against the South Korean government as of 2005. The treaty does not preclude individual suits against Japanese individuals or corporations but such suits are often constrained by the statute of limitation. The Women's International War Crimes Tribunal 2000 on Japan Military Sexual Slavery, a mock trial organised by Asian women and human rights organizations and supported by international NGOs, issued a ruling that "states cannot agree by treaty to waive the liability of another state for crimes against humanity."[26]

Return of Korean remains

During the Japanese period of Korea (notably during World War II), Japan mobilized hundreds of thousands of laborers from Korea to sustain industrial production, mainly in mining. Most of them were eventually returned to Korea after the war, with many dying in Japan.[27][28] The South requested help in finding the dead bodies of these kidnapped laborers for proper burial.[29] The Japanese government delegated this responsibility to the corporations that committed the kidnappings. Corporations, such as Mitsubishi, Mitsumi and others, stated that the culpability should fall on the governments and not on private companies. The situation prevented South Korea from appropriately coordinating their efforts, and they have only identified a few hundred bodies. The issue remains salient in Korea, where what is perceived to be the insensitivity of Japan stirred popular outrage among Koreans.

Return of Korean cultural artifacts

During the Japanese Occupation, the Korean language was repressed. Koreans were required to take Japanese surnames, known as Sōshi-kaimei.[30] Traditional Korean culture suffered heavy losses, as numerous Korean cultural artifacts were destroyed[31] or taken to Japan.[32] To this day, valuable Korean artifacts can often be found in Japanese museums or among private collections.[33] One investigation by the South Korean government identified 75,311 cultural assets that were taken from Korea, 34,369 in Japan and 17,803 in the United States.[34]

Comfort women

Many in Korea have been demanding compensation for "comfort women", the women who were pressured to work in Imperial Japanese military brothels during World War II. Enlisted to the military stations through force, kidnapping, coercion, and deception, the Korean comfort women, most of them under the age of 18, were forced to have sexual relationships with 30-40 soldiers each day.[35] As the few surviving comfort women continue to strive for acknowledgment and a sincere apology, the Japanese court system has rejected such claims due to the length of time and claiming that there is no evidence.

In November 1990, the Committee for Korean Comfort Women (한국정신대문제대책협의회; 韓國挺身隊問題對策協議會) was established in South Korea. As of 2008, a lump sum payment of 43 million Korean won and a monthly payment of 0.8 million won are given to the survivors.[35][36] The Japanese government arranged a small private organization that gives small amounts of money to the victims.[35] Today, many of the surviving comfort women are in their 80s. As of 2007, according to South Korean government, there are 109 survivors in South Korea and 218 in North Korea. The survivors in South Korea protest in front of the Japanese embassy in Seoul, Korea every Wednesday. The protest was held for 900th time in March, 2010.[35][36]

In December 2000, The Women’s International War Crimes Tribunal on Japan’s Military Sexual Slavery sat in Tokyo, Japan. During the proceedings, the judges of the Tribunal heard hours of testimony by 75 survivors, as well as reviewed affidavits and video interviews by countless others. The Tribunal's Judgment found Emperor Hirohito and other Japanese officials guilty of crimes against humanity and held that Japan bore state responsibility and should pay reparations to the victims.

In July 2007, the U.S. House of Representatives passed a non-binding resolution that Japan apologize for forcing women into sex slavery during World War II. The resolution was sponsored by Mike Honda (D-CA), a third-generation Japanese-American.[35][37] On December 13, 2007, the European Parliament adopted a resolution that demands the Japanese government to apologize to the survivors of Japan's military sexual slavery system. This resolution was passed with 54 ayes out of 57 parliament members present. It became the fourth foreign country to demand an official apology from Japan to Korea.[38]

Japanese prime ministers' visits to Yasukuni Shrine

Yasukuni Shrine (靖國神社) is a Shinto shrine which memorializes Japanese armed forces members killed in wartime. It was constructed as a memorial during the Meiji era. The shrine dedicates Tojo Hideki (東条英機), the Prime Minister and Army Minister of Japan during much of World War II, between 1941 and 1944, and 13 other Class-A war criminals.[39] The Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal convicted 148 Koreans of Class B and C war crimes, 23 of whom were sentenced to death. Yasukuni shrine serves, among other functions, as a memorial for 1,043 Japanese and 23 Korean B and C war criminals who were executed, as well as 14 Japanese A-class war criminals. As such, it has been the subject of continued controversy.

