- Necrobiosis lipoidica
Necrobiosis lipoidica Classification and external resources ICD-10 L92.1 ICD-9 709.3 DiseasesDB 5414 eMedicine derm/283 MeSH D009335
Necrobiosis lipoidica is a necrotising skin condition that usually occurs in patients with diabetes but can also be associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis. In the former case it may be called necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum (NLD). NLD occurs in approximately 0.3% of the diabetic population, with the majority of sufferers being women (approximately 3:1 females to males affected).
Necrobiosis lipoidica commonly occurs simultaneously with granuloma annulare and with sarcoidosis. The severity or control of diabetes in an individual does not affect who will or will not get NLD. Better maintenance of diabetes after being diagnosed with NLD will not change how quickly the NLD will resolve.
NL/NLD most frequently appears on the patient's shins, often on both legs, although it may also occur on forearms, hands, trunk, and, rarely, nipple, penis, and surgical sites. The lesions are often asymptomatic but may become tender and ulcerate when injured. The first symptom of NL is often a "bruised" appearance (erythema) that is not necessarily associated with a known injury. The extent to which NL is inherited is unknown.
NLD appears as a hardened, raised area of the skin. The center of the infected area usually has a yellowish tint while the area surrounding it is a dark pink. It is possible for the infected area to spread or turn into an open sore. When this happens the patient is at greater risk of developing ulcers. If an injury to the skin occurs on the affected area, it may not heal properly or it will leave a dark scar.
Although the exact cause of this condition is not known, it is an inflammatory disorder characterised by collagen degeneration, combined with a granulomatous response. It always involves the dermis diffusely, and sometimes also involves the deeper fat layer. Commonly, dermal blood vessels are thickened (microangiopathy).
It can be precipitated by local trauma, though it often occurs without any injury.
NL is diagnosed by a skin biopsy, demonstrating superficial and deep perivascular and interstitial mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate (including lymphocytes, plasma cells, mononucleated and multinucleated histiocytes, and eosinophils) in the dermis and subcutis, as well as necrotising vasculitis with adjacent necrobiosis and necrosis of adnexal structures. Areas of necrobiosis are often more extensive and less well defined than in granuloma annulare. Presence of lipid in necrobiotic areas may be demonstrated by Sudan stains. Cholesterol clefts, fibrin, and mucin may also be present in areas of necrobiosis. Depending on the severity of the necrobiosis, certain cell types may be more predominant. When a lesion is in its early stages, neutrophils may be present, whereas in later stages of development lymphocytes and histiocytes may be more predominant.
There is no clearly defined cure for necrobiosis. Although there are some techniques that can be used to diminish the signs of necrobiosis such as a steroid cream or injection into the affected area, this process may be effective for only a small amount of those treated. Steroid cream has been known to cause thinning of the skin, so if used, it is best to wrap the area with some form of plastic wrap or cloth. Even then, this process can take long periods of time.
- Diabetic dermadromes
- List of cutaneous conditions
- ^ James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0.
- ^ a b Klaus J. Busam (15 January 2009). Dermatopathology. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-443-06654-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=7Wqf7falwdcC&pg=PA54. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
- ^ Michael I. Greenberg (2005). Greenberg's text-atlas of emergency medicine. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 416. ISBN 978-0-7817-4586-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=tjZttRRH8H8C&pg=PA416. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
- ^ AOCD Website
Diseases of the skin and appendages by morphology GrowthsPigmentedDermal and
PurpuraMacularthrombocytopenic purpura · actinic purpuraPapularIndurated
Cutaneous keratosis, ulcer, atrophy, and necrobiosis (L82–L94, 700–701.5) Epidermal thickening
keratoderma: Keratoderma climactericum • Paraneoplastic keratoderma (Acrokeratosis paraneoplastica of Bazex ) • Aquagenic keratoderma · Drug-induced keratoderma · Paraneoplastic keratoderma • psoriasis (Keratoderma blennorrhagica)
keratosis: Seborrheic keratosis (Clonal seborrheic keratosis · Common seborrheic keratosis · Irritated seborrheic keratosis · Seborrheic keratosis with squamous atypia · Reticulated seborrheic keratosis · Dermatosis papulosa nigra) • Keratosis punctata of the palmar creases
other hyperkeratosis: Acanthosis nigricans (Confluent and reticulated papillomatosis) · Callus • Ichthyosis acquisita · Arsenical keratosis · Chronic scar keratosis · Hyperkeratosis lenticularis perstans · Hydrocarbon keratosis · Hyperkeratosis of the nipple and areola · Inverted follicular keratosis · Lichenoid keratosis · Multiple minute digitate hyperkeratosis · PUVA keratosis · Reactional keratosis · Stucco keratosis · Thermal keratosis · Viral keratosis · Warty dyskeratoma · Waxy keratosis of childhoodother hypertrophy: Keloid · Hypertrophic scar • Cutis verticis gyrata ·
Necrobiosis/granulomaGranuloma annulare (Perforating, Generalized, Subcutaneous, Granuloma annulare in HIV disease, Localized granuloma annulare, Patch-type granuloma annulare) · Necrobiosis lipoidica · Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma · Granuloma multiforme · Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma · Palisaded neutrophilic and granulomatous dermatitis · Rheumatoid nodulosis · Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis/Interstitial granulomatous drug reactionForeign body granulomaOther/ungroupedeosinophilic dermatosis (Granuloma faciale) Dermis/
localized CTDCutaneous lupus
atrophodermaKyrle disease · Reactive perforating collagenosis · Elastosis perforans serpiginosa · Perforating folliculitis · Acquired perforating dermatosisOther
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