- MV Braer
The MV "Braer" was an
oil tankerwhich ran aground off Shetland, Scotland, in January 1993.
Reason for ship's loss
In the ship court after the loss, it was stated that reason for ship's loss was seawater contamination of the diesel oil. [ [http://www.maib.gov.uk/cms_resources/braer-text.pdf Report of the Chief Inspector of Marine Accidents (9 Dec 1993)] ]
At 05.19 hrs on Tuesday
5 January 1993, Lerwickcoastguard were advised that the tanker, the "Braer", en route from Bergenin Norwayto Quebecin Canada, laden with 85,000 tonnes of Norwegian Gullfaks crude oil, had lost engine power but was in no immediate danger. Her estimated position then was 10 miles (19 km) south of Sumburgh Headand she was drifting in predominantly southwesterly winds of force 10-11. The coastguard alerted rescue helicopters from Sumburghand RAF Lossiemouth, and made enquiries about the availability of local tugs. At the coastguard's suggestion, the master agreed that non-essential personnel should be removed from the vessel—14 of the 34 crew were taken off by the coastguard helicopter from Sumburgh at 08:25.
At 08:50 it was feared that the ship would founder near Horse Island, and the experience of the "Aegean Sea" which burst into flames shortly after grounding led the coastguard to persuade the Greek captain Alexandros S. Gkelis to abandon ship. However, because of strong northwest local currents, the "Braer" moved against the prevailing wind and missed Horse Island, drifting towards
With the arrival on scene of the anchor handling vessel
Star Sirius, it was decided to attempt to try to establish a tow. The master and some personnel were taken out by helicopter and were put back on board the vessel. Efforts to attach a heaving line were unsuccessful, and at 11:19 the vessel was confirmed as being grounded at Garths Ness, with oil being seen to flow out into the sea from the moment of impact. At this time, the 'rescue' team were taken off by the helicopter.
Fortunately for Shetland, the Gulfaks crude the "Braer" was carrying is not a typical
North Sea oil. It is lighter and more easily biodegradable than other North Sea crude oils, and this, in combination with some of the worst storms seen in Shetland (naturally dispersing the oil by wave action and evaporation), prevented the event becoming an even bigger disaster. The following is a brief account of the spread and eventual dispersion of the oil.
The various local organisations that are involved in the wildlife aspects of a large had for some time planned how to cope with such events. Immediately after the "Braer" grounded, these organisations (under the umbrella of the
WRCC), representing the SIC, Sullom Voe Terminal (SVT), Scottish Natural Heritage(SNH), Shetland Oil Terminal Environmental Advisory Group (SOTEAG), Royal Society for the Protection of Birds(RSPB), Scottish Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals(SSPCA), and the Hillswick Wildlife Sanctuary, came together to initiate a response at the Boddam Scout hut (it having been identified as a suitable Wildlife Response Centre (WRC) 'command centre'). From there, they directed all activities relating to wildlife affected by the spill; which was channelled into three categories:
#Organise teams to walk beaches and collect oiled birds and animals
#Deal with live oiled birds and mammals
#Record and store dead birds and mammals
The volunteer response from the people of Shetland to walk beaches was excellent, especially considering the appalling weather conditions during much of January. From outside Shetland came several 'walk-in' helpers, a team of five from the
Scottish Wildlife Trustand two from British Gas, while some staff members from organisations such as the RSPB came north and helped out both on beaches and in key duties at the WRC. Volunteers were organised into teams of at least two and collected all dead and any live birds and animals from accessible beaches. Where possible, beaches were checked at least twice per day.
During the first few days of the spill, efforts were concentrated in the south-west Mainland, from
Sandwickround to Maywick; but the northward spread of the oil up the west side meant that, by the 12th January, surveys had been extended to cover the longer stretches of accessible coastline in the Burra, Scalloway, Whiteness and Weisdale areas, and westwards as far as Culswick. In total, all the accessible beaches from Leebitten (east Mainland) round Sumburgh to the Dale of Walls (west Mainland) were checked during the course of the spill, which prompted the setting up of a forward 'command post' at Holmsgarth, Lerwick from where surveys of the 'northern' coasts were co-ordinated.
