Vanadinite


Vanadinite

Infobox mineral
name = Vanadinite
category = Vanadate mineral
boxwidth =
boxbgcolor =


imagesize = 300px
caption = Vanadinite from Arizona, USA
formula = Pb5(VO4)3Cl
molweight = 1,416.27 g/mol
color = Bright red, orange-red, red-brown, brown, yellow, grey or colourless
habit = Prismatic or nodular
system = Hexagonal Dipyramidal 6/m
twinning =
cleavage = None
fracture = Conchoidal
tenacity =
mohs = 3–4
luster = Resinous to sub-adamantine
polish =
refractive = nω = 2.416 nε = 2.350
opticalprop = Uniaxial (-)
birefringence = δ = 0.066
dispersion =
pleochroism =
fluorescence= None
absorption =
streak = brownish yellow
gravity = 6.8–7.1
density =
melt =
fusibility =
diagnostic =
solubility =
diaphaneity = Transparent, translucent or opaque
other =
references =

Vanadinite is mineral belonging to the apatite group of phosphates, with the chemical formula Pb5(VO4)3Cl. It is one of the main industrial ores of the metal vanadium and a minor source of lead. A dense, brittle mineral, it is usually found in the form of red hexagonal crystals. It is an uncommon mineral, formed by the oxidation of lead ore deposits such as galena. First discovered in 1801 in Mexico, vanadinite deposits have since been unearthed in South America, Europe, Africa and other parts of North America.

Origins

Vanadinite is an uncommon mineral, only occurring as the result of chemical alterations to a pre-existing material. It is therefore known as a secondary mineral. It is found in arid climates and forms by oxidation of primary lead minerals. Vanadinite is especially found in association with the lead sulfide, galena. Other associated minerals include wulfenite, limonite and barite.

It was originally discovered in Mexico by the Spanish mineralogist Andrés Manuel del Río in 1801. He called the mineral "brown lead" and asserted that it contained a new element, which he first named pancromium and later, erythronium. However, he was later led to believe that this was not a new element but merely an impure form of chromium. In 1830, Nils Gabriel Sefström discovered a new element, which he named vanadium. It was later revealed that this was identical to the metal discovered earlier by Andrés Manuel del Río. Del Río's "brown lead" was also rediscovered, in 1838 in Zimapan, Hidalgo, Mexico, and was named vanadinite due its high vanadium content. Other names that have since been given to vanadinite are johnstonite and lead vanadate. [cite journal
title =Highlights of Spanish chemistry at the time of the chemical revolution of the 18th century
journal = Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry
volume = 337
issue = 2
year = 1990
doi = 10.1007/BF00322401
pages = 225–228
author = J. A. Pérez-Bustamante de Monasterio
]

Deposits of vanadinite are now found worldwide including Austria, Spain, Scotland, the Ural Mountains, South Africa, Namibia, Morocco, Argentina, Mexico, and the US states of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and South Dakota.

tructure

Vanadinite is a lead chlorovanadate with the chemical formula Pb5(VO4)3Cl. It is composed (by weight) of 73.15% lead, 10.79% vanadium, 13.56% oxygen and 2.50% chlorine. Each structural unit of vanadinite contains a chlorine ion surrounded by six divalent lead ions at the corners of a regular octahedron, with one of the lead ions provided by an adjoining vanadinite molecule. The distance between each lead and chlorine ion is 3.17 ångströms (1 ångström = 0.1 nanometres). The shortest distance between each lead ion is 4.48 ångströms. The octahedron shares two of its opposite faces with that of neighbouring vanadinite units, forming a continuous chain of octahedrons. Each vanadium atom is surrounded by four oxygen atoms at the corners of an irregular tetrahedron. The distance between each oxygen and vanadium atom is either 1.72 or 1.76 ångströms. Three oxygen tetrahedrons adjoin each of the lead octahedrons along the chain. [cite web | title = The Structure of Vanadinite | author = J. Trotter and W. H. Barnes|publisher=The Canadian Minerologist| url =http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/cm/vol6/CM6_161.pdf|format=PDF|date=1958 | accessdate = 2007-06-26 ] Crystals of vanadinite conform to a hexagonal system of symmetry. This internal structure is often reflected in the hexagonal external shape of the crystals. The crystals are usually in the form of short hexagonal prisms, but can also be found as hexagonal pyramids, rounded masses or crusts. A unit cell of vanadinite, the smallest divisible unit that possesses the same symmetry and properties, is in the form of a hexagonal prism. A unit cell of vanadinite is comprised of two of its molecules. The unit cell has the dimensions "a"=10.331 ångströms and "c"=7.343 ångströms, where "a" is the length of each side of the hexagon and "c" is the height of the prism. The volume of each unit cell of vanadinite, given by the formula V = "a"²"c" sin(60°), is 678.72 ångströms³.