Nakasone Yasuhiro (中曾根康弘) and Hashimoto Ryutaro (橋本龍太郞) visited Yasukuni shrine and paid respects as Prime Minister of Japan in 1986 and 1996 respectively, which drew intense opposition from Korea and China.[40] Koizumi Junichiro (小泉純一郎) visited the Shrine and paid respects 6 times during his term as Prime Minister of Japan, starting on August 13, 2001, stating that he was "paying homage to the servicemen who died for defense of Japan."[41] These visits drew strong condemnation and protests from Japan's neighbors again, mainly China and South Korea.[42] As a result, the heads of the two countries refused to meet with Koizumi, and there were no mutual visits between Chinese and Japanese leaders after October 2001 and between South Korean and Japanese leaders after June 2005. President of South Korea Roh Moo-hyun had suspended all summit talks between South Korea and Japan, until 2008 when he resigned from office.[43]

Koizumi's successors have not visited Yasukuni shrine, but offered tributary gifts as Prime Minister of Japan - Abe Shinzo (安倍晋三) in 2007 and Aso Taro (麻生太郞) in 2008 and 2009.[40]

Nationalist historiography

While most anthropologists and historians acknowledge that Japan has historically been actively engaged with its neighbors China and Korea, as well as Southeast Asia.[44] Among these neighbors, Korea especially sent many missions to Japan to spread its culture dates from Three Kingdoms period to Joseon period.[45][46] Japanese and Korean peoples share closely linked ethnic, cultural and anthropological histories, a point of controversy between nationalist scholars in Japan and Korea rests on which culture came first, and can thus be considered the forebear of the other. In brief, the Korean points are that through a long history of contact, several important Asian mainland and Korean innovations in culture and technology were transferred to Japan. Several linguistic theories make similar points. In these theories, Korean had reached the mainland culture that Buddhism[47], Chinese characters,[48] iron processing technology, ritual implements,[49] rice cultivation,[50] customs, and pottery[51][52][53] can be traced to Korea, contrary to Japanese scholarship.[citation needed] The New York Times writes that Japanese national treasures such as the Koryuji sculptures, which are "a symbol of Japan itself and an embodiment of qualities often used to define Japanese-ness in art", are in actuality based on Korean prototypes and probably carved in Korea.[54][54]

In addition, in 1976 Japan stopped all foreign archaeologists from studying the Gosashi tomb, which is supposedly the resting place of Empress Jingu. In 2008, Japan allowed limited access to foreign archaeologists, but the international community still has many unanswered questions. National Geographic wrote that "the agency has kept access to the tombs restricted, prompting rumors that officials fear excavation would reveal bloodline links between the "pure" imperial family and Korea or that some tombs hold no royal remains at all."[55]

Modern historiography is also a seat of discord. Japan's Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) reviews and approves the content of school history textbooks available for selection by Japanese schools. Foreign scholars, as well as many Japanese historians, have criticized the political slant and factual errors of some approved textbooks. After the textbook by Japanese Society for History Textbook Reform (新しい歴史教科書をつくる会) passed inspection in April 2001 and published by Fusosha (扶桑社), South Korea demanded, to no avail, the revision of 25 passages in the textbook. For example, it omits any reference to Japanese war crimes such as Comfort women and the Nanking Massacre.[56]

