Hasty generalization


Hasty generalization

Hasty generalization is a logical fallacy of faulty generalization by reaching an inductive generalization based on insufficient evidence — essentially making a hasty conclusion without considering all of the variables. In statistics, it may involve basing broad conclusions regarding the statistics of a survey from a small sample group that fails to sufficiently represent an entire population.[1] Its opposite fallacy is called slothful induction, or denying the logical conclusion of an inductive argument (e.g. "it was just a coincidence").

Context is also relevant; in mathematics, the Pólya conjecture is true for numbers less than 906,150,257, but fails for this number. Assuming something to be true for all numbers when it has been shown for over 906 million cases would not generally be considered hasty, but in mathematics a statement remains a conjecture until it is shown to be universally true.

Hasty generalization can also be a basis for racist beliefs and prejudices, in which inferences regarding a large group is based upon knowledge of only a small sample size of that group.[citation needed] For example, stereotypical notions that are portrayed in mass media, such as a given person who is Jewish is also inherently greedy, the notion of a person being black equates to that person being poor and/or criminal, or the notion that a caucasian person is therefore lacking in style are all logical fallacies. This includes positive racist ideologies as well, such as the belief that Asians are better off academically than other racial sectors.[2][3]

Contents

Examples

  • A person travels through a town for the first time. He sees 10 people, all of them children. The person then concludes that there are no adult residents in the town.

Alternative names

The fallacy is also known as the fallacy of insufficient statistics, fallacy of insufficient sample, generalization from the particular, leaping to a conclusion, hasty induction, law of small numbers, unrepresentative sample, and secundum quid. When referring to a generalization made from a single example it has been called the fallacy of the lonely fact[4] or the proof by example fallacy.[5]

When evidence is intentionally excluded to bias the result, it is sometimes termed the fallacy of exclusion and is a form of selection bias.[6]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Fallacy: Hasty Generalization (Nizkor Project)". http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/hasty-generalization.html. Retrieved 2008-10-01. 
  2. ^ http://www.fff.org/freedom/0400f.asp
  3. ^ Devine, PG; AJ Elliot (1995). "'Are racial stereotypes really fading?'". Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 21 (11): 1139–1150. doi:10.1177/01461672952111002. 
  4. ^ Fischer, David Hackett (1970). Historians' Fallacies: Toward a Logic of Historical Thought. HarperCollins. pp. 109–110. ISBN 9780061315459. http://books.google.com/books?id=7_G2UumJCEQC. 
  5. ^ Marchant, Jamie. "Logical Fallacies". http://www.auburn.edu/~marchjl/fallacies.htm. Retrieved 2011-04-26. 
  6. ^ "Unrepresentative Sample". http://www.changingminds.org/disciplines/argument/fallacies/unrepresentative_sample.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-01. 

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Generalization — is a foundational element of logic and human reasoning. Generalization posits the existence of a domain or set of elements, as well as one or more common characteristics shared by those elements. As such, it is the essential basis of all valid… …   Wikipedia

  • generalization — (BrE also isation) noun ADJECTIVE ▪ broad, gross (esp. AmE), hasty, sweeping ▪ abstract, vague ▪ useful …   Collocations dictionary

  • hasty — adj. Hasty is used with these nouns: ↑breakfast, ↑conclusion, ↑decision, ↑departure, ↑escape, ↑exit, ↑generalization, ↑retreat …   Collocations dictionary

  • Faulty generalization — Quote box width=70% align=center quote= All generalizations are dangerous, even this one. source=Alexandre Dumas, fils [ [http://www.quotedb.com/quotes/3341 All generalizations are dangerous, even this one. by Alexandre Dumas ] ] A faulty… …   Wikipedia

  • Fallacy — In logic and rhetoric, a fallacy is usually incorrect argumentation in reasoning resulting in a misconception or presumption. By accident or design, fallacies may exploit emotional triggers in the listener or interlocutor (appeal to emotion), or… …   Wikipedia

  • Misleading vividness — is a term that can be applied to anecdotal evidence[1] describing an occurrence, even if it is an exceptional occurrence, with sufficient detail to permit hasty generalizations about the occurrence (e.g., to convince someone that the occurrence… …   Wikipedia

  • List of fallacies — For specific popular misconceptions, see List of common misconceptions. A fallacy is incorrect argumentation in logic and rhetoric resulting in a lack of validity, or more generally, a lack of soundness. Contents 1 Formal fallacies 1.1… …   Wikipedia

  • Overwhelming exception — An overwhelming exception is a logical fallacy similar to a hasty generalization. It is a generalization that is accurate, but comes with one or more qualifications which eliminate so many cases that what remains is much less impressive than the… …   Wikipedia

  • Converse accident — The logical fallacy of converse accident (also called reverse accident, destroying the exception, or a dicto secundum quid ad dictum simpliciter) is a deductive fallacy that can occur in a statistical syllogism when an exception to a… …   Wikipedia

  • Anecdotal evidence — The expression anecdotal evidence has two quite distinct meanings.(1) Evidence in the form of an anecdote or hearsay is called anecdotal if there is doubt about its veracity: the evidence itself is considered untrustworthy or untrue.(2) Evidence …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.