- Andalusian Spanish
dialectof Spanish (also called andaluz) is spoken in Andalusia, Ceuta, Melilla, and parts of southern Extremadura. It is perhaps the most distinct of the southern dialects of peninsular Spanish, differing in many respects from northern dialects as well as from Standard Spanish. Due to the large population of Andalusia, the Andalusian dialect is the second most spoken dialect in Spain, after the transitional variants between Castilian and Andalusian (for example the one from Madrid). Due to massive emigration from Andalusia to the Spanish colonies in the Americasand elsewhere, many American Spanishdialects share some fundamental characteristics with Andalusian Spanish, such as the use of "ustedes" instead of "vosotros" for the second person plural, and the widespread use of " seseo". Canarian Spanish, Caribbean Spanish, Chilean Spanishand Rioplatense are based on Andalusian.
For historical and political reasons, many people over the years have tried to argue that Andalusian is not a dialect of Spanish, but a
languagein its own right, to the extent that the Ministry of Education & Science of Andalusia's regional government refers Andalusian as "modalidad lingüística andaluza" or "Andalusian language variety" instead of calling it a dialect.
Some linguistswho? argue that Andalusian should not be seen as a dialect of Spanish, rather as a
creole languagethat developed out of a hybridisation between medieval Castilian and the Mozarabic language. However, most linguistsfact|date=October 2007 do consider Andalusian to be a dialect of Spanish, albeit heavily influenced by Mozarabic.
Andalusian has a number of distinguishing
phonological, morphological, syntacticand lexical features. However, not all of these are unique to Andalusian, nor are all of these features found in all areas where Andalusian is spoken, but in any one area, most of these features will be present.
*Most Spanish dialects in Spain differentiate between the sound of "z" and "c" (before e and i), pronounced IPA|/θ/ and that of "s", pronounced IPA|/s/. However, in many Andalusian-speaking areas, the sounds of all three letters are pronounced as an "s" (IPA|/s/), which is known as "
Seseo". In other areas, all three letters are pronounced as IPA|/θ/, which is known as " Ceceo". In still other areas, the distinction is retained ("Distinción"). "Ceceo" predominates in more southerly parts of Andalusia, including Cádiz, southern Huelva, most of Málaga and Seville (except the northern parts of both provinces and the city of Seville) and south-western Granada. A common stereotype about "Ceceo" is that it is mostly found in backward rural areas, but the predominance of "Ceceo" in major cities such as Málaga, Huelvaand Granada(where, on the other hand one can also find distinction, depending on the neighbourhood) are enough proof to refute this. "Seseo" predominates in Córdoba, northern Seville and Malaga and western Huelva. Interestingly, the cities of Seville and Cádizare "seseante", but which are entirely surrounded by "Ceceo" using areas; Cádiz city is very unusual in that it is the only area in the entire province of Cadiz that is not "ceceante". "Distinción" is mostly found in Almería, eastern Granada, Jaén, and the northern parts of Cordoba and Huelva. See map above for a detailed description of these zones. Outside Andalusia, " Seseo" has also existed in parts of Extremaduraand Murciaup to at least 1940.
* Intervocalic IPA|/d/ is elided in many words, for example "pesao" for "pesado" ('heavy'), "a menúo" for "a menudo" ('often'). This is especially common in the past participle, e.g. "he acabado" becomes "he acabao" ('I have finished'). For the -ado suffix, this feature is common to all peninsular variants of Spanish, while in other positions it is widespread throughout most of the southern half of Spain.
This is the continuation of the tendency of
lenitionin Vulgar Latin which developed into the Romance languages. Compare Italian "vita", (Brazilian) Portuguese "vida" with a "hard" D, Castilian "vida" with a "soft" D (like English th in "this"), and French "vie", where the -d- is elided as in Andalusian.
*Similarly, intervocalic IPA|/ɾ/ is often elided also, although this tends to occur only in certain words and phrases. For example, "parece" becomes "paece" ('it appears'), "quieres" becomes "quie'es" ('you want') and "padre" and "madre" may sometimes "pa'e" and "ma'e" ('father' and 'mother', respectively). This feature can be heard in many parts of Spain, too.