While MEXT approved this as one of a number of acceptable textbooks in 2001, there were many Japanese teachers' unions that were against this textbook. Additionally, 59 NGOs from Korea and Japan, including Japan's Network for Children and Textbooks (子どもと教科書全国ネット), announced their opposition to the textbook on April 3, 2001, and started a boycott campaign.[56] As of 2010, Tsukurukai's textbook has been adopted by less than 0.39% of the schools.[57] But it became a bestseller in the general book market,[58] selling six hundred thousand copies.[59] In 2010, another textbook by the Japanese Society for History Textbook Reform passed inspection and published by Jiyusha (自由社).[57]

Geographic disputes

Liancourt Rocks

The Liancourt Rocks, called Dokdo (독도, 獨島; "solitary island") in Korean and Takeshima (竹島; "bamboo island") in Japanese, are a group of islets in the Sea of Japan (East Sea) whose ownership is disputed between Japan and South Korea. There are valuable fishing grounds around the islets and potentially large reserves of natural gas[citation needed].

The territorial dispute is a major source of nationalist tensions. Many Korean nationals have placed the dispute in the context of the history of occupation, so that ceding the territory to Japan would be an unthinkable affront to national dignity: a renewal of past Japanese subjugation.[60] Korean tourists visit the remote, inhospitable island, in order to show national solidarity.[60] In Japan, schoolchildren are instructed that the islands belong rightfully to Japan, and in 2005 Japanese officials declared "Takeshima Day", to highlight their territorial claim to the islands.[60]

Although Liancourt Rocks are claimed by both Korea and Japan, the islets are currently administered by the Republic of Korea (South Korea), which has its Korean Coast Guard stationed there.[61]

Tsushima

A small minority of Koreans claim this island to be Korean, although the South Korean government does not make this claim. Called "Tsushima" in Japanese and "Daemado" in Korean, this island was briefly Korean-controlled during the Joseon Dynasty, and possibly during the Silla era.[62]

In 1948, the South Korean government formally demanded that the island be ceded to South Korea based on "historical claims". However, the claim was rejected by SCAP in 1949. On July 19, 1951, the South Korean government agreed that the earlier demand for Tsushima had been dropped by the Korean government with regards to the Japanese peace treaty negotiations.[63]

In 2010, a group of 37 members of the South Korean congress formed a forum to study Korea's territorial claims to Tsushima and make out-reach efforts to the public. They said Tsushima was a part of Korean history and the people on the island are closely ethnically related to Koreans.[64] Yasunari Takarabe, incumbent Mayor of Tsushima rejects the Korean territorial claim: "Tsushima has always been Japan. I want them to retract their wrong historical perception. It was mentioned in the Gishi Wajinden (ja:魏志倭人伝?) as part of Wa (Japan). It has never been and cannot be a South Korean territory."[65]

Sea of Japan (East Sea) naming dispute

Japan claims that the name "Sea of Japan" (日本海) used in a number of European maps from the late 18th century to the early 19th century, and that many maps today retain this naming. However, both the North and South Korean governments have protested that Japan encouraged the usage of the name "Sea of Japan" while Korea lost effective control over its foreign policy under Japanese imperial expansion.[66] South Korea argues that the name "East Sea" (東海), which was one of the most common names found on ancient European maps of this sea, should be the name instead of (or at least used concurrently with) "Sea of Japan."

Japan claims that Western countries named it the "Sea of Japan" prior to 1860, before the growth of Japanese influence over Korean foreign policy after the outbreak of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1894. Further, Japan claims that the primary naming occurred during period of Sakoku, when Japan had little to no contact with foreign countries, and thus Japan could not have influenced the naming decisions.[67] It was in 1928, when the International Hydrographic Organization's Limits of Oceans and Seas officially took the name Sea of Japan, which eventually influenced other official international documents such as the United Nations. South Korea claims that Korea was occupied by the Japanese and effectively had no international voice to protest in 1928.

