- List of apple cultivars
cultivars of the appleare known. The following is a list of the more common and important cultivars, with the year and place of origin (where documented), and whether each produces cooking apples or dessert apples.
Two of the most comprehensive publications on apple cultivars are:
* The New Book Of Apples (ISBN 0091883989) By Dr Joan Morgan of [http://www.brogdale.org The National Fruit Collection] and Alison Richards.
* Directory of Apple Cultivars (ISBN 1874275408) by Martin Crawford of [http://www.agroforestry.co.uk The Agroforestry Research Trust]
Cider apples may be too sour or bitter for fresh eating, but are used for making cider. Some apples are used both for cider and eating.
rootstockcultivars can be difficult: vigorous roots tend to give trees that, while healthy, grow too tall to be harvested easily without careful pruning, while dwarfing rootstocks result in small trees easy to harvest from, but often shorter-lived and sometimes less healthy. Most modern commercial orchards use one of the " Malling series" (aka 'M' series), introduced or developed by the East Malling Research Stationfrom the early 20th century onward. However, a great deal of work has been done recently introducing new rootstocks in Poland, the US (Geneva), and other nations. The Polish rootstocks are often used where cold hardiness in needed. The Geneva series of rootstocks has been developed to resist important diseases such as fireblight and collar rot, as well as for high fruit productivity.
External links to cultivar listings
Some of these links are to commercial sites, but contain useful information on various apple cultivars. Eventually the (non-copyrighted) information from these links should be merged onto the chart here.
* [http://www.allaboutapples.com/varieties/ Over 700 apple variety listings] from AllAboutApples.com.
* Another extensive list of apple varieties at [http://www.applejournal.com/useall01.htm Apple Journal] with 12 pages of apples.
* [http://www.orangepippin.com Apple flavours and descriptions] from OrangePippin.com
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