* Final IPA|/s/ and IPA|/x/ are usually aspirated (pronounced IPA| [h] ) or just omitted. This makes the previous vowel lowered. [Harvcoltxt|Lloret|2007|p=24-25] In all southern Spanish varieties, one distinguishes "la casa" IPA| [la ˈkasa] , ('the house;) and "las casas" IPA| [læ̞h ˈkæ̞sæ̞h] , ('the houses') by a final IPA| [h] and open vowels, where northern Spanish would have IPA| [s] and closed vowels. Eastern varieties of Andalusian (along with
Murcian Spanish) thus have 5 tense vowels (roughly the same as in northern Spanish); IPA| [a] , IPA| [e̞] , IPA| [i] , IPA| [o̞] , IPA| [u] . And 5 open vowels; IPA| [æ̞] , IPA| [ɛ] , IPA| [i̞] , IPA| [ɔ] , IPA| [u̞] . In addition to this, a process of vowel harmonytakes place where tense vowels that precede a lax vowel may become lax themselves. [Harvcoltxt|Lloret|2007|p=24-25] For example: "el niño" ('the boy'), IPA| [e̞l ˈniɲo̞] ; "los niños" ('the boys') in spoken Andalusian is IPA| [lɔ ˈni̞ɲɔ] , with lax/open vowels instead of plural with "s". S-aspiration is general in all of the southern half of Spain, and now becoming common in the northern half too.
* In many words final consonants are dropped, this does not really cause the previous vowel to open; i.e. " _es. comer" IPA| [ko̞ˈme̞] , ('to eat'); " _es. comercial" IPA| [ko̞me̞ɾˈsja] , ('commercial'); " _es. mujer" IPA| [muˈhe̞] , ('woman'); "pared" IPA| [paˈɾe̞] , ('wall'). This often gives rise to a situation where two different words sound exactly the same, as with the
infinitive"cortar" ('to cut'), the imperative "¡cortad!" ('cut [it] !') and the feminine past participle "cortada", (' [a] cut thing'); which are all pronounced as IPA| [ko̞ɾˈta] . The geographical extent of this consonant drops is variable, and in some cases, like final "d", common to most of Spain.
* is deaffricated to IPA| [ʃ] including large cities like
Seville. I.e. "escucha", ('(s)he listens') is pronounced IPA| [ɛˈkuʃa] .
* may be pronounced as IPA|/r/ before a consonant, as in IPA| [ˈarma] instead of IPA| [ˈalma] for "alma" ('soul'). The opposite may also happen, i.e. IPA|/r/ becomes IPA|/l/.
* Before IPA|/n/ and IPA|/l/, IPA|/r/ may be either elided or aspirated. Thus, "perla" ('pearl') becomes either IPA| [ˈpe̞la] or IPA| [ˈpe̞hla] , "carne" ('meat') becomes IPA| [ˈkane̞] or IPA| [ˈkahne̞] , etc.
* is usually pronounced as IPA| [h] except in some north-eastern areas (Jaén province), where the dorsal IPA| [x] is retained. This also happens in most of
Extremaduraand parts of Cantabria.
* Before a IPA| [h] , IPA|/r/ can be pronounced in two ways: it may be elided, thus leaving only the IPA| [h] or it may be retained, intensifying the aspirated sound of the IPA| [h] . Thus "virgen" ('virgin') becomes either IPA| [ˈbihẽ̞] or IPA| [ˈbirhẽ̞] .
* Words of Latin origin starting with "h" in writing (that is, that have kept the etymological 'H' in writing) are sometimes pronounced with an initial IPA| [h] ) sound. In
Extremaduratoo. However, this characteristic is limited to rural areas and the flamencoculture.
Morphology and syntax
* Many Andalusian speakers (especially in western parts) replace the informal second person plural "vosotros" with the (in other parts of Spain) more formal "ustedes", often mixing the pronoun "ustedes" with the "vosotros" form of the verb. For example, the standard second person plural verb forms for "ir" ("to go") are "vosotros vais" (informal) and "ustedes van" (formal), but in Andalusian one often hears "ustedes vais" for the informal version.