Miscellaneous issues

Boycotting of Japanese products

After the end of Japanese Occupation, Japanese cultural products such as music, film, and books were banned in both North and South Korea. The boycott was lifted in South Korea starting in 1998. Some Japanese cultural items, including but not limited to manga, anime and music, have been introduced into South Korea even while they were banned (the Korean public was not informed of their Japanese origin).[citation needed][citation needed]This is in spite of the fact that a Korean character does not appear in any episode of the animated series.[68] The animation continues to see distribution through mobile networks and internet streaming.[69]

Kidnapping of Japanese citizens by North Korea

A 13-year-old junior high school student from Niigata, Megumi Yokota, was kidnapped by North Korea on November 15, 1977. In addition to her, many other Japanese citizens were kidnapped by North Korean agents. In 2002, North Korea admitted to kidnapping 13 Japanese citizens during the 1970s and 1980s, in order to train spies to infiltrate U.S. military installations in Japan.[70] Five people have been released, but the North Korean government claimed that there were eight dead. Japan has pressed for the return of the bodies. However, the Japanese government believes that there are still kidnapped Japanese citizens being held captive in North Korea. North Korea's official statement is that the issue has been settled. Because of the overwhelming number of South Koreans also kidnapped by North Korea, there has been some joint efforts of South Korea and Japan in retrieving their citizens.[71]

Plagiarism of Japanese products

Korea has been accused of plagiarizing Japanese products.[72][73][74][75][76][77] In 2007, a K-pop singer Ivy was accused of copying a scene from the Japanese video game movie adaptation Final Fantasy VII: Advent Children in one of her music videos. The court ordered that the video be banned from airing on television, stating that "most of the clip is noticeably similar to scenes from the film," despite the fact that it showed a disclaimer at the beginning of the music video.[78]

Zainichi Koreans

Zainichi (在日, Resident Japan) refers to ethnic Koreans currently residing in Japan. Most of them are second-, third-, or fourth-generation Koreans who have not yet applied for Japanese citizenship.[citation needed] while others entered Japan illegally in order to escape the Korean War that took place after the Japanese occupation. They lost their Japanese citizenship after the signing of the San Francisco Peace Treaty, which officially ended the Japanese annexation of Korea and their country of origin, Korea, no longer existed when South Korea and North Korea became separate states. Zainichi communities are split based upon affiliation with North or South Korea, (Chongryon and Mindan). It is claimed that two or three of the leaders of the smaller organized crime syndicates found on a list of more than twenty such groups as specified by the National Police Agency in Japan may be ethnic Koreans. [21]

More positively speaking, Masayoshi Son (손정의), Japan's businessman and chief of Softbank, is of Zainichi background. In addition, some of Japan's popular stars, athletes and high ranking businessmen were of Zainichi Korean background, including Rikidōzan (역도산), Mas Oyama (최배달), Isao Harimoto (장훈), and Kaneda Masaichi (김정일). In order to escape discrimination, there are Koreans living in Japan who use Japanese names to hide their origin. Today, however, as the relationship between Japan and Korea has improved, there also exist many Zainichi Koreans or former Zainichi Koreans with Japanese nationality who don't hide their origin and are in full activity, such as Yu Miri (유미리), an Akutagawa Prize-winning playwright and Tadanari Lee (이충성), a Japanese football player of Korean origin.

Kimchi exports

In 1996, Japan proposed making kimchi as the official Atlanta Olympics food,[79] and decided to export Japanese made "kimuchi" (キムチ) to other countries. Korea argued that kimchi is a traditional Korean food and that Japanese kimuchi was not the same as kimchi because it was not made to the same standards as kimchi.[citation needed]

In 2001 the Codex Alimentarius published a voluntary standard defining kimchi as "a fermented food that uses salted napa cabbages as its main ingredient mixed with seasonings, and goes through a lactic acid production process at a low temperature."[80]