The total number of bird corpses recovered from beaches during January was 1538. Of these, 805 (52%) were found between Sumburgh Head and
Garths Ness. Only 60 corpses (3.8%) were collected from beaches along the east coast, with the remainder scattered fairly evenly along the west coast between Spiggie and Sandsound, with smaller numbers further north and west to Dale. During the first week of the spill (6-12th January), very few corpses were found away from the area between Scatness and St. Ninian's Isle, and even in this area the majority were collected from the West Voe of Sumburgh, Scatness and Quendale. In the second week (13-19th January), fewer corpses were collected close to the "Braer", and there was a corresponding increase in the number collected from further north on the west coast. This trend continued into the third week (20-26th January), but, by the fourth week (27-31st January), very few birds were found anywhere and there was no obvious tendency for more to be found in one area than another.
In any oil spill, it is difficult to estimate the proportion of the actual mortality found on beach surveys, and several factors made that even harder in the case of the "Braer". The almost constant storms made it difficult to search shorelines as thoroughly as could have been done in calmer weather, and also made it much more difficult to catch live birds, some of which were driven inland by the wind. The weather also prevented systematic searches of the islands in
Quendale Bayand further north, where birds were likely to have come ashore and died, while the exceptionally high tides at the time also compounded the problem, especially if they occurred in the middle of the day. For several days, beaches were completely underwater for the 6-7 hours of daylight available for surveys, with unreachable corpses simply moving back and forth in the surf. When tides did drop, many beaches had been completely rearranged or buried in tonnes of kelp by the heavy seas.
Scatness, dead Shags had been driven deep into cracks and crevices in the rocks or buried beneath the kelp, and sometimes just parts of a bird were found. In addition, the many small boulder beaches along the south-west coast could not be checked at all due to their inaccessibility, several corpses were likely to have been scavenged by the larger gulls, and an unknown but almost certainly significant proportion will have been swept out to sea, never to be found.
Designation under the Protection of Wrecks (1973) Act
A designation under section 2 of the Protection of Wrecks Act was made on
8 February 1993[cite web |title=Statutory Instrument 1993 No. 199 | work=Office of Public Sector Information | url=http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si1993/Uksi_19930199_en_1.htm | accessdate = 2006-10-29] . This part of the act is used to designate wrecks categorised as dangerous. It was only the second time that Part 2 of the Act was used to designate a wreck site, and the designation was imposed because of the presence of the oil. The designation was revoked on 7 October 1994[cite web |title=Statutory Instrument 1997 No. 1976 | work=Office of Public Sector Information | url=http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si1997/19971976.htm | accessdate = 2006-10-29] following dispersal of the oil.
In 1995, British folk-rock band
Fairport Conventionreleased the album "Jewel in the Crown", including "The Islands" by Ralph McTelland Maartin Allcock. The song defiantly commemorates the wreck of the "Braer", personifying the sea as the protector of the British Isles.
*Psix name|VN83930947|MV Braer|accessdate=2008-04-21|year=2008|archive=yes
Shetlopedia.com has some very detailed information on the "Braer".
* [http://shetlopedia.com/Braer The "Braer" Page] - Overview of the "Braer" Disaster
* [http://shetlopedia.com/The_Braer_Disaster_%28Intro%29 Introduction] to the "Braer" disaster and to the available "Braer" articles
* [http://shetlopedia.com/The_Braer_Disaster_%28Eyewitness%29 Eywitness Account] of the disaster. The eyewitness watched the "Braer" as she drifted ashore, and talks about the effects of this disaster on the local residents.
* [http://shetlopedia.com/The_Braer_Disaster_%28Braer%29 Technical Information] about the vessel
* [http://shetlopedia.com/The_Braer_Disaster_%28Last_Hours%29 The Last Hours] of the "Braer", from the time she left
Norway, to the time she grounded off Shetland
* [http://shetlopedia.com/The_Braer_Disaster_%28Oil_Spill%29 The Oil Spill] - details of the oil, how it dispersed and the time scales involved
* [http://shetlopedia.com/The_Braer_Disaster_%28Pics%29 Additional "Braer" Pics]
* [http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg13918800.900-braer-spill-exposes-huge-holes-in-emergency-plans-.html July 1993 Article] from the
New Scientist. At the time it highlighted flaws in the British emergency plans for oil tanker accidents
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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