* The standard form of imperative, second person plural with a reflexive pronoun ("vosotros") is "-aos", or "-aros" in informal speech, whereas in Andalusian, and other dialects too, "-se" is used intead, so "¡callaos ya! / ¡callaros ya!" ("shut up!") becomes "¡callarse ya!" and "¡sentaos! / ¡sentaros!" ("sit down!") becomes "¡sentarse!".
* The gender of some words may be changed, e.g. "la calor" for "el calor" ("the heat"), "el chinche" for "la chinche" ("the bedbug").
Many words of
Mozarabic, Romani and Old Castilian origin occur in Andalusian which are not found in other dialects in Spain (but many of these may occur in South American dialects due to the greater influence of Andalusian there). For example: "chispenear" instead of standard "lloviznar" or "chispear" ("to drizzle"), "babucha" instead of "zapatilla" ("slipper"), "chavea" or "antié" for "anteayer" ("the day before yesterday").
Many words of
Andalusi Arabicorigin that have become archaisms or unknown in general Spanish can be found, together with multitude of sayings: eg. "haciendo morisquetas" (from the word " morisco", meaning pulling faces and gesticulating, historically associated with Muslim prayers). There are some doublets of Arabic-Latinate synonyms with the Arabic form being more common in Andalusian like Andalusian "alcoba" for Standard "habitación" or "dormitorio" ("bedroom").
Andalusian is the language of
Flamencomusic. While its use is generalized across the classes of the Andalusian society, in the rest of Spain it lacks the prestige of the Castilian variant. This prejudice was particularly reinforced during the mass migrations which occurred in the fifties and sixties from rural areas of Andalusia and Extremadura to wealthier areas, particularly Madrid and Barcelona. An Andalusian accent is often the mark of comic characters. Often, Andalusians who want to succeed in the Spanish media learn to speak in the Castilian variant. A counter-example is Malaganian actor Antonio Banderas, who keeps his accent in interviews and everyday life but switches to Castilian (considered the unmarked pronunciation) when playing roles not specifically Andalusian or when dubbing his Hollywood performances.
Some words pronounced in the Andalusian way have entered general Spanish with a specific meaning.Examples are "juerga"" [http://buscon.rae.es/draeI/SrvltGUIBusUsual?TIPO_HTML=2&TIPO_BUS=3&LEMA=juerga Juerga] " in the
Diccionario de la Real Academia Española.] ("debauchery", or "partying") that is the Andalusian pronunciation of "huelga"" [http://buscon.rae.es/draeI/SrvltGUIBusUsual?TIPO_HTML=2&TIPO_BUS=3&LEMA=huelga Huelga] " in the Diccionario de la Real Academia Española.] (originally "period without work", now " work strike").The Flamencolexicon incorporates many Andalusisms: "cantaor", "tocaor", "bailaor" which is another example of the dropped "d", example "cantador" becomes "cantaor". (where the some non-Flamenco generic terms are "cantante", "músico", "bailarín".) Llanito, the vernacularof the British overseas territoryof Gibraltar, mainly originates from British Englishand Andalusian among others.
Norma Ortográfica Andaluza(Andalusian spelling norm)
Spanish dialects and varieties
* [http://www.jotamartin.byethost33.com/alpi0_e.php Isogloss maps of phonetic variants in the Iberian Peninsula]
* [http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/FichaObra.html?Ref=19928 Ariza, Manuel: Linguística e historia de Andalucía]
* [http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/FichaObra.html?Ref=19938 Gomez Solis, Felipe: Contribucion a las Historia Linguistica de Andalucia: Cordoba] .
* [http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/FichaObra.html?Ref=19946 Morillo-Velarde Pérez, Ramon: "Un modelo de variación sintáctica dialectal: El demostrativo de realce en el andaluz"] .
chapter=On the Nature of Vowel Harmony: Spreading with a Purpose
title=Proceedings of the XXXIII Incontro di Grammatica Generativa
*Ropero Núñez, Miguel (1992): "Un aspecto de lexicología histórica marginado: los préstamos del caló" (en Cervantes Virtual)
*Alvar, Manuel: A vueltas con el seseo y el ceceo (Alicante)
*Guitarte, Guillermo L. (1992): "Cecear y palabras afines" (en Cervantes Virtual)
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