See also

References

  1. ^ Association for Asian Research. The Japanese Roots (Part III)
  2. ^ JoongAng Ilbo (Apr 14,2011) [1]
  3. ^ "Assassin's Grandson Speaks of Emotional Journey". The Chosun Ilbo. 10 May 2005. Archived from the original on 14 March 2009. http://web.archive.org/web/20090314033929/http://english.chosun.com/w21data/html/news/200505/200505100009.html. 
  4. ^ Lee, Yoon-sang (Dec. 2007) The Status of ‘Royal-Family of Joseon' and the role of ‘Office of Yi Royal-Family' During the Japanese Occupation Hanguk Munhwa (Korean Culture), Kyujanggak, Vol.40, pp. 315-342
  5. ^ "Treaty of Annexation". USC-UCLA Joint East Asian Studies Center. http://www.isop.ucla.edu/eas/documents/kore1910.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-19. 
  6. ^ Yutaka, Kawasaki (1996-08-07). "Was the 1910 Annexation Treaty Between Korea and Japan Concluded Legally?". Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law. http://www.murdoch.edu.au/elaw/issues/v3n2/kawasaki.html. Retrieved 2007-02-19. 
  7. ^ Joseon King’s Authentic Official Seal Found
  8. ^ Pak, Chʻi-yŏng (2000). Korea and the United Nations. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 6–7. ISBN 9041113827. http://books.google.com/books?id=dB_8L4ysZrEC&q=annexation#v=snippet&q=annexation&f=false. 
  9. ^ "INSIDE KOREA > HISTORY". KBS Global. http://english.kbs.co.kr/korea/history/ink_hty.html. Retrieved 2008-07-27. "The Japanese annexation of Korea concluded in 1910, and Korean people had to suffer under the Japanese colonial rule until the surrender of Japan in 1945, which ended World War II." 
  10. ^ "대한민국임시정부 大韓民國臨時政府 [Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea]". Nate / Encyclopedia of Korean Culture. http://100.nate.com/dicsearch/pentry.html?s=K&i=251169&v=43. "전민족운동이었던 3·1운동에 의해 수립된 임시정부...대내적으로는 독립운동의 통할기구로서의 구실을 가지고 탄생...상해에 있던 시기(1919∼1932)에는 국내외동포사회에 통할조직을 확대하면서 외교활동이나 독립전쟁 등을 지도, 통할하는 데 주력하였다. 초기의 독립전쟁은 만주와 연해주(沿海州)의 독립군단체에 일임...이 시기에 가장 주목할 성과는 광복군(光復軍)을 창설.. (trans. It was a provisional government established by the March 1st Movement that excised the whole nation..It was founded with the purpose as the united organ to excise the Korean liberation movement both outside and inside of Korea...During the period based in Shanghai (1919-1932), it expanded the supervising organization to the Korean society inside and aboard, it focused on leading and supervising diplomatic activities and liberation movement. The earlier liberation war was entrusted to independence groups in Manchuria and Primorsky Krai..The most notable achievement in the period was to establish the Independence Army..." 
  11. ^ ‘일본 망언’ 누리꾼 분노 폭발 : 토론과 논쟁 : 여론칼럼 : 인터넷한겨레
  12. ^ The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Japan-DPRK Pyongyang Declaration
  13. ^ Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet. Statement by Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi
  14. ^ Yun Kyung-min (2005-08-15). "Japanese apologize statement… However, politicians made a tributary visit" (in Korean). YTN. http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LPOD&mid=tvh&oid=052&aid=0000088272. 
  15. ^ a b [2] 2003 Donga Ilbo article
  16. ^ a b [3] 2007 Yonhap News article
  17. ^ a b [4] 2010 Seoul Shinmoon article
  18. ^ [5] 2010 Hankyung article
  19. ^ [6] 2007 Ohmynews article
  20. ^ [7] 2007 Hankook Ilbo article
  21. ^ [8] 2009 Ohmynews article
  22. ^ The Washington Times. S. Korea discloses sensitive documents
