- Column (formation)
A military column is a formation of soldiers marching together in one or more files in which the file is significantly longer than the width of ranks in the formation. The column formation allowed the unit rapid movement, a very effective charge (due to weight of numbers) or it could quickly form square to resist cavalry attacks, but by its nature only a fraction of its muskets would be able to open fire. The line offered a substantially larger musket frontage allowing for greater shooting capability but required extensive training to allow the unit to move over ground as one while retaining the line. It is also applied by modern armies to vehicles, troops and naval vessels.
During the early stages of the French Revolutionary Wars, battalions in French armies often attacked in column formation in an attempt to drive through enemy lines by sheer weight of numbers. Against enemy units already weakened by the fire from skirmishers or artillery, this was often successful. Later, during the Napoleonic Wars, French units would approach in column formation and deploy into line when close to the enemy. However, against the British they frequently failed to deploy into line before being engaged. During the Peninsular War, after the Battle of Sabugal (3 April 1811), the Duke of Wellington wrote, "our loss is much less than one would have supposed possible, scarcely 200 men... really these attacks against our lines with columns of men are contemptible."  These failings were still evident at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, prompting Wellington to comment, "They came on in the same old way and we defeated them in the same old way."
The military historian James R. Arnold argues that all armies of the period used column formations at times on the battlefield; the military historian Sir Charles Oman is credited with developing the theory that the French practically always attacked in heavy columns, and it is only now that this alleged error, propagated by other British and American authors, is being repudiated.
Column of companies
During the Peninsular War, British riflemen of Craufurd's Light Division marching to engage the enemy but uncertain of the presence of enemy cavalrymen in the area could adopt a formation called "column of companies." Each company would form into two ranks of about thirty files and march close to the company in front. If attacked by cavalry, they could easily bunch up, forming a schiltron of bayonets that would be proof against unsupported cavalry.
- ^ Arnold, James R. "A Reappraisal of Column Versus Line in the Peninsular War", The Napoleon Series, August 2004. See the section "Why the French Failed".
- ^ Urban, p. 110. Citing a letter of 4 April 1811 to Beresford in dispatches.
- ^ Arnold, James R. "A Reappraisal of Column Versus Line in the Peninsular War" , The Napoleon Series, August 2004. See the section "A Row of Columns of the Heaviest Sort".
- ^ Lord Montagu of Beaulieu speaking in the House of Lords Hansard: 24 Apr 1996 : Column 1172, paragraph 4
- ^ Infantry Tactics and Combat during the Napoleonic Wars ~ Part 3 ~ Columns
- ^ Arnold, James R. "A Reappraisal of Column Versus Line in the Peninsular War Oman and Historiography", The Napoleon Series, August 2004.
- ^ James R. Arnold, "A Reappraisal of Column Versus Line in the Napoleonic Wars" Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research LX no. 244 (Winter 1982): pp. 196-208.
- ^ Urban, p.105.
- Arnold, James R. "A Reappraisal of Column Versus Line in the Peninsular War Oman and Historiography", The Napoleon Series, August 2004.
- Arnold, James R. "A Reappraisal of Column Versus Line in the Napoleonic Wars" Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research LX no. 244 (Winter 1982): pp. 196-208.
- Lord Montagu of Beaulieu The Parliament of United Kingdom, The House of Lords, Hansard: 24 Apr 1996, Column 1172
- Urban, Mark; Rifles: Six years with Wellington's legendary sharpshooters; Faber and Faber (2004) ISBN 0571216803
- Deneu, Laurent First - Empire of Napoleon: General organisation of armies see section on "3. The formations of battalions" subsection "C. The column."
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