Characteristics

Vanadinite is in the apatite group of phosphates, and forms a chemical series with the minerals pyromorphite (Pb5(PO4)3Cl) and mimetite (Pb5(AsO4)3Cl), with both of which it may form solid solutions. Whereas most chemical series involve the substitution of metallic ions, this series substitutes its anion groups; phosphate (PO4), arsenate (AsO4) and vanadate (VO4). Common impurities of vanadinite include phosphorus, arsenic and calcium, where these may act as an isomorphic substitute for vanadium. Vanadinite when containing a high amount of the arsenic impurity is known as endlichite.cite web | title = Vanadinite | publisher = MinDat.org | url =http://www.mindat.org/min-4139.html | accessdate = 2007-06-09 ] cite book | title = Treasures of the Earth: The Minerals and Gemstone Collection - Vanadinite factsheet | publisher = Orbis Publishing Ltd |date= 1995| ] cite web | title = The Mineral Vanadinite | publisher = mineral.galleries.com | url =http://mineral.galleries.com/minerals/phosphat/vanadini/vanadini.htm | accessdate = 2007-06-09 ] [cite web | title = Vanadinite | publisher = WildAboutRocks.com | url =http://www.wildaboutrocks.com/prod2416.htm | accessdate = 2007-06-26 ]

Vanadinite is usually bright-red or orange-red in colour, although sometimes brown, red-brown, grey, yellow or colourless. Its distinctive colour makes it popular among mineral collectors. Its streak can be either pale yellow or brownish-yellow. Vanadinite may be transparent, translucent or opaque, and its lustre can range from resinous to adamantine. Vanadinite is anisotropic, meaning that some of its properties differ when measured along different axes. When measured perpendicular and parallel to its axis of anisotropy, its refractive indices are 2.350 and 2.416 respectively. This gives it a birefringence of 0.066.cite web | title = Vanadinite Mineral Data| publisher = WebMineral.com | url =http://webmineral.com/data/Vanadinite.shtml | accessdate = 2007-06-09 ]

Vanadinite is very brittle, producing small, conchoidal fragments when fractured. Its hardness is 3–4 on the Mohs scale, about the same as a copper coin. Vanadinite is particularly heavy for a translucent mineral. It has a molecular weight of 1,416.27 grams/mole and its specific gravity can range between 6.6 and 7.2, approximately seven times that of water. This variation in density is caused by impurities.cite web | title = Vanadinite | publisher = Encyclopedia Britannica|date=1911| url =http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Vanadinite | accessdate = 2007-06-26 ]

Uses

Along with carnotite and roscoelite, vanadinite is one of the main industrial ores of the element vanadium, which can be extracted by roasting and smelting. It is occasionally used as a source of lead. A common process for extracting the vanadium begins with the heating of vanadinite with salt (NaCl) or sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) at about 850°C to produce sodium vanadate (NaVO3). This is dissolved in water and then treated with ammonium chloride to give an orange coloured precipitate of ammonium metavanadate. This is then melted to form a crude form of vanadium pentoxide (V2O5). Reduction of vanadium pentoxide with calcium gives pure vanadium. [cite web | title = Vanadium | publisher = University College Cork | last=O'Leary| first=Donal| url =http://www.ucc.ie/academic/chem/dolchem/html/elem/elem023.html |date=2000| accessdate = 2007-06-26 ] [cite web | title = Vanadium Fact Sheet| publisher =Manufacturing Advisory Service|url =http://66.102.9.104/search?q=cache:71F4oBSrq-8J:www.mas.dti.gov.uk/pluto-resources/1196273733890.pdf+vanadium-fact-sheet&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=3&gl=uk|date=2002-03-06| accessdate = 2007-06-26 ]

Vanadinite deposits are found in over 400 mines across the world. [cite web | title = Vanadium | publisher =Stena Resources Ltd|url =http://www.stinaresources.com/vanadium.htm|date=2000| accessdate = 2007-06-26 ] Notable vanadinite mines include those at Mibladen, Morocco; Tsumeb, Namibia; Cordoba, Argentina; Sierra County, New Mexico; Gila County, Arizona; and Touisset, Morocco. [cite web | title = Vanadinite| publisher =Minerals.net|url =http://www.minerals.net/mineral/phosphat/vanadini/vanadini.htm| accessdate = 2007-06-26 ]

ee also

*List of minerals

References


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Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Vanadinite — Va*nad i*nite, n. (Min.) A mineral occurring in yellowish, and ruby red hexagonal crystals. It consist of lead vanadate with a small proportion of lead chloride. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

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  • vanadinite — [və nad′ n īt΄] n. [< VANADIUM + IN1 + ITE1] a soft, heavy, rare, hexagonal mineral, Pb5 (VO4) 3Cl, an ore of vanadium and lead; lead vanadate chloride …   English World dictionary

  • vanadinite — vanadinitas statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Mineralas. formulė Pb₅[VO₄]Cl atitikmenys: angl. vanadinite rus. ванадинит …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • vanadinite — /veuh nad n uyt , nayd /, n. a mineral, Pb5(VO4)3Cl, occurring in yellow, brown, or greenish crystals: an ore of lead and vanadium. [1850 55; VANAD(IUM) + IN2 + ITE1] * * * ▪ mineral  vanadium mineral in the pyromorphite series of the apatite… …   Universalium

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  • vanadinite — va·na·di·nite …   English syllables


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