  23. ^ a b The Chosun Ilbo. Compensation for Colonial Victims Is Not Just a Legal Problem
  24. ^ The Chosun Ilbo. 「韓国政府、韓日会談で個別請求権放棄」
  25. ^ The Chosun Ilbo. Seoul Demanded $364 Million for Japan's Victims
  26. ^ Violence Against Women in War Network Japan. The Women's International War Crimes Tribunal
  27. ^ http://english.yna.co.kr/Engnews/20060605/480100000020060605105721E6.html
  28. ^ Key Issues: Nuclear Weapons: History: Cold War: Survivors: Korean Atomic Bomb Survivors
  29. ^ ZNet |Japan | Mitsubishi, Historical Revisionism and Japanese Corporate Resistance to Chinese Forced Labor Redress
  30. ^ "Koreans in Japan: Past and Present". HAN. http://www.han.org/a/fukuoka96a.html. Retrieved 2009-11-03. 
  31. ^ Nam Kyung-wook (2010-05-31). "Japanese empire degenerated Korean palaces into a playground." (in Korean). Hankooki. http://news.hankooki.com/lpage/culture/201005/h2010053121271086330.htm. 
  32. ^ Kay Itoi; B. J. Lee (2007-10-17). "KOREA: A TUSSLE OVER TREASURES — Who rightfully owns Korean artifacts looted by Japan?". Newsweek. http://www.newsweek.com/id/48765/output/print. Retrieved 2008-06-06. 
  33. ^ Newsweek.com. Who rightfully owns Korean artifacts looted by Japan?[dead link]
  34. ^ http://news.naver.com/news/read.php?mode=LSD&office_id=001&article_id=0001429084
  35. ^ a b c d e [9] The World Conference on Japanese Military Sexual Slavery
  36. ^ a b [10] Doosan Encyclopedia article
  37. ^ [11] 2007 National Public Radio article
  38. ^ Comfort Women used as sex slaves during World War II
  39. ^ [12] Doosan Encyclopedia article
  40. ^ a b [13] 2009 Yonhap News article
  41. ^ Official interview of Koizumi Junichiro on August 15, 2006
  42. ^ "Koizumi Move Sparks Anger In China and South Korea" International Herald Tribune: August 14, 2001.
  43. ^ 노무현 대통령, “고이즈미 일본총리가 신사참배 중단하지 않으면 정상회담도 없을 것” (영문기사 첨부)
  44. ^ ASIA SOCIETY: THE COLLECTION IN CONTEXT [14] "Not surprisingly, it has historically been actively engaged with its neighbors China and Korea, as well as Southeast Asia."
  45. ^ "Culture diffusion from Baekje to Japan (백제문화의 일본전파)" (in Korean). Naver / Doosan Encyclopedia. http://100.naver.com/100.nhn?docid=726270. 
  46. ^ "Joseon Tongsinsa (조선통신사)" (in Korean). Naver / Doosan Encyclopedia. http://100.naver.com/100.nhn?docid=362963. 
  47. ^ [15] "Due to friendly relations to the kingdom of Kudara (or Paikche) on the Korean peninsula, the influence from the mainland increased strongly."
  48. ^ japan-guide.com [16] "Kanji, one of the three scripts used in the Japanese language, are Chinese characters, which were first introduced to Japan in the 5th century via Korea."
  49. ^ Metropolitan Museum of Art [17] "Metallurgy was also introduced from the Asian mainland during this time. Bronze and iron were used to make weapons, armor, tools, and ritual implements such as bells (dotaku)"
  50. ^ "Road of rice plant". National Science Museum of Japan. http://www.kahaku.go.jp/special/past/japanese/ipix/5/5-25.html. Retrieved 15 January 2011. 
  51. ^ Metropolitan Museum of Art Kofun Period (ca. 3rd century–538) "Although the roots of Sueki reach back to ancient China, its direct precursor is the grayware of the Three Kingdoms period in Korea.
  52. ^ Choson Sinbo "Kitora Tomb Originates in Koguryo Murals" By Chon Ho Chon [18]
  53. ^ "Pottery - MSN Encarta". Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/query?id=1257012851343397. 
  54. ^ a b Japanese Art and Its Korean Secret
  55. ^ Japanese Royal Tomb Opened to Scholars for First Time
  56. ^ a b [19] 2001 Kookmin Ilbo article
  57. ^ a b [20] 2010 Ohmynews article
  58. ^ http://www.nts-inc.co.jp/topix/syousai/1213.html Nippan, 2001
  59. ^ http://www2.asahi.com/2004senkyo/localnews/TKY200407040200.html (Asahi Shimbun, July 20, 2004 )
  60. ^ a b c Sang-Hun, Choe (2008-08-31). "Desolate Dots in the Sea Stir Deep Emotions as South Korea Resists a Japanese Claim". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/31/world/asia/31islands.html?pagewanted=all. 
  61. ^ "Liancourt Rocks / Takeshima / Dokdo / Tokto", Globalsecurity
  62. ^ Homer B. Hulbert, History of Korea Volume I, The Methodist Publishing House (1905)
  63. ^ The Foreign Relations Series (FRUS) 1951 VolumeVI P1203. Subject:Japanese Peace Treaty, Participants:Dr. Yu Chan Yang, Korean Ambassador and John Foster Dulles U.S. Ambassador
  64. ^ "대마도는 우리땅" 여야 의원 37인, 국회 정식포럼 창립
  65. ^ "【動画】竹島問題で韓国退役軍人が抗議 対馬市民反発で現場騒然". The Nagasaki Shimbun. July 24, 2008. http://www.nagasaki-np.co.jp/douga/20080723/03.shtml. Retrieved May 15, 2011. 
  66. ^ Naming of the East Sea North East Asia history foundation
  67. ^ "The Issue of the Name of the Sea of Japan". Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs. http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/maritime/japan/index.html. Retrieved 2 August 2010. 
  68. ^ http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/news/2009-01-13/korean-protests-call-for-hetalia-anime-cancellation
  69. ^ Koreans Force Cancellation of “Criminal” Hetalia | Sankaku Complex
  70. ^ Chris Fortson (2002-10-28). "Expert speaks on 1980s Japanese kidnappings". Yale Daily News. http://www.yaledailynews.com/article.asp?AID=20393. Retrieved 2007-10-11. [dead link]
  71. ^ Choe Sang-Hun (2006-04-21). "Abductions unite South Korea and Japan". International Herald Tribune. http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/04/20/news/abduct.php. Retrieved 2007-10-11. 
  72. ^ 최승현 (2006-01-12). "방송 일본 TV 베끼기 "아직도 그대로네"" (in Korean). The Chosun Ilbo. http://www.chosun.com/w21data/html/news/200207/200207230184.html. Retrieved 2007-10-11. 
  73. ^ 유아정 기자 (2007-10-11). "SC 매거진 TV 오락프로 이대로 좋은가...끊임없는 표절 논란" (in Korean). 스포츠조선 (Naver). http://news.naver.com/news/read.php?mode=LSD&office_id=076&article_id=0000077105. Retrieved 2007-10-11. 
  74. ^ 장진리 (2007-10-11). "한국 인기 먹거리, 일본 제품 표절 심하네" (in Korean). 일간스포츠. Archived from the original on 2007-10-09. http://web.archive.org/web/20071009183204/http://isplus.joins.com/news/general/200707/03/200707031437009206050100000501010005010101.html. Retrieved 2007-10-11. 
  75. ^ 이주영 (2005-08-23). "MBC´일밤´´추격남녀´도 표절의혹" (in Korean). 데일리안. http://www.dailian.co.kr/news/n_view.html?kind=rank_code&keys=3&id=24709. Retrieved 2007-10-11. 
  76. ^ 강지훈 (2007-01-26). "가수 노블레스 뮤비, 드라마 '프라이드' 표절 의혹" (in Korean). 데일리안. http://www.mydaily.co.kr/news/read.html?newsid=200701261615121130. Retrieved 2007-10-11. 
  77. ^ 고재열 (2006-01-12). "<하늘이시여> 표절 의혹" (in Korean). 시사저널. http://zine.media.daum.net/mega/sisapress/200601/12/sisapress/v11372060.html?_right_TOPIC=R7?is_status=http%3A%2F%2Fzine.media.daum.net%2Fmega%2Fsisapress%2F200601%2F12%2Fsisapress%2Fv11372060.html%3F_right_TOPIC%3DR7. Retrieved 2007-10-11. 
  78. ^ Kim, Tong-hyong (2007-04-06). "Court Bans Ivy’s Music Video". The Korea Times. http://news.empas.com/show.tsp/cp_kt/20070406n10443/?kw=temptation%20%3Cb%3E%26%3C%2Fb%3E. Retrieved 2007-10-11. 
  79. ^ Kimchi
  80. ^ CODEX STANDARD FOR KIMCHI The Codex Alimentarius Commission

Further reading

  • Cha, Victor D. (1999). Alignment despite Antagonism: the US-Korea-Japan Security Triangle. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0804731918. 
  • Dudden, Alexis (2008). Troubled Apologies Among Japan, Korea, and the United States. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231141765. 
  • Lee, Chong-Sik (1963). The Politics of Korean Nationalism. Berkeley: University of California Press. 
  •     (1985). Japan and Korea: The Political Dimension. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0817981810. 
  • Lind, Jennifer (2008). Sorry States: Apologies in International Politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ISBN 9780801446252. 
  • Myers, Ramon Hawley; et al. (1984). The Japanese Colonial Empire, 1895-1945. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691053987. 
  • Morley, James (1965). Japan and Korea. New York: Walker. 

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876 — Japan Korea Treaty of Amity Korean name Hangul 강화도 조약 …   Wikipedia

  • Japan–Korea relations — Japanese–Korean relations involve three parties: Japan, North Korea, and South Korea. Japan s relations with North Korea and South Korea has a legacy of bitterness stemming from harsh Japanese colonial rule over Korea from 1910 to 1945. In the… …   Wikipedia

  • Japan–Korea Undersea Tunnel — The proposed routes for the Japan–Korea undersea tunnel. The Japan–Korea Undersea Tunnel (also: Korea–Japan Undersea Tunnel, JPN–KOR Tunnel, 한일 해저 터널, and 日韓トンネル) is a proposed tunnel project to connect Japan with Republic of Korea (South Korea)… …   Wikipedia

  • Korea under Japanese rule — (Chōsen (Korea), Empire of Japan) 日本統治時代の朝鮮(大日本帝国朝鮮) 일제 강점기 (日帝强占期) Japanese colony …   Wikipedia

  • Korea, South — Introduction Korea, South Background: After World War II, a republic was set up in the southern half of the Korean Peninsula while a Communist style government was installed in the north. The Korean War (1950 53) had US and other UN forces… …   Universalium

  • Korea, North — Introduction Korea, North Background: Following World War II, Korea was split with the northern half coming under Communist domination and the southern portion becoming Western oriented. KIM Chong il has ruled North Korea since his father and the …   Universalium

  • Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force — (JMSDF) 海上自衛隊 (Kaijō Jieitai) Rising Sun Flag Founded …   Wikipedia

  • Disputes over US beef imports — imports have been a contentious issue. See: US beef imports in Japan US beef imports in South Korea US beef imports in Taiwan This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the same title. If an …   Wikipedia

  • japan — japanner, n. /jeuh pan /, n., adj., v., japanned, japanning. n. 1. any of various hard, durable, black varnishes, originally from Japan, for coating wood, metal, or other surfaces. 2. work varnished and figured in the Japanese manner. 3. Japans,… …   Universalium

  • Japan — /jeuh pan /, n. 1. a constitutional monarchy on a chain of islands off the E coast of Asia: main islands, Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku. 125,716,637; 141,529 sq. mi. (366,560 sq. km). Cap.: Tokyo. Japanese, Nihon, Nippon. 2. Sea of, the… …   Universalium

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”