Santiago de Cuba


Santiago de Cuba

Infobox Settlement
official_name = Santiago De Cuba
other_name =
native_name =
nickname =
settlement_type = Municipality
motto =



imagesize =
image_caption = Cathedral in "Santiago de Cuba"


flag_size =
image_

seal_size =
image_shield =
shield_size =
city_logo =
citylogo_size =


mapsize =
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mapsize1 =
map_caption1 =
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dot_mapsize =
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dot_x = |dot_y =
pushpin_

pushpin_label_position = none
pushpin_map_caption = Location of Santiago de Cuba in Cuba
pushpin_mapsize = 280
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = Cuba
subdivision_type1 = Province
subdivision_name1 = Santiago de Cuba
subdivision_type2 =
subdivision_name2 =
subdivision_type3 =
subdivision_name3 =
subdivision_type4 =
subdivision_name4 =
government_footnotes =
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leader_title =
leader_name =
leader_title1 =
leader_name1 =
leader_title2 =
leader_name2 =
leader_title3 =
leader_name3 =
leader_title4 =
leader_name4 =
established_title = Established
established_date = 1514
established_title2 =
established_date2 =
established_title3 =
established_date3 =
area_magnitude =
unit_pref =
area_footnotes =
area_total_km2 = 1023.8
area_land_km2 =
area_water_km2 =
area_total_sq_mi =
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area_water_sq_mi =
area_water_percent =
area_urban_km2 =
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area_metro_km2 =
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population_as_of = 2004
population_footnotes = Cite web| url=http://www.atenas.inf.cu/todo/Estadisticas/TABLA%20No_3balance.htm| title=2004 Population trends, by Province and Municipality| author= Atenas.cu| year= 2004| accessdate=2007-10-05 Es icon]
population_note =
population_total = 494337
population_density_km2 = 461.3
population_density_sq_mi =
population_metro =
population_density_metro_km2 =
population_density_metro_sq_mi =
population_urban =
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timezone =
utc_offset =
timezone_DST =
utc_offset_DST =
latd=20 |latm=01 |lats=11.4 |latNS=N
longd=75 |longm=48 |longs=50.1 |longEW=W
elevation_footnotes =
elevation_m = 82
elevation_ft =
postal_code_type =
postal_code =
area_code = +53-22
blank_name =
blank_info =
blank1_name =
blank1_info =
website = [http://www.santiago.cu/ Santiago.cu]
footnotes =
Santiago de Cuba is the capital city of Santiago de Cuba Province in the south-eastern area of the island nation of Cuba, some Mi to km|540|precision=0|wiki=yes east south-east of the Cuban capital of Havana.

The municipality extends over km2 to mi2|1023.8|precision=0|wiki=yesCite web| url=http://www.santiago.cu/nuestrostgo/Municipio/2.htm| title=Municipalities of Santiago de Cuba| author= Santiago.cu| year= 2006| accessdate=2007-10-05 Es icon] , and contains the communities of El Caney, Guilera, Antonio Maceo, Bravo, Castillo Duany, Leyte Vidal and Moncada.Cite web|url=http://www.guije.com/pueblo/municipios/opalma/index.htm|title=Palma Soriano|author=Guije.com|accessdate=2007-10-05 Es icon]

Historically Santiago de Cuba has long been the second most important city on the island after Havana, and still remains the second largest. It is on a bay connected to the Caribbean Sea and is an important sea port. In 2004 the city of Santiago de Cuba had a population of about 494,337 people [ [http://www.atenas.inf.cu/todo/Estadisticas/TABLA%20No_3balance.htm Cuba demographics] ] .

History

Santiago de Cuba was founded by Spanish conquistador Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar on June 28, 1514. In 1516 the settlement was destroyed by fire, and was immediately rebuilt. This was the starting point of the expeditions led by Juan de Grijalba and Hernán Cortés to the coasts of Mexico in 1518, and in 1538 by Hernando de Soto's expedition to Florida. The first cathedral was built in the city in 1528. From 1522 until 1589 Santiago was the capital of the Spanish colony of Cuba.

The city was plundered by French forces in 1553, and by British forces under Christopher Myngs in 1662.

The city experienced an influx of French immigrants in the late 18th century and early 19th century, many coming from Haiti after the Haitian slave revolt of 1791. This added to the city's eclectic cultural mix, already rich with Spanish and African culture.

It was also the location where Spanish troops faced their main defeat at San Juan Hill on July 1, 1898, during the Spanish-American War. Spain later surrendered to the United States after the destruction of its Atlantic fleet just outside Santiago's harbor.

Cuban poet, writer, and national hero, José Martí, is buried in Cementerio Santa Efigenia.

Role in the Cuban Revolution

Santiago was also the home of the revolutionary hero, Frank Pais. On July 26, 1953, the Cuban Revolution began with an ill-prepared armed attack on the Moncada Barracks by small contingent of rebels led by Fidel Castro. Shortly after this disastrous incident, País began talking with students and young working people informally, drawing around him what became an extremely effective urban revolutionary alliance. This developed into highly organized cells coordinating a large scale urban resistance that became instrumental in the success of the Cuban Revolution. [cite web | last = Cannon| first = Terrance| year = 1981| url = http://www.historyofcuba.com/history/pais.htm| title = Frank País and the Underground Movement in the cities| publisher = historyofcuba.com| accessdate = 2006-05-21 ]

País' group prepared carefully, accruing weapons, collecting money, collecting medical supplies. They published a cheap newsletter that reported news that criticized the government, attempting to counter Batista's censorship. [cite web | authorlink = Terrence Cannon | year = 1981 | url = http://www.historyofcuba.com/history/pais.htm | title = Who was Frank Pais? | publisher = historyofcuba.com | accessdate = 2006-05-21 ]

In the summer of 1955, País’ organization merged with Castro's July 26 Movement. País became the leader of the new organization in Oriente province.

On 1 January 1959, Fidel Castro proclaimed the victory of the Cuban Revolution from a balcony on Santiago de Cuba's city hall.

Change in province boundaries

Until a rearrangement of province boundaries in 1976, Santiago de Cuba was the capital of Cuba's "Oriente" Province, which included the present day provinces of Holguín, Las Tunas, Guantánamo, Granma and Santiago de Cuba.

World Heritage Site

The local citadel of San Pedro de la Roca is inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List as "the most complete, best-preserved example of Spanish-American military architecture, based on Italian and Renaissance design principles". [ [http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/841 World Heritage Site] ]

World Heritage Biosphere Reserve

The Baconao Park was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage Biosphere Reserve List in 1987. [ [http://www2.unesco.org/mab/br/brdir/directory/biores.asp?code=CUB+04&mode=all Heritage Biosphere Reserve Site] ]

Climate

Infobox Weather
single_line=Yes
location =Santiago de Cuba
Jan_Hi_°F =82
Feb_Hi_°F =82
Mar_Hi_°F =82
Apr_Hi_°F =83
May_Hi_°F =84
Jun_Hi_°F =86
Jul_Hi_°F =87
Aug_Hi_°F =87
Sep_Hi_°F =87
Oct_Hi_°F =86
Nov_Hi_°F =86
Dec_Hi_°F =83
Jan_Lo_°F =70
Feb_Lo_°F =70
Mar_Lo_°F =71
Apr_Lo_°F =73
May_Lo_°F =74
Jun_Lo_°F =76
Jul_Lo_°F =77
Aug_Lo_°F =77
Sep_Lo_°F =76
Oct_Lo_°F =75
Nov_Lo_°F =73
Dec_Lo_°F =71

Jan_Precip_inch =2.90
Feb_Precip_inch =1.70
Mar_Precip_inch =2.10
Apr_Precip_inch =2.30
May_Precip_inch =5.50
Jun_Precip_inch =4.00
Jul_Precip_inch =2.70
Aug_Precip_inch =3.70
Sep_Precip_inch =4.20
Oct_Precip_inch =7.60
Nov_Precip_inch =3.70
Dec_Precip_inch =3.20
source =weather.com cite web
url =http://www.weather.com/outlook/travel/businesstraveler/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/CUXX0010?from=36hr_bottomnav_business | title =Average Weather for Santiago de Cuba, --Temperature and Precipitation | accessmonthday =06-22 | accessyear =2008
publisher =weather.com | language =English
]
accessdate =2008-06-22

Demographics

In 2004, the municipality of Santiago de Cuba had a population of 494,337. With a total area of km2 to mi2|1024|abbr=yes|wiki=yes, it has a population density of Pop density km2 to mi2|482.8|abbr=yes.

Personalities

*Desi Arnaz - television actor and producer/bandleader
*Emilio Bacardí - Industrialist, Philanthropist, Politician, Author, Artist
*Rubén Cuesta Palomo (CandyMan) - reggaeton/hip hop singer
*Emilio Estefan - Music and Producer
*Luis Haza - Violinist
*Antonio Rente - Founder of the Rente Thermal Electric Power Plant
*Alberto Juantorena - won 2 gold medals in the 1976 Olympics in running
*José Martí - independence hero, born in Havana, interred in Santiago de Cuba
*Frank Pais - revolutionary and urban organizer for the 26th of July Movement
*Jorge Reyes - Cuban-born American author
*Compay Segundo - Son singer
*Mey Vidal - reggaeton singer
*Esteban Salas y Castro - Baroque composer
*Charles Ashenoff - Pro Wrestler
*José María Heredia y Heredia - poet

Infrastructure

Santiago is served by Antonio Maceo Airport.

The main secondary education institution is the University of Santiago de Cuba ("Universidad de Oriente - Santiago de Cuba", UO).

ee also

*Battle of Santiago de Cuba, 1898
*List of places in Cuba
*Carnaval of Santiago de Cuba

References

External links

* [http://www.worldphototour.org/cuba/santiago_de_cuba/santiago_de_cuba/index.asp Santiago de Cuba Photos]
* [http://www.santiago-de-cuba.net/ Tourist info and news about Santiago de Cuba]
* [http://www.santiagoencuba.com/ Homepage]
* [http://www.guije.com/pueblo/municipios/osantiago/index.htm Municipality webpage] es icon

Geographic Location (8-way)
Centre = Santiago de Cuba